SCCS 002: !Kung
Duran Bell: The Schapera (Isaac Schapera, 1960, Khoisan Peoples of South Africa: Bushmen and Hottentots. London : Routledge & K. Paul) reference to Kaufmann's paper is about matrilineal succession of chiefs among the !Kung. Yes, Chiefs. Additionally, L. Marshall says that women initially deposit offspring to their parent's territory until those demands are satisfied. We know that they then can deposit into the territories of their husbands, and finally, infanticide. This is the form of matrilineal management of fertility under conditions where fertility is globally redundant and life expectancies are short and variable. I say that this is matrilineal inheritance of territory but with adoption to and from others in the creation of alliances.
The often long pre-marital "bride service", where the young girl can reject the man after such service, followed by initial uxorilocal residence during the early pregnancies, all indicate the elements of matriliny. The logic is that if fertility were positively valued, all offspring would be placed in the territory of her matrilineage; and matriliny would be obvious.
- Kaufmann, H. 1910. 'Die Auin. Ein Beitrag zur Buschmannforschung', Mitteilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebeiten, 23: 135-60.
- Passarge, S. 1907. Die Buschmanner der Kalahari. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
- Shostak, Marjorie. 1981. Nisa, the life and words of a !Kung woman. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00432-9.
- Shostak, Marjorie. 2006. Nisa The Life and Words of a ǃKung Woman, (2006 special edition) Boston: Harvard University Press.
- Wikipedia:List_of_matrilineal_or_matrilocal_societies intimates possible matri.... in Wikipedia:Marjorie_Shostak's biography of Nisa.
- Shostak, Marjorie. 2000. Return to Nisa. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Wilhelm, J. H. 1953. Die !Kung Buschleute. Jb. Mus. Volkerk. Lpz. Vol. XII pp. 91-189.
- Zastrow, B. von and Vedder, H. 1930. Die Buschmanner. In: Das Eingeborenenrecht, ed. E. Schultz-Ewerth and L. Adam (Stuttgart), vol. n, pp. 399-435.
1. ˇPrincipal Authority(ies)
^^^^^ Marshall, L(orna). 1976. The !Kung of Nyae Nyae. Cambridge, Mass. 1022110 Marshall, L. 1960. !Kung Bushman Bands. Africa 30: 325-355. 0100221 Marshall, L. 1965. The !Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert. FX10=15 Peoples of Africa, ed. J. L. Gibbs, Jr., pp. 241-278. New York. 0011332 Marshall, L. 1959. Marriage among !Kung Bushmen. Africa FX10= 1 29: 335-364 2033000 Marshall, L. 1961. Sharing, Talking and Giving. Africa FX10=12 31: 231-249. Reprinted in R. B. Lee and I. DeVore 1976. (below). 0000001 Marshall, L. 1962. !Kung Bushman Religious Beliefs. Africa FX10=13 32:221-252. 0000000 Marshall, L. 1957a. The Kin Terminology System of the !Kung FX10= 5 Bushmen. Africa 27: 1-25. 0000000 Marshall, L. 1957b. N!ow. Africa 27: 232-240. (pasted from bibliography with leading spaces added)
Standard Sample Unit 2 (GPM 5/30/68)
Sampling Province 2: Bushmen.
Representative of the Province and of Cluster 2: Kung Bushmen (!Kung), Aa1:1.
Focus: Kung of the Nyae region (20-21°E, 19°30'-20°30's), presumably identical
with the Agau of Schapera, as of 1950 (the first year of the field work by the Marshalls).
General Area: Schapera (1930: 33) lists four major groupings of Kung Bushmen:
(1) the Agau, southeast of Karakuwisa and hence in the Nyae Nyae region; (2) the !Ogowe of the lower Omuramba Omatako, north of Karakuwisa and thus about 50 miles north of the Nyae Nyae region; (3) the Nogau of Karakuwisa and the upper Omuramba Omataka, i.e., just north of the Nyae Nyae region (Marshall's map shows a group called //No!Gau in the southeast corner); and (4) the =/Kangau far to the north of the Nyae Nyae region along the Okavango River. The population of the Nyae Nyae region in 1953 was about 3,500.
Selection of Focus: The Kung of the Nyae Nayae region are chosen because of the
quality of Lorna Marshall's work. She notes (Marshall 1960:328) that there were 27 intermarrying bands in this region, for most of which a head count was obtained. Two central bands (Gautsa) at the Gautscha Pan waterhole were the most fully studied, but full geneologies were also obtained for two adjacent bands (the Kautsa and Deboragu), as well as additional data on ten others (Marshall 1959:336). Though the Gautsa bands form the core of the region, data on the others may be used in default of specific evidence of cultural differences. And Agua Kung are presumably identical, to judge from the frequency with which Nyae Nyae band leaders are called =/Gau, Gao, or Agau, as well as because the identity of their location. The work of the Marshalls may thus be supplemented from earlier data on the Agau. Isolation, intermarriage, and lack of acculturation justify using the Nyae Nyae region as a whole, rather than the Gautsa bands alone, as the focus.
Time: The data of 1950 is selected as the year when the Marshalls began their
field work (1950-55). Richard Lee of Harvard is currently engaged (1967-68) in his second period of field work among a nearby Kung group.
Coordinates: The Gautsa bands are pinpointed by Marshall at 19°48'3"S, 20°,
34'36"E, but the wider range indicated under Focus will be used unless specifically contraindicated. Data pertaining to bands outside this core are should be used only with appropriate caution.
- 2005 Wiessner, P. Norm enforcement among the Ju/'hoansi bushmen: A case of strong reciprocity? Human Nature 16 (2):115-145. pdf
- Lee, Richard B. 1972. !Kung spatial organization: An ecological and historical perspective. Human Ecology 1(2): 125-147.