Chris Boehm

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Doug this is looking good. Keep in mind that on the Templeton spreadsheet P means LPA and H means post domestication.
Christopher Boehm
Date: Wed, 14 Mar 2012 15:28:00 -0700
Subject: thanks for those 2 docs - here is how Binford so far matches your LPA

name systat3 groupno seq SUBPOP basic economic organization

DOROBO_(CENTRAL)        	2 	70 	1 	Horticulturally augmented cases
NHARO                   	2 	73 	2 	Horticulturally augmented cases
ONGE                    	4 	5 	3 	Generic hunters
JARWA                   	4 	6 	4 	Generic hunters
ANDAMANESE_NORTH.       	4 	8 	5 	Generic hunters
ONA-(SELKNAM)           	4 	54 	6 	Generic hunters
YAGHAN                  	4 	55 	7 	Generic hunters
HADZA_(KINDIGA)         	4 	69 	8 	Generic hunters
!KUNG-NYAE_NYAE_&_DOBE  	4 	72 	9 	Generic hunters
G/WI                    	4 	74 	10 	Generic hunters
!KO                     	4 	76 	11 	Generic hunters
GIDJINGALI-NO-TERRITORY 	4 	87 	12 	Generic hunters
MURNGIN_(Yolngu)NO-TERR 	4 	88 	13 	Generic hunters
TIWI-NO-TERRITORY       	4 	95 	14 	Generic hunters
WALBIRI-NO-TERRITORY    	4 	109 	15 	Generic hunters
DIERI-SOUTH-AUSTRALIA   	4 	121 	16 	Generic hunters
CARIBOU_ESKIMO          	4 	374 	17 	Generic hunters
NUNAMIUT_ESKIMO         	4 	377 	18 	Generic hunters
COPPER_ESKIMO           	4 	381 	19 	Generic hunters
UTKUHIKHALINGMIUT       	4 	382 	20 	Generic hunters
IGLULIK                 	4 	384 	21 	Generic hunters
W._GREENLAND_ESKIMO     	4 	385 	22 	Generic hunters
BAFFIN_ISLAND_ESKIMO    	4 	386 	23 	Generic hunters
NETSILIK_ESKIMO         	4 	387 	24 	Generic hunters
ANGMAKSALIK             	4 	388 	25 	Generic hunters
POLAR_ESKIMO            	4 	390 	26 	Generic hunters
PINTUBI-NO-TERRITORY    	4 	113 	27 	Generic hunters
INGALIK                 	5 	357 	28 	Generic hunter-gatherers with instituted leadership
LABRADOR_ESKIMO         	5 	372 	29 	Generic hunter-gatherers with instituted leadership
GILYAK                  	6 	25 	30 	Wealth-differentiated hunter-gatherers
NUNIVAK                 	6 	299 	31 	Wealth-differentiated hunter-gatherers
MACKENZIE-ESKIMO        	6 	378 	32 	Wealth-differentiated hunter-gatherers

These are the LPA of your list I have matched so far with Binford's -- there are more but the good news is the concordance. For categories 2,5,6 for example there might be differences in what dates apply. -- Best Doug White


A long term dispute has accompanied the use of ethnographic analogy to probabilistically reconstruct the social behavior of prehistoric humans who were behaviorally modern. However, the major objection (that earlier climates and environments were extremely different) are set aside because Late Pleistocene humans often lived in refugia, while some contemporary foragers still live under uncertain conditions that produce periodic famines. On this assumption a new database has been created, focusing on the worldwide distribution of forager types that fit with the Late Pleistocene, along with a conservative method for projecting present behavior into the past. In the sample of 65, heavily represented are Arctic and Australian societies, while there are 12 from North America and only a few for Africa, Asia, and South America. The basis for projecting a behavior of these 65 "Late-Pleistocene Appropriate” behavior into the Late Pleistocene is that the behavior must be represented in all six of these regions. Given the importance of fleshing out archaeological knowledge, and the high degree of probability that careful analogizing can work, this database is expected to grow in the future.

  • Wiley. Hi Doug, I was looking over my chapter and noted that probabalistically was misspelled in the abstract below; when I wrote it in Word, the wrong spelling was saved in Spelcheck's database. Is it too late to fix it? Chris Boehm



Cannot find sources or alternate name: Coronation Gulf Inuit, N=49 Sample 2011 Boehm chapter in War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views edited by Douglas P. Fry -- Order Number: 102-5774482-6159406 War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views will be shipped to L.A. Brudner-White by Estimated delivery: Jan. 23, 2015

􏰀 September 30, 2014 Gintis CV - Herbert Gintis

Home, CV

Christopher Boehm, Professor (USC), program in biological anthropology CV

Book Review: The source of our morality

Major Research Projects

Laboratory analysis of wild chimpanzee vocal communication, at Jane Goodall Research Center, USC, 1994-1997.

Direction of field investigation of free-ranging chimpanzee social behavior at Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania, using Hi-8 videotape research technology, 1992-1994.

Data analysis: videotaped materials on conflict-resolution behavior of free-ranging chimpanzees, 1989-1990.

Summer field research developing recording techniques for study of long-distance vocal communication of free-ranging chimpanzees, Gombe Stream Research Centre, Tanzania, 6 weeks, 1989.

Field study of developmental aspects of conflict-resolution behavior among free-ranging chimpanzees. Data collection at Gombe Stream Research Centre, Tanzania. Data analysis spring semester 1988 and spring semester 1989. Two years, 1987-1989.

Summer field research on long-distance vocal communication behavior of free-ranging chimpanzees, Gombe Stream Research Centre, Tanzania, 2 months 1987.

Data analysis: long-distance vocal communication behavior of free-ranging chimpanzees, spring semester 1987.

Summer field research on long-distance vocal communication behavior of free-ranging chimpanzees, Gombe Stream Research Centre, Tanzania, 2 months 1986.

Field research on chimpanzee conflict resolution behavior, Gombe Stream Research Centre, Tanzania, fall semester 1985.

Library research and writing on natural history of morality, academic year 1984- 1985.

Summer field work and documentary research on triadic interactions among free-ranging chimpanzees at Gombe Stream Research Centre, Tanzania, 3 months 1984.

Sociolinguistic field research on negotiation behavior, urban USA, 1 month 1983.

Research on egalitarianism in its social, political and biological aspects, at Harvard University, 7 months 1981-1982.

Research on conflict resolution among nonhuman primates, Tozzer Library, 2 months 1982.

Research on the early evolution of morality, Tozzer Library, 2 months 1981.: Conflict resolution in humans and in nonhuman primates; hunter-gatherers and egalitarian societies, chimpanzee social behavior. Fieldwork in Yugoslavia and Tanzania.

Some major recent publications

A small cross-cultural sample of Pleistocene-appropriate foragers * Boehm, Christopher. 2008b. A Biocultural Evolutionary Exploration of Supernatural Sanctioning. In, Evolution of Religion: Studies, Theories, and Critiques. Edited by. Joseph Bulbulia, Richard Sosis, Erica Harris, Russell Genet, Cheryl Genet. pp. 143-152. Santa Margarita, CA: Collins Foundation Press.
A small cross-cultural sample of Pleistocene-appropriate foragers
Abstract: With an interest in origins, it is proposed that conflict within the group can be taken as a natural focus for exploring the evolutionary development of human moral communities. Morality today involves social control but also the management of conflicts within the group. It is hypothesized that early manifestations of morality involved the identification and collective suppression of behaviours likely to cause such conflict. By triangulation the mutual ancestor of humans and the two Pan species lived in pronounced social dominance hierarchies, and made largely individualized efforts to damp conflict within the group, exhibiting consolation, reconciliation, and active pacifying intervention behaviour. It is particularly the active interventions that can be linked with social control as we know it. It is proposed that when this process became collectivized, and when language permitted the definition and tracking of proscribed behaviour, full-blown morality was on its way. Because early humans lived in egalitarian bands, a likely candidate for the first behaviour to be labelled as morally deviant is not the incest taboo but bullying behaviour, of the type that egalitarian humans today universally proscribe and suppress.
  • Supernatural Sanctions Complete.pdf 569 k manuscript

Some major earlier publications

  • 1999 Hierarchy in the Forest: Egalitarian Society and the Evolution of Democratic Politics. Harvard University Press.
  • 1997 Impact of the Human Egalitarian Syndrome on Darwinian Selection Mechanics. American Naturalist 150: 100-121.
  • 1997 Egalitarian Behavior and The Evolution of Political Intelligence. In, Machiavellian Intelligence II, edited by D. Byrne and A. Whiten. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • 1997 Hierarchy, Exchange, and the Levels of Natural Selection. Journal of Contemporary Legal Issues 8:131-166.
  • 1996 Emergency Decisions, Cultural Selection Mechanics, and Group Selection. Current Anthropology 37:763-793.
  • 1995 A Note on Scavenging by Wild Chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica 65:43-47. (Co-Authored with M. N. Muller, E. Mpongo, and C. B. Stanford)
  • 1994 Pacifying Interventions at Arnhem Zoo and Gombe. In, Chimpanzee Cultures, edited by Richard W. Wrangham, W. C. McGrew, Frans B. M. de Waal, and Paul G. Heltne. Pp. 211-226. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • 1993 Egalitarian Behavior and Reverse Dominance Hierarchy. Current Anthropology 34:227-254. [This paper won the Stirling Prize in Psychological Anthropology]
  • 1992 Segmentary "Warfare" and the Management of Conflict: Comparison of East African Chimpanzees and Patrilineal-Patrilocal Humans. In, Us Against Them: Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals. A. Harcourt and F. de Waal (eds). Pp. 137-173. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 1992 Vocal Communication of Pan Troglodytes: Possibilities for Explaining Human Language Origins. In, The Origins of Human Language. B. Chiarelli and A. C. Ciani, eds. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
  • 1991 Lower-Level Teleology in Biological Evolution: Decision Behavior and Reproductive Success in Two Species. Cultural Dynamics 4:115-134.
  • 1989 Ambivalence and Compromise in Human Nature. American Anthropologist 91:921-39.
  • 1986 Blood Revenge: The Enactment and Management of Conflict in Montenegro and Other Tribal Societies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [1984 book reprinted with revisions and new title; this book is also being translated for publication in Serbian]
  • 1983 Montenegrin Social Organization and Values: Political Ethnography of a Refuge Area Tribal Adaption. New York: AMS Press,

Costly signaling and Problems of freeriders

Abstract:Ever since Darwin, animal behavior has intrigued and perplexed human observers. The elaborate mating rituals, lavish decorative displays, complex songs, calls, dances and many other forms of animal signaling raise fascinating questions. To what degree can animals communicate within their own species and even between species? What evolutionary purpose do such communications serve? Perhaps most importantly, what can animal signaling tell us about our own non-verbal forms of communication? In The Handicap Principle, Amotz and Ashivag Zahavi offer a unifying theory that brilliantly explains many previously baffling aspects of animal signaling and holds up a mirror in which ordinary human behaviors take on surprising new significance.
The wide-ranging implications of the Zahavis' new theory make it arguably the most important advance in animal behavior in decades. Based on 20 years of painstaking observation, the Handicap Principle illuminates an astonishing variety of signaling behaviors in animals ranging from ants and ameba to peacocks and gazelles. Essentially, the theory asserts that for animal signals to be effective they must be reliable, and to be reliable they must impose a cost, or handicap, on the signaler. When a gazelle sights a wolf, for instance, and jumps high into the air several times before fleeing, it is signaling, in a reliable way, that it is in tip-top condition, easily able to outrun the wolf. (A human parallel occurs in children's games of tag, where faster children will often taunt their pursuer before running). By momentarily handicapping itself--expending precious time and energy in this display--the gazelle underscores the truthfulness of its signal. Such signaling, the authors suggest, serves the interests of both predator and prey, sparing each the exhaustion of a pointless chase. Similarly, the enormous cost a peacock incurs by carrying its elaborate and weighty tail-feathers, which interfere with food gathering, reliably communicates its value as a mate able to provide for its offspring. Perhaps the book's most important application of the Handicap Principle is to the evolutionary enigma of animal altruism. The authors convincingly demonstrate that when an animal acts altruistically, it handicaps itself--assumes a risk or endures a sacrifice--not primarily to benefit its kin or social group but to increase its own prestige within the group and thus signal its status as a partner or rival. Finally, the Zahavis' show how many forms of non-verbal communication among humans can also be explained by the Handicap Principle. Indeed, the authors suggest that non-verbal signals--tones of voice, facial expressions, body postures--are quite often more reliable indicators of our intentions than is language.
Elegantly written, exhaustively researched, and consistently enlivened by equal measures of insight and example, The Handicap Principle illuminates virtually every kind of animal communication. It not only allows us to hear what animals are saying to each other--and to understand why they are saying it--but also to see the enormously important role non-verbal behavior plays in human communication.

Wright, Jonathan. 1999. Altruism as a Signal: Zahavi's Alternative to Kin Selection and Reciprocity Journal of Avian Biology, Vol. 30, No. 1: 108-115.