EthnoAtlas Data

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Ethnographic_Atlas#Original_Murdock_publication_by_installments ETHNOGRAPHIC ATLAS. Ethnoatlas codes 200-291 were changed in the World Cultures revision by J. Patrick Gray, 1998 PDF Ethnographic Atlas Codebook]. World Cultures] 10(1):86-136. eclectic.ss.uci.edu Changes in this part of the codebook need to be checked and aligned with ATLAS CODES and frequencies recomputed. They. were partly corrected starting with v.208 on May 8, 2009). These still need extensive work to integrate the new codebook into this document.

Murdock, George P. 1962-1971. Installments in ETHNOLOGY.

      STDS09.DAT  200-231
      STDS10.DAT  232-268
      STDS11.DAT      269
      STDS12.DAT  270-292
200.  REGION
    28    1 = Africa
               Exclusive of Madagascar and the Sahara
    28    2 = Circum-Mediterranean
               North Africa, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Semitic Near East
    34    3 = East Eurasia
               including Madagascar and Islands in Indian Ocean
    31    4 = Insular Pacific
               including Australia, Indonesia, Formosa, Phillipines
    33    5 = North America
               indigenous societies to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec
    32    6 = South America
               including Antilles, Yucatan, Central America
201.  AREA
          1 - 10 (Murdock 1962, ETHNOLOGY 1: 124-134)
     1 AFRICA     2 CIRCUM    3 E EUR     4 INS PAC   5 N AMER    6 S AMER
   1 Afr. Hunters Ethiop-Horn Middle East Phl-Formosa Arctic Amer C.America
   2 S.Afr. Bantu Mosl. Sudan Cntrl. Asia W.Indonesia N.W.Coast   Caribbean
   3 C. Bantu     Sahara      Arctic Asia E.Indonesia California  Guiana
   4 N.E.Bantu    N. Africa   East Asia   New Guinea  Gr.Basin-Pl Lower Amaz
   5 Equit. Bantu S. Europe   Himalayas   Australia   Plains      Inner Amaz
   6 Guinea Coast Overseas E. N.-C.India  Micronesia  Prarie      Andes
   7 W. Sudan     N.W. Europe South India W.Melanesia E.Woodlands Chile-Pata
   8 Nigerian Pt. E. Europe   Indian Ocn. E.Melanesia Southwest   Gran Chago
   9 E. Sudan     Turk-Caus.  Assam-Burma W.Polynesia N.W.Mexico  Mato Grosso
   0 Upper Nile   Sem.Near E. S.E.Asia    E.Polynesia C.Mexico    E. Brazil


202.  EA NUMBER
        1 - 51 (Within Area)
   203-207: SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY: PERCENTAGE DEPENDENCE
203.  DEPENDENCE ON GATHERING (Atlas 1)
204.  DEPENDENCE ON HUNTING (Atlas 3)
205.  DEPENDENCE ON FISHING (Atlas 3)
206.  DEPENDENCE ON ANIMAL HUSBANDRY (Atlas 4)
        *Correct Spss case 50: Basque: Husbandry should be 3 not 4
        *Coding on 75: Khmer inconsistently coded 10235 sums to 110%
207.  DEPENDENCE ON AGRICULTURE (Atlas 5)
       R Spss                 Number of Cases for Each Variable:
       Khmer (Rdata case 75 cols. 203&204 1 to 0 July 10 2012 DRW) Col 215-219 also changed
                                 203     204     205     206     207
                                 Gath    Hunt    Fish    Anim    Agri
       1 0 =  0 - 5% Dependence   87      63      57      77      44
       2 1 =  6 - 15%             50      48      55      39      11
       3 2 = 16 - 25%             23      33      29      29       4
       4 3 = 26 - 35%              9      19      14      19       2
       5 4 = 36 - 45%              9      11      12       7      16
       6 5 = 46 - 55%              4       5      11       3      36
       7 6 = 56 - 65%              3       3       5       2      39
       8 7 = 66 - 75%              -       2       1       1      17
       9 8 = 76 - 85%              1       1       1       4      13
      10 9 = 86 - 100%             -       1       1       5       4
208.  MODE OF MARRIAGE (Atlas 6)
209.  MODE OF MARRIAGE (ALTERNATE) (Atlas 7)
      R Spss                                             208    209
                                                        Mode  Altern
      1 1 = Bride-Price or -Wealth, to bride's family     71      9
      2 7 = Dowry, to bride from her family               24     15
      3 4 = Gift Exchange, reciprocal                     16      4
      4 6 = Absence of Consideration                      15      -
      5 5 = Sister or Female Relative Exchanged for Bride  9      9
      6 3 = Token Bride-price                             42      -
      7 2 = Bride-Service, to bride's family               9      3
      THE CODE ABOVE WAS REVISED TO FORM A CONTINUUM OF CONTRAST FROM BRIDE-PRICE WITH DOWRY
      THE FOLLOWING CODE IS OBSOLETE and the code above was substituted May 9, 2009
                                                         208    209
                                                        Mode  Altern
      1 = Bride-Price or -Wealth, to bride's family        71      9
      2 = Dowry, to bride from her family                  24     15
      3 = Gift Exchange, reciprocal                        16      4
      4 = Absence of Consideration                         15      -
      5 = Bride-Service, to bride's family                  9      3
      6 = Token Bride-price                                42      -
      7 = Sister or Female Relative Exchanged for Bride     9      9
      9 = No Alternative                                         146
      PAT GRAY SAYS THESE CODES SHOULD HAVE THESE FREQUENCIES BUT THE FREQS ARE STILL(?) NOT CORRECT.
      Bride-Price 									71
      Bride-Service									24
      Token Bride-price								16
      Gift-Exchange									15
      Sister ... 									 9
      Absence... 									42
      Dowry 										 9
210.  DOMESTIC ORGANIZATION (Atlas 8)
       R  Spss
     1 NA . = Missing Data
    14    1 = Independent Nuclear Family, Monogamous
    43    2 = Independent Nuclear Family, occasional Polygyny
     2    3 = Independent Polyandrous Families                changed 8/15/12 3->2
     6    4 = Polygynous: Unusual Co-wives Pattern (4, 6 below)
    21 22 5 = Polygynous: Usual Co-Wife Pattern (3, 5 below)  changed 8/15/12  21 22->22 22
    12    6 = Minimal (stem) extended families   
    44    7 = Small Extended Families
    42    8 = Large Extended Families

* ADD LABEL 8 to your Spss file v210

211.  COMPOSITION OF DOMESTIC GROUP (Atlas 9 combined)
        R Spss
     1 NA . = Missing Data
    14    1 = Independent Nuclear, Monogamous
    43    2 = Independent Nuclear, Occasional Polygyny
     4    3 = Preferentially Sororal, Cowives in same dwelling
     1    4 = Preferentially Sororal, Cowives separate dwellings
    18 18 5 = Non-Sororal, Cowives in separate dwellings    changed 8/15/12 17 18->18 18
     5    6 = Non-Sororal, Cowives in same dwelling
     2    7 = Independent Polyandrous Families              changed 8/15/12 3->2
    98    8 = Extended Family

* 8 in Spss: was previously coded here as 9

212.  MARITAL COMPOSITION WITHIN EXTENDED FAMILIES (Atlas 9 combined)
        R Spss
     1 NA . = Missing Data                                  changed 8/15/12 0->1
    21    1 = Monogamy
    39    2 = Occasional or limited polygyny
    12    3 = Preferentially sororal, co-wives in same dwelling
     1    4 = Preferentially sororal, co-wives separate dwelling
    16    5 = Non-sororal, co-wives separate dwelling
     9    6 = Non-sororal polygyny, co-wives in same dwelling
    87    7 = Polyandry, or no extended family               changed 8/15/12 88->87

* 7 in Spss: was previously coded here as 9

213.  MARITAL RESIDENCE WITH KIN: FIRST YEARS (Atlas 10 combined)
        R  Spss
     1 NA  . = Missing Data 
     1  1  1 = Ambilocal: with either kin group
     4  2  2 = Nonestablishment of Common Household
    32  3  3 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents
     3  4  4 = Virilocal: with husband's parents
   145  5  5 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)
      NEW FREQUENCIES FROM PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS CORRECTIONS
      THE CODE ABOVE WAS REVISED TO FORM A CONTINUUM FROM BILOCAL TO VIRILOCAL EXCLUDING 5
      THE FOLLOWING CODE IS OBSOLETE and the code above was substituted May 9, 2009
     1 NA  . = Missing Data
     4  2  0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household
    32  3  2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents
     1     4 = Bilocal: with either kin group (no cases)
     4  4  7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents
   145  9 -1 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)            changed 8/15/12 5 -1 -> 9 -1
214.  TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: FIRST YEARS (Atlas 10 combined)
        R  Spss
     1 NA  . = Missing Data
     3  1  1 = Wife to Husband's Group (7 in 213)            changed 8/15/12 (7 in 213)->(4 in 213)
     1  2  2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (4 in 213) changed 8/15/12 (4 in 213)->(1 in 213)
    32  3  3 = Husband to Wife's Group (2 in 213)            changed 8/15/12 (2 in 213)->(3 in 213)
     4  4  4 = No Common Residence (0 in 213)                changed 8/15/12 (0 in 213)->(2 in 213)
   145  5  5 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#216)            changed 8/15/12 (  in 213)->(5 in 213)
           *   Note: get rid of this variable (redundant)
      NEW FREQUENCIES FROM PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS CORRECTIONS
      THE CODE ABOVE WAS REVISED TO FORM A CONTINUUM FROM BILOCAL TO VIRILOCAL EXCLUDING 5
      THE FOLLOWING CODE IS OBSOLETE and the code above was substituted May 30, 2009
     1     . = Missing Data
   147    -1 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#216)
     3     1 = Wife to Husband's Group (7 above)
     1     2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (4 above)
    30     3 = Husband to Wife's Group (2 above)
     4     9 = No Common Residence (0 above)
           *   Note: get rid of this variable (redundant)
215.  MARITAL RESIDENCE WITH KIN: AFTER FIRST YEARS (Atlas 12)  changed 8/15/12 (Atlas 11)->(Atlas 12) 
       Khmer (Rdata case 75 cols. 215-219 to be changed)  July 10 2012 DRW
           R  Spss
     1     . = Missing Data
     1  7  1 0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household           changed 8/15/12  1     1 0-> 1  7  1 0
    16  5  2 1 = Matrilocal: with wife's unilineal kin group    changed 8/15/12 16     2 1->16  5  2 1
    14  9  3 2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents                changed 8/15/12 14     3 2->14  9  3 2
     1  3  4 3 = Optional avuncu- or uxori-local                changed 8/15/12  1     4 3-> 1  3  4 3
    12  2  5 4 = Bilocal: with either kin group                 changed 8/15/12 15 12  5 4->12  2  5 4
     8  1  6 5 = Avunculocal: with husband's mother's brother   changed 8/15/12  8     6 5-> 8  1  6 5
     1  4  7 6 = Optional avuncu-, viri-, or patri-locality     changed 8/15/12  1     7 6-> 1  4  7 6 
    41 10  8 7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents              changed 8/15/12 41 48  8 7->41 10  8 7
    16  8  9 8 = Patrilocal: with husband's unilineal kin group changed 8/15/12 71 69  9 8->16  8  9 8
    15  6 10 9 = Neolocal: independent of kin                   changed 8/15/12 17 15 10 9->15  6 10 9
      NEW FREQUENCIES FROM PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS CORRECTIONS
216.  TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: AFTER FIRST YEARS (Atlas 11) changed 8/15/12 (Atlas 12)->(Atlas 11)
     1  0 . = Missing Data                                            changed 8/15/12
   121126 1 = Wife to Husband's Group (1,4,8,10 above)                 changed 8/15/12 (5,6,7,8 above)->(1,4,8,10 above)  121126 1->121126 1 (was ok)
    33 28 2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (2,3,6 above)        changed 8/15/12   (3,4,9 above)->(2,3,6 above)      33 28 2->         (was ok)
    30    3 = Husband to Wife's Group (5,9 above)                     changed 8/15/12     (1,2 above)->  (5,9 above)
     1    4 = No Common Residence (9 above)                           changed 8/15/12       (0 above)->    (7 above)

* 4 in Spss: was previously coded here as 9

      NEW FREQUENCIES FROM PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS CORRECTIONS
      OBSOLETE                                                     changed 8/15/12
217.  MARITAL RESIDENCE WITH KIN: ALTERNATE FORM (Atlas 13)        changed 8/15/12 (Atlas 12***) ->(Atlas 13) 
          R   Spss
     1  1     . = Missing Data
     -        0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household
     -        1 = Matrilocal: with wife's unilineal kin group
    28 29 3   2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents
     1  1 4   3 = Optional avuncu- or uxori-local
   ? 2    5   4 = Bilocal: with either kin group
     9  9 6   5 = Avunculocal: with husband's mother's brother
     -    7   6 = Optional avuncu-, viri-, or patri-locality
    16 17 8   7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents
     2  2 9   8 = Patrilocal: with husband's unilineal kin group
    20 22 10  9 = Neolocal: independent of kin
   107105 11 10 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)

* 10 in Spss: was previously coded here as -1 * 2 in original code RECODED IN PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS CORRECTIONS

      THE FOLLOWING CODE IS OBSOLETE and the code above was substituted May 9, 2009
     1    . = Missing Data
   107   -1 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)
     -    0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household
     -    1 = Matrilocal: with wife's unilineal kin group
    28    2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents
     1    3 = Optional avuncu- or uxori-local
     2    4 = Bilocal: with either kin group
     9    5 = Avunculocal: with husband's mother's brother
     -    6 = Optional avuncu-, viri-, or patri-locality
    16    7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents
     2    8 = Patrilocal: with husband's unilineal kin group
    20    9 = Neolocal: independent of kin

* 10 in Spss: was previously coded here as -1

      REPLACEMENT FOR 217. <-------------------------------------- changed 8/15/12
217.  TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: ALTERNATE FORM (Atlas 13) changed 8/15/12                                         
     .    0 = Missing Data                                         changed 8/15/12
    19    1 = Wife to Husband's Group (Patrilocal,  Virilocal)     changed 8/15/12
    22    2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (bilocal, optional patr-,-viri- or avuncu-,neolocal)   changed 8/15/12
    39    3 = Husband to Wife's Group (Avunculocal, matrilocal, uxorilocal, optional avuncu- or uxori-) changed 8/15/12
   105    4 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)                   changed 8/15/12
   

* 4 in Spss: was previously coded here as -1

218.  TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: ALTERNATE FORM (Atlas 14)
     1    . = Missing Data
    27    1 = Wife to Husband's Group (8,10 in Atlas 14)             changed 8/15/12  27-> 19  (5, 6, 7, 8 above)->(8,10 in Atlas 14)
    23    2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (2,4,6 in Atlas 14) changed 8/15/12  23-> 22  (3, 4, 9 above)   ->(2,4,6 in Atlas 14)
    28    3 = Husband to Wife's Group (1,3,5,9 in Atlas 14)          changed 8/15/12  28-> 39  (1, 2 above)      ->(1,3,5,9 in Atlas 14)
   107    4 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#214)                     changed 8/15/12 107->105  (#215)            ->(#214)

* 4 in Spss: was previously coded here as -1

219.  COMMUNITY MARRIAGE ORGANIZATION (Atlas 15)
220.  COMMUNITY MARRIAGE ORGANIZATION (Alternate) (Atlas 16)
                                                       219   220
                                                      Cmnty. Altern.
      . = Missing Data                                      4     -
      1 = Demes (not segmented into clan barrios)          17     -
      2 = Segmented communities without local exogamy      40     3
      3 = Agamous communities                              66     -
      4 = Exogamous communities (not clans)                28     -
      5 = Segmented communities (containing localized
           clans) with local exogamy                        2     -
      6 = Clan communities (or clan barrios)               29     -
      9 = No secondary organization                         -   183
221.  LARGEST PATRILINEAL KIN GROUP (Atlas 17)
222.  LARGEST PATRILINEAL EXOGAMOUS GROUP (IF DIFFERENT)
223.  LARGEST MATRILINEAL KIN GROUP
224.  LARGEST MATRILINEAL EXOGAMOUS GROUP (IF DIFFERENT)
                                                 Patrilineal   Matrilineal
                                                 221    222    223    224
                                              Largest   Exog.
      . = Missing Data                             1      -      1      -
      1 = None                                   104      -    144      -
      2 = Exogamous Group                          -      -      3      -
      3 = Lineages in a Single Community          18     12      7      2
      4 = Sibs (Lineages in Multiple Communities) 42      5     15      3
      5 = Phratries (Maximally Extended Sibs)     15      -      5      -
      6 = Moieties                                 6      -     11      -
      7 = No Difference                                 169           181
225.  COGNATIC KIN GROUPS
226.  SECONDARY COGNATIC KIN GROUP: WHERE BOTH KINDREDS AND RAMAGES
                                                          225   226
                                                         Cogn.  2nd
      . = Missing Data                                      1     -
      1 = Bilateral descent                                48     -
      2 = Kindreds: ego-oriented bilateral kin-groups      27     2
      3 = Ambilineal descent: lacking true ramages          -     -
      4 = Ramages: ancestor oriented ambilineal groups      7     1
      5 = Exogamous ramages                                 2     -
      6 = Quasi-lineages: filiation based, not descent      4     -
      9 = Unilineal descent groups                         97  n.a.
      9 = No Secondary cognatic group                     n..   183


227.  NUMBER OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Allowed)
228.  NUMBER OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Preferred)
      *   Note change in order from 227 229 228 230              239
                                                          227   228  228
                                                         Alwd. Pref. GRAY
      . = Missing Data                                     13     2  12*
      1 = All four cousins                                 25     -  12*
      2 = Three of four cousins                             8     -   1*
      3 = Two of four cousins (e.g., paternal)             44    19  38*
      4 = One of four cousins (e.g., FaBrDa)                6    36   8*
      5 = No first cousins                                 19     4   4*
      6 = First and some second cousins excluded            2     2   2*
      7 = No first, unknown for second                     27     -   -*
      8 = No first or second cousins                       42     -   -*
      9 = No preferential or prescriptive unions                123 113
      *228 HAS MAJOR DISCREPANCIES WITH PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS RECODES (SEEM CORRECT)
229.  SUBTYPES OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Allowed)
230.  SUBTYPES OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Preferred)            228
                                                          229   230
                                                         Alwd.  Pref.
      . = Missing Data                                     13     2
      1 = FaSiDa                                            -     5
      2 = Paternal (FBD if only one)                        1     8
      3 = Uncle's Da                                        -     -
      4 = Other                                           165    25
      5 = Aunt's Da                                         -     -
      6 = Maternal                                          1     -
      8 = MoBrDa                                            6    23
      9 = No preferential or prescriptive unions                123
231.  KIN TERMS FOR COUSINS
    14    . = Missing Data
    16    1 = Descriptive terms, e.g. 'mothers brothers son'
     1    2 = Sudanese: Siblings, cross and parallel cousins distinguished
               but not by descriptive terms
    45    3 = Iroquois: Cross cousins versus parallel are siblings
     4    4 = Mixed or deviant
    14    5 = Omaha: Generational merging; MoBrCh up; FaSCh down
    15    6 = Crow: Generational merging; MoBrCh down; FaSCh up
    23    7 = Eskimo: Cousins versus siblings
    54    8 = Hawaiian: Siblings plus cousins equated
   notes on these codes
232.  INTENSITY OF CULTIVATION
    42    1 = No agriculture
    10    2 = Casual agriculture, incidental to other subsistence modes
    55    3 = Extensive or shifting agriculture, long fallow, and new
               fields cleared annually
    18    4 = Horticulture, vegetal gardens or groves of fruit trees
    32    5 = Intensive agriculture, using fertilization, crop rotation,
               or other techniques to shorten or eliminate fallow period
    29    6 = Intensive irrigated agriculture
233.  MAJOR CROP TYPE
    44    1 = None or none specified
     -    2 = Non-food crops only, such as cotton or tobacco
     -    3 = Vegetables
    13    4 = Tree fruits
    38    5 = Roots or tubers
    91    6 = Cereal grains
234.  SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
    26    1 = Nomadic or fully migratory
    24    2 = Seminomadic
    13    3 = Semisedentary
     3    4 = Compact but impermanent settlements
    20    5 = Neighborhoods of dispersed family homesteads
    17    6 = Separated hamlets, forming a single community
    75    7 = Compact and relatively permanent settlements
     8    8 = Complex settlements
235.  MEAN SIZE OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES
    38    . = Missing data
    31    1 = Fewer than 50
    29    2 = 50-99
    24    3 = 100-199
    17    4 = 200-399
    12    5 = 400-1000
     4    6 = 1,000 without any town of more than 5000
    10    7 = One or more towns of 5,000-50,000
    21    8 = One or more cities of more than 50,000
236.  JURISDICTIONAL HIERARCHY OF LOCAL COMMUNITY
    45    3 = Two levels (theoretical minimum, e.g., family and band)
   117    4 = Three levels
    24    5 = Four levels (e.g., nuclear family, extended family,
               clan barrios, village levels)
          *   Note: Recode this variable 2-4
237.  JURISDICTIONAL HIERARCHY BEYOND LOCAL COMMUNITY
     2    . = Missing data
    82    1 = No levels (no political authority beyond community)
    48    2 = One level (e.g., petty chiefdoms)
    23    3 = Two levels (e.g., larger chiefdoms)
    19    4 = Three levels (e.g., states)
    12    5 = Four levels (e.g., large states)
238.  HIGH GODS
    18    . = Missing data
    68    1 = Absent or not reported
    47    2 = Present but not active in human affairs
    13    3 = Present and active in human affairs but not
              supportive of human morality
    40    4 = Present, active, and specifically supportive of human morality
239.  GAMES
      The code below can also be expressed in a semi-order or partial Guttman
      scale, as there are five latent classes or dominant scale types:
      for P C S, these are - - -   + - -   + + -   + - +   + + +
    14    . = Missing data
    12    1 = None of the three types
    64    2 = Physical skill
     1    3 = Chance
     4    4 = Strategy
    47    5 = Skill and chance
    22    6 = Skill and strategy
     -    7 = Chance and strategy
    22    8 = All
240.  POST-PARTUM SEX TABOOS
    79    . = Missing data
     5    1 = None
    24    2 = No longer than 1 month
    33    3 = 1 to 6 months
     8    4 = 6 months to 1 year
    19    5 = More than one year to two years
    18    6 = More than two years
241.  MALE GENITAL MUTILATIONS
     5    . = Missing data
   131    0 = Absent
     5    1 = Within first two months after birth
     1    2 = Two months to two years
     5    3 = Two to five years
    16    4 = Six to ten years
    17    5 = 11 to 15 years
     2    6 = 16 to 25 years
     -    7 = 25 to 50 years
     1    8 = After 50 years
     3    9 = Normal age unclear
242.  SEGREGATION OF ADOLESCENT BOYS
    29    . = Missing data
   108    1 = Absence
    19    2 = Partial
     8    3 = Complete, with relatives outside nuclear family
     4    4 = Complete, with non-relatives
    18    5 = Complete, with peers
243.  ANIMALS AND PLOW CULTIVATION
   153    1 = Absent (no plow animals)
     2    2 = Not aboriginal but well established at period
               of observation
    31    3 = Prior to contract
244.  PREDOMINANT TYPE OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
    55    1 = Absence or near absence of large domestic animals
    30    2 = Pigs the only large domestic animals
    15    3 = Sheep and/or goats without larger domestic animals
    10    4 = Equine animals (horses, donkeys)
     3    5 = Deer (reindeer)
     5    6 = Camels, alpacas, or llamas
    68    7 = Bovine animals (cattle, mithun, water buffalo, yaks)
245.  MILKING OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS
   129    1 = Little or no milking, or insufficient information
    57    2 = Milked more often than sporadically
246.  SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY   roughly equal to the categores below for 858. Subsistence Type
      - Ecological Classification  (858 categories)
   15    1 = Gathering      	     1 Gathering
   19    2 = Fishing                3 Fishing
   12    3 = Hunting                2 Hunting, or Marine animals, or 5 Mounted Hunting
   16    4 = Pastoral               6 Pastoralism
   22    5 = Incipient agriculture  no such category in 858
   45    6 = Extensive agriculture  7-9 Shifting Cultivation or Horticulture or Tree fruits
   57    7 = Intensive agriculture  11-12 Intensive agriculture
    Note: this is a poor code, not in the original EA; use with care given the categories
247.  DESCENT: MAJOR TYPE (From Variables 121-126)
    72    1 = Patrilineal
     9    2 = Duolateral
    27    3 = Matrilineal
     5    4 = Quasi-lineages
     8    5 = Ambilineal
    65    6 = Bilateral
248.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN METAL WORKING
249.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN WEAVING
250.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN LEATHER WORKING
251.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN POTTERY MAKING
252.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN BOAT BUILDING
253.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN HOUSE CONSTRUCTION
      *   Note changes in order from 248 250 252 254 256 258
      *                                             248 249 250 251 252 253
      *                                             MET WEA LEA POT BOA HOU
      . = Missing data                                2  13  48  15  26  35 .
      1 = Males alone or almost alone                79  20  32  10  75  91 M
      2 = Males appreciably more                      1   3   1   2   5  17 N
      3 = Differentiation but equal participation     -   5   -   4   -  19 D
      4 = Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation  -   -   1   2   -   4 E
      5 = Females appreciably more                    -   1   3   2   -   5 G
      6 = Females alone or almost alone               -  48  32  72   1  14 F
      7 = Gender irrelevant, esp. industrialized      1   -   -   1   -   - I
      8 = Activity present: sex partic. unspecified   1   9  22  20  19   1 P
      9 = Activity absent or unimportant            102  87  47  58  60   - O
254.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN METAL WORKING
255.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN WEAVING
256.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN LEATHER WORKING
257.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN POTTERY MAKING
258.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN BOAT BUILDING
259.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN HOUSE CONSTRUCTION
      *   Note changes in order from 249 251 253 255 257 259
      *                                             249 250 251 252 253 254
      *                                             MET WEA LEA POT BOA HOU
      . = Missing data                                2  13  48  15  26  35
      0 = Performed by any or most adults             4  69  73  89  88 137
      1 = Junior age specialization (before puberty)  -   -   -   -   -   -
      2 = Senior age specialization (beyond prime)    -   -   -   -   -   -
      3 = Craft specialization                       76  16  18  23  12  14
      4 = Industrialized specialization               2   1   -   1   -   -
      9 = Activity absent                           102  87  47  58  60   -
      *   Note: check which is missing data
260.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN GATHERING
261.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN HUNTING
262.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN FISHING
263.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
264.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN AGRICULTURE
      *   Note changes in order from 260 262 264 266 268
      *                                             260 261 262 263 264
      *                                             GAT HUN FIS ANI AGR
      . = Missing data                               23   6  12  21   7
      0                                                               1
      1 = Males alone or almost alone                 4 153  66  37  17
      2 = Males appreciably more                      5   2  43  23  38
      3 = Differentiation but equal participation     3   -  10  18  14
      4 = Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation 11   -   8  14  25
      5 = Females appreciably more                   24   -   5   4  36
      6 = Females alone or almost alone              64   -   3  12   6
      7 = Gender irrelevant, esp. industrialized
      8 = Activity present: sex partic. unspecified   4   -   1   2   -
      9 = Activity absent or unimportant             48  25  38  55  42
265.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN GATHERING
266.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN HUNTING
267.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN FISHING
268.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
   .                                        AGRICULTURE (NOT CODED)
      *   Note changes in order from 261 263 265 267
      *                                             265 266 267 268
      *                                             GAT HUN FIS ANI
      . = Missing data                               23   6  12  21
      0 = Performed by any or most adults           114 147 126 104
      1 = Junior age specialization (before puberty)  1   1   -   4
      2 = Senior age specialization (beyond prime)
      3 = Craft specialization                        -   7  10   3
      4 = Industrialized specialization               -   -   -   -
      9 = Activity absent or unimportant             48  25  38  55
   notes on these codes
269.  Murdock's Language Code: Revised in a later issue; no codes here.

v269. Murdock's Language Code: Revised in a Later Issue; No Codes Here. Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=0; Number of unique values=0 Freq Value 186 NA

   notes on these codes
270.  CLASS STRATIFICATION
271.  CLASS STRATIFICATION, SECONDARY FEATURE
      *                                                   270   271
      R  Spss                                            Class  Secd.
      NA . = Missing data                                      -     -
      2  1 = Absence among freemen                            76     -
      3  2 = Wealth distinctions                              45     3
      4  3 = Elite (based on control of land
           or other resources)                              3     4
      5  4 = Dual (hereditary aristocracy)                    37     4
      6  5 = Complex (social classes)                         25     2
      NA 9 = No second type or absence of stratification           173
272.  CASTE STRATIFICATION (ENDOGAMY)
273.  CASTE STRATIFICATION, SECONDARY TYPE
      *                                                   272  273
                                                         Caste Secd.
      . = Missing data                                      5    -
      1 = Absent or insignificant                         154    -
      2 = Despised occupational group(s)                   17    1
      3 = Ethnic stratification                             3    1
      4 = Complex                                           7    -
      9 = No second type or absence of stratification          184
274.  TYPE OF SLAVERY
     6    . = Missing data
   100    1 = Absence or near absence
    27    2 = Incipient or nonhereditary
     9    3 = Reported but type not identified
    44    4 = Hereditary and socially significant
275.  FORMER PRESENCE OF SLAVERY
   136    1 = Absent or no difference from preceding column
    50    2 = Formerly present
276.  SUCCESSION TO THE OFFICE OF LOCAL HEADMAN
    23    . = Missing data
    58    1 = Patrilineal heir
    17    2 = Matrilineal heir
     5    3 = Nonhereditary (appointed by higher authority)
     7    4 = Nonhereditary on basis of seniority or age
     9    5 = Nonhereditary through influence (wealth or
               social status)
    24    6 = Nonhereditary through election or other
               formal consensus
    23    7 = Nonhereditary through informal consensus
    20    9 = Absence of any such office
277.  SUCCESSION TO OFFICE OF LOCAL HEADMAN, BREAKDOWN OF HEREDITARY SUCCESSION
    23    . = Missing data
    44    1 = Hereditary by a son (patrilineal)
    14    2 = Hereditary by other patrilineal heir (e.g., YoBr)
     8    3 = Hereditary by a sister's son (matrilineal)
     9    4 = Hereditary by other matrilineal heir (e.g., YoBr)
    88    9 = Nonhereditary or absence of any such office


   RULE OR PRACTICE FOR INHERITANCE
278.  INHERITANCE OF REAL PROPERTY (LAND)
279.  INHERITANCE OF MOVABLE PROPERTY
      *   Note change in order from 278 280               278   279
                                                          Land  Movables
      . = Missing data                                     31    34
      1 = Absence of individual property rights or rules   59    22
      2 = Matrilineal (sister's sons)                       4     5
      3 = Other matrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers)  9     9
      4 = Children, with daughters receiving less          12    14
      5 = Children, equally for both sexes                  9    22
      6 = Other patrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers)  8     9
      7 = Patrilineal (sons)                               54    71
   DISTRIBUTION OF INHERITANCE AMONG INDIVIDUALS OF SAME CATEGORY
280.  INHERITANCE OF REAL PROPERTY
281.  INHERITANCE OF MOVABLE PROPERTY
      *   Note change in order from 279 281               280   281
                                                          Land  Movables
      . = Missing data or absense of rights (#1 above)     91    55
      1 = Equal or relatively equal                        54    86
      2 = Exclusively or predominantly to
           the one adjudged best qualified                  6     6
      3 = Ultimogeniture (to the junior individual)         4     5
      4 = Primogeniture (to the senior individual)         28    27
      9 = Missing data   Note: Change 9 to "."              3     7
282.  NORMS OF PREMARITAL SEX BEHAVIOR OF GIRLS
    40    . = Missing data
    13    1 = Early marriage of females (at or before puberty)
    38    2 = Insistence on virginity
    37    3 = Prohibited but weakly censured and not infrequent
    16    4 = Allowed, censured only if pregnancy results
     5    5 = Trial marriage, promiscuous relations prohibited
    37    6 = Freely permitted, even if pregnancy results
283.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: GROUND PLAN
     4    . = Missing data
     1    1 = Semicircular
    59    2 = Circular
     6    3 = Elliptical or elongated with rounded ends
     -    4 = Polygonal
   107    5 = Rectangular or square
     9    6 = Quadrangular around (if only partially) inner court
284.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: FLOOR LEVEL
     5    . = Missing data
    13    1 = Subterranean or semi-subterranean (ignoring cellars)
   138    2 = Floor formed by ground
    12    3 = Elevated slightly or on raised platform
    18    4 = Raised substantially on piles, posts, or piers
285.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: WALL MATERIAL
    65    . = Missing data
    12    1 = Stone, stucco, concrete, or fired brick
    19    2 = Plaster, mud and dung, or wattle and daub
    33    3 = Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles
     1    4 = Bark
     1    5 = Hides or skin
     6    6 = Felt, cloth, or other fabrics
    17    7 = Mats, latticework, or wattle
    14    8 = Grass, leaves, or other thatch
    17    9 = Adobe, clay, or dried brick
     -   10)= Open walls, including temporary screens
          *)= Walls indistinguishable from roof
          *   Note: disaggregate 9 and 10
286.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: SHAPE OF ROOF
    10    . = Missing data
    10    1 = Rounded or semi-cylindrical
    20    2 = Dome or hemisphere
     7    3 = Beehive with pointed peak
    34    4 = Conical
     2    5 = Semi-hemisphere
     6    6 = Shad (one slope)
    14    7 = Flat or horizontal
    68    8 = Gabled (two slopes)
    15    9 = Hipped or pyramidal (four slopes)
287.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: ROOFING MATERIALS
    10    . = Missing data
     2    1 = Stone or slate, or tile or fired brick
     3    2 = Plaster, clay, mud and dung, or wattle and daub
    10    3 = Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles
     6    4 = Bark
     5    5 = Hides or skin
     5    6 = Felt, cloth, or other fabric
     9    7 = Mats
   118    8 = Grass, leaves, brush, or other thatch
    18    9 = Earth or turf
         10)= Ice or snow (combined with 9)
          *   Note: disaggregate 9 and 10
288.  SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: GROUND PLAN
     2    1 = Semicircular
    18    2 = Circular
     3    3 = Elliptical or elongated with rounded ends
     -    4 = Polygonal
    38    5 = Rectangular or square
     7    6 = Quadrangular around (or partially around) an inner court
   118    9 = No secondary type
289.  SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: FLOOR LEVEL
     1    . = Missing data
     1    1 = Subterranean or semi-subterranean (ignoring cellars)
    50    2 = Floor formed by ground
     8    3 = Elevated slightly or on raised platform
     8    4 = Raised substantially on piles, posts, or piers
   118    9 = No secondary type
290.  SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: WALL MATERIAL
   145    . = Missing data or no secondary type
     7    1 = Stone, stucco, concrete, or fired brick
     5    2 = Plaster, mud and dung, or wattle and daub
    10    3 = Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles
     3    4 = Bark
     -    5 = Hides or skin
     2    6 = Felt, cloth, or other fabrics
     3    7 = Mats, latticework or wattle
     3    8 = Grass, leaves, or other thatch
     8    9 = Adobe, clay, or dried brick
     -   10)= Open walls, including temporary screens
           )= Walls indistinguishable from roof
          *   Note: separate . and 0
          *   Note: disaggregate 9 and 10
291.  SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: SHAPE OF ROOF
   119    . = Missing data or no secondary type
     -    1 = Rounded or semi-cylindrical
     1    2 = Dome or hemisphere
     -    3 = Beehive with pointed peak
    16    4 = Conical
     2    5 = Semi-hemisphere
     2    6 = Shad (one slope)
     7    7 = Flat or horizontal
    31    8 = Gabled (two slopes)
     8    9 = Hipped or pyramidal (four slopes)
          *   Note: separate . and 0
292.  SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: ROOFING MATERIALS
   120    . = Missing data or no secondary type
     3    1 = Stone or slate, or tile or fired brick
     1    2 = Plaster, clay, mud and dung, or wattle and daub
     3    3 = Wood, incl. logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles
     1    4 = Bark
     5    5 = Hides or skin
     2    6 = Felt, cloth or other fabric
     4    7 = Mats
    42    8 = Grass, leaves, brush, or other thatch
     5    9 = Earth or turf
         10)= Ice or snow (combined with 9)
          *   Note: separate . and 0
          *   Note: disaggregate 9 and 10