Garry Chick

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Garry Chick <gchick@psu.edu> Name: GARRY CHICK E-mail: gec7@psu.edu Phone: +1 814 863 1941

  • Was my student at Pgh --- Doug, do you want this to be sorted out now, or would you be happy to circulate proofs to this contributor during production? The latter option makes more sense from our end. Joe White
  • Garry, when you get your copies from Wiley, do your editing, send final carefully edit version(s),when finished, send the quality proofs to me. I will review your fully finished and carefully corrected proofs.
  • I sent you the chapter on games and child training a week or so ago but have attached another copy.
  • Had good teachers in grad school. You, as I recall, were one of them.
  • I was your professor? Wow - When and Where Was that? Pgh, UT? UCI? sorry for the poor memory
  • I believe I took a course you taught in mathematical anthro or something like that at Pitt. I started there in the fall of 1971.
  • I am working on the evolutionary development of games now and have it about half written with a few analyses to do, as well.

The fact that the Americas have abundant games of chance but few games of strategy is a problem. I need to see how the analyses I am doing right now turn out and if there is a major problem, I will see what I can do then. Having lots of variables but not many cases is indeed a concern.

I will get back to you in a few days.

  • Doug reply - looking at the map for Games of Strategy (using CoSSc) i
  • Doug, from Garry Chick <gchick@psu.edu>
  • I have 21 about half completed but have not started on 22. So, it would take at least a month to 6 weeks to complete both. I suggest that you wrap it up and get the ms. off to the publisher. I will finish 21 and 22 at my leisure. I can submit them to Cross-Cultural Research or maybe World Cultures and see what happens. Yes, working on it now. It will be considerably shorter than 21.

22EvolutionaryDevelopmentGames

https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/9256203/SCCScodebook.txt
  • Instructions and workflows in development
  • Just to keep you updated, I can select the subset of 88 cases with no problem. However, I am having a problem getting Eff’s R script to run the subset properly. I am going to contact him about it.
  • Here are DEf01g.RData and the games codes (N=172). Columns D, E, and F are absence/presence.
  • Bob_Sporner

v158 Social Stratification

Here are the entries for the new Table 6. v158, if included, is not significant. I will integrate it into the manuscript in the morning. I attached a listing of the unrestricted variables I used with both the full sample and the Old World sample.

h$Rmodel
               coef  stdcoef     VIF  relimp    pval  hcpval bootpval star
(Intercept) -0.35810      NaN     NaN     NaN 0.46599 0.43439  0.45266     
latiSq      -0.00012 -0.25662 1.11606 0.04406 0.05697 0.00288  0.03708   **
v153         0.22930  0.56186 1.03386 0.27860 0.00001 0.00000  0.00000  ***
Wy           0.25005  0.04528 1.08853 0.01004 0.73412 0.74031  0.75645     
                                                     desc
(Intercept)                                           <NA>
latiSq      Latitude (decimal degrees)--rectified--squared
v153                 Scale 5- Technological Specialization
Wy                                        Network lag term
h$Diagnostics
                                                          Fstat       df pvalue star
RESET test. H0: model has correct functional form         0.0163  2037498 0.8986     
Wald test. H0: appropriate variables dropped              2.6736     9159 0.1021     
Breusch-Pagan test. H0: residuals homoskedastic           1.8197   221502 0.1773     
Shapiro-Wilkes test. H0: residuals normal                11.8500 41523440 0.0006  ***
Hausman test. H0: Wy is exogenous                        11.5898    96178 0.0007  ***
Sargan test. H0: residuals uncorrelated with instruments  0.7901   319871 0.3741     
h$OtherStats
 d l e Weak.Identification.Fstat R2.final.model R2.UR.model nimp nobs BClambda
1 0 1 0                  15.92189      0.3326896   0.6257344   10   45     none

19GamesofStrategy12.05.2016docx

p. 9: deleted “WRONG DIAGNOSTICS” immediately following Results

p. 9:  deleted “The significant value for the Hausman test indicates endogeneity (the model estimated does not properly capture the way causation works in the real world) and” in line with Eff’s concern that the test has a bug. I have deleted the Hausman test from Tables 5 and 6, as well.
p. 11:  deleted your comments from Table 6 caption [WE NEED TO REDO THIS TABLE for 88 societies (Old World societies 1-77, 80, 82, 113-121, problem is to reconstruct the sample to a variant of that below, with different predictive variables).]
p. 11: replaced values in Table 6 with those for Old World subsample
p.11: added a bit of discussion immediately following Table 6 and expanded discussion of tables 5 and 6 under Discussion You may be able to improve on this.

Nov 27, 2016

From: Anthon Eff <Anthon.Eff@mtsu.edu> Subject: RE: Wiley Companion to Cross-Cultural Research Date: November 28, 2016 at 10:20:30 PM EST To: Garry Chick <gec7@psu.edu>

Garry: Your errors came because you tried to execute functions that you had not loaded—you always need to load a version of my workspace. The script below works.

In addition, there is no good reason to restrict cases before you start (such as collapsing the SCCS to only 88 societies). Multiple imputation will use information from all of the 186 cases in estimating the imputed values—so dropping cases ahead of time will only reduce the quality of your imputations. When you then use the imputed datasets in a regression, the default method in doOLS() is to drop all observations for which the dependent variable was originally missing—including these simply contributes noise. So the functions automatically keep the cases that should be kept.

Your diagnostics are not that great, but since you are using bootstrapped standard errors, you don’t have to worry about heteroscedasticity or non-normality of residuals. The RESET test indicates that you could find a better functional form, but I guess that’s obvious since you are estimating a dummy dependent variable with OLS – so I wouldn’t worry about it, unless you have some theoretically based idea that one of your independent variables should be modeled as a quadratic function (like you did with latitude). The one that puzzles me is that the network lag term appears to be endogenous – that shouldn’t happen, but Doug has pointed this out before and we suspect there might be a bug in the functions. I’ll look at it when I can, but for now, I’m choosing to ignore the results of those Hausman tests.

Anthon

Garry:
In R you can select cases with
newdata <- olddata[1:88,…]
I will try it tomorrow.
1-77, 80, 82, 113-121 for 88 societies with Strategy games
Games
239.  GAMES
    14    . = Missing data
    12    1 = None of the three types
    64    2 = Physical skill, 2, 5, 6, 8 
     1    3 = Chance, 3, 5, 8
     4    4 = Strategy, 4, 6, 8
    47    5 = Skill and chance
    22    6 = Skill and strategy
     -    7 = Chance and strategy
    22    8 = All

Nov 3 2016

Doug,

  • I am working on the Games of Strategy ms right now. As soon as we have it in hand I plan to do the other two, Games and Child Training and An Evolutionary Scale of Game Development.
  • Will get back to you, likely on Monday, regarding analyses for the Games of Strategy ms. Garry

Abstract and Paper

Nov 1 2016 Philip Townshend (Cambridge U.) published a fairly extensive criticism of Jack’s claim regarding games of strategy and social complexity in an obscure 1980 paper. p9 discussion.

Rebuttal by John Roberts in V4 #4 "Games of Strategy. Peter Townshend argued that the distribution of Mankala in Africa followed geographical lines that would be expected from the Roberts' thesis (the more complexity=more strategy. "...in Africa ...(diffusi0n has proceeded with0ut regard to the structure of the societies concerned" (p4).

Games 1

Yes, perfect, do proceed !

On 10/10/16 10:03 AM, Garry Chick wrote:

Doug,
Roberts’ cross-cultural work on games has three primary themes:
1. games and sociocultural complexity
2. games and child training
3. evolutionary sequence of game development

I propose the following. I can write an introductory paper to the cross-cultural study of games, going back to Tylor, but emphasizing Jack’s work. Then, I can use the CoSSci and SCCS data to examine each of these themes. The work you did on games of strategy can be embellished to address #1. Data are available in the SCCS to examine #2 but will not provide an exact replication. #3 will be more difficult but the idea would be to replicate the Roberts & Barry (1972) to the extent possible.

Hence, I am proposing 4 papers that could be included along with my paper on Sports, Games, Mock and Actual Warfare in a separate section of the handbook titled something like “Games and Sports” or included in the section “Prosocialities.”

I have gathered most of the materials I will need and can produce an introduction to cross-cultural research on games fairly quickly. The three papers involving analyses will take more time. Unfortunately, I am having back surgery on Oct. 20 and I expect that will take me out of action for at least a week or two.

If this makes sense to you please let me know.
Garry

Games 2

On 8/12/16 6:57 AM, Garry Chick wrote:

use v239.d3 in the first box (line 1) then use same v239.d3 name as needed (line 3)

Doug,

I have done a bit of editing and added some things regarding games of strategy, notably a reference to my 1998 replication of Roberts, Arth & Bush as well as Peter Peregrine’s 2008 analysis of games of strategy and political strategy. Neither of these change the idea that the Roberts hypothesis regarding games of strategy and social class and political integration may be incorrect or, at least, not all of the picture. In the attached draft, I also added crosstabs with the corrected numbers for absence (n = 124) and presence (n = 48) of games of strategy. I did not do any additional editing after those two tables.

I think that the analysis in Table 1 is highly suggestive so I looked at other variables related to subsistence using Stata. While the sample sizes were all pretty good without imputation I could not address autocorrelation. Nonetheless, variables such as v1 (intercommunity trade), v3 (agriculture- contribution to food supply, and v5 (animal husbandry-contribution to food supply) had fairly strong positive correlations (gamma) with games of strategy, v7 (fishing-contribution to food supply), v9 (hunting-contribution to food supply), and v11 (gathering-contribution to food supply) each had strong negative correlations. These make sense with a general games of strategy - complex economies theme you suggest.

The problem that I have is that I have been unable to recreate your dichotomization of v239 into v239.3 (absence/presence of games of strategy) using CoSSci. So, I have been unable to reproduce Table 1 since I am unfamiliar with the process of creating new variables. I would like to look at additional variables, perhaps including the climate variables listed as To Try, using CoSSci so I would appreciate it if you would send me a screen shot (or explicit instructions) of the page where one enters the variables and executes the program along with a screen shot of the Add New Variables page showing how to create v239.3 (SCCSv239.d4.d6.d8).

let me know if more needed

finally, for my 1998 replication of Roberts, Arth & Bush I coded for games for 110 societies from the SCCS based on HRAF sources, taking care to account for time and place focus. One thing I did differently was to code for the number of each type of game extant in each society. So, I have values similar to those in table 1 for 110 societies as well as the actual number of games of physical skill, strategy, and chance present in each. Overall, my codes agree pretty well with those from the EA in the SCCS. I would be happy to provide these for inclusion in the SCCS database. ok, include that in the chapter ...

  • Note: A lek is a bunch of males gathered to engage in competitive displays for mating purposes (or the place itself). Sage grouse and prairie chickens are famous for them. Maybe I overstated Morgan’s importance but he produced League of the Iroquois in 1851 and it is book length. I read somebody (maybe Harris 1968) who claimed it was the first modern ethnography. I would blame him if I could recall for sure.
  • V2082
  • School

of Hotel, Restaurant, and Recreation Management Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania, USA gchick@psu.edu

Dr. Garry Chick, who had been on the faculty of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for 18 years before coming to Penn State in 1999, assumed the position of department head in August 2009.

Chick, Garry. 2000. oportunities_of_cross_cultural_comparative_research_on_leisure

Chick, Garry. 1988, Games in culture revisited: A replication and extension of Roberts, Arth, and Bush (1959). Cross-Cultural Research , Vol. 32, No. 2, 185-206. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/2/185

Chick, Garry. 1998. Games in Culture Revisited: A Replication and Extension of Roberts, Arth, and Bush 1959 Cross-Cultural Research May 1998 vol. 32 no. 2 185-206

Chick, Garry, John W. Loy, and Andrew W. Miracle. 1997. Combative Sport and Warfare: A Reappraisal of the Spillover and Catharsis Hypotheses Cross-Cultural Research vol. 31 no. 3 249-267.

Chick, Garry, John W. Loy. 2001. Making men of them: male socialization for warfare and combative sports. World cultures 12(1):2-17.

Abstract: The debate over whether violence and aggressive behavior is innate or learned has been rekindled by several recent publications. Regardless of the merits of this debate, cross-cultural data indicate that the levels of both inter- and intra-group aggressive behavior differ among societies. Moreover, males in some societies exhibit what has been termed “hypermasculine” behavior. This behavior is characterized by high levels of physical aggression as well as other markers, such as excessive use of alcohol or other drugs, destructiveness, and general belligerence. In this paper, we examine the relationships among socialization for aggression, fortitude, and competitiveness among boys and adolescent males and several indicators of a masculinist ideology. We do the same for the socialization variables and several hypermasculine behaviors.
Chick notes that in some studies "violence and aggression are seen as innate and evolved characteristics of humans, especially among males (e.g., Ghiglieri 1999; Low 2000; Wrangham and Peterson 1996; Thornhill and Palmer 2000a, 2000b)," while in others: "as the result of social learning (e.g., Ehrenreich 1997; Keely 1996; O’Connell 1989)."
Conclusion:

"though our design and methods differ somewhat from those of Broude (1990), and while we did not examine the significance of father-absence, our results are concordant with hers with respect to the importance of socialization in the etiology of hypermasculinity. In particular, our study supports Broude’s conclusion that socialization pressures on boys are related to high levels of sex-typed behavior. However, this raises the question of whether such behavior can then be regarded as problematic (as in Pleck et al. 1984) or as deviant. As Schlegel and Barry (1991:133) note, “Deviant behavior is, by definition, behavior that departs from what is generally accepted as appropriate” though they add that “It may be tolerated, mildly punished, or severely sanctioned.” Naturally, some deviant behaviors are more deviant than others and, again as Schlegel and Barry note, what is deviant in some societies is not in others. Further, Schlegel and Barry point out that some degree of deviance is commonly expected among adolescents in many societies (though it may not be encouraged). So, hypermasculinity may not necessarily be deviant, may be expected, may be tolerated, and in many cases appears to be actively encouraged among boys, adolescents, and adult males. As former Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services Louis Sullivan (1991, p. 1) noted, many men in the US are members of “a generation whose manhood is measured by the caliber of the gun he carries or the number of children he has fathered.” We may abhor such manifestations of hypermasculinity in our own culture or even be amused at its manifestations in others (e.g., the “macho” complex in parts of Latin America). The results of this study indicate that it exists, at least in part, because young men are trained and encouraged in many societies to accept a masculinist ideology and then to behave in accord with it."

Note: the original pdf is at eclectic.ss.uci.edu
Thornhill and Palmer 2000a Why Men Rape. The Sciences 40(1):30-36
Thornhill and Palmer 2000b A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion (Zion, 2000) is critiqued at http://www.bridgew.edu/soas/jiws/June01/Susan.pdf and "been largely dismissed by critics." This may be the mistaken source for Senator Todd Akin's remark in the 2012 election that "women close down..."


Article On the Evolution of Sport by Michael P. Lombardo, Department Of Biology, Usa Email "... Abstract: Sports have received little attention from evolutionary biologists. I argue that sport began as a way for men to develop the skills needed in primitive hunting and warfare, then developed to act primarily as a lek where athletes display and male spectators evaluate the qualities of potenti ..."

A lek is a gathering of males, of certain animal species, for the purposes of competitive mating display.