Hartmut Lang

From InterSciWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Conan database

Hartmut Lang. CONAN - an electronic code-text data-base for cross-cultural studies. pdf. World Cultures 9(2):1-38. [1] easyprint download

also in dbf

load(url("http://http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/CONAN/Conan.DBT"),.GlobalEnv) #???
x <- read.dbf(system.file("files/sids.dbf", package="foreign")[1]) #???
str(x) #???
summary(x) #???

online

[http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/worldcul/stds81.cod

[http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/worldcul/stds82.cod

Codes

CONAN Data-Base

Lang, Hartmut. 1998. CONAN: An Electronic Code-Text Data-Base for Cross-Cultural Studies. World Cultures 9(2):13-56.

    STDS81.DAT Vars. 1714-1747 CONAN data base Part I
1714. First two digits of focus date
    87    . = missing data (original code = 0)
     1   12 = 12
     1   15 = 15
     1   16 = 16
     2   17 = 17
    46   18 = 18
    48   19 = 19
1715. Second two digits of focus date
1716. Primary source of subsistence
    85    . = missing data
    26    1 = intensive agriculture
    37    2 = extensive agriculture
     9    3 = animal husbandry
    11    4 = fishing
     9    5 = hunting
     8    6 = gathering
     0    7 = trade
     1    8 = wage labor
1717. Secondary source of subsistence
    86    . = missing data
     0    1 = intensive agriculture
     9    2 = extensive agriculture
    22    3 = animal husbandry
    19    4 = fishing
    25    5 = hunting
    10    6 = gathering
    13    7 = trade
     2    8 = wage labor
1718. Sharing of food
    97    . = missing data
     7    1 = sharing of food among nuclear family
    14    2 = sharing of food among kin residing in local community
     9    3 = sharing of food among kin, not restricted to local community
     4    4 = sharing of food among non-kin within local community
    21    5 = sharing of food among all members of local community
    24    6 = sharing of food among groups within unit of maximal political authority
              or ethnic group
    10    7 = sharing of food among other than mentioned groups
1719. Periodical variation of food scarcity
    95    . = missing data
    26    1 = food supply constant, no scarcity (original code 10)
    20    2 = periodical food scarcity (original code 20)
    10    3 = aperiodical food scarcity (e.g. as caused by natural disasters),
              no further information on frequency of
              occurrence (original code 30)
     7    4 = seldom (occurrence uncommon) (original code 31)
     6    5 = often (occurrence common) (original code 32)
     2    6 = periodical as well as aperiodical food scarcity
              (original code 40)
     1    7 = chronic food scarcity (original code 50)
    19    8 = food scarcity occurs, no further information on
              frequency (original code 60)
1720. Causes of land shortage
   104    . = missing data
    54    1 = no land shortage
    19    2 = population pressure (caused by humans or animals)
     8    3 = territorial invasions
     1    4 = more than one of the above
1721. Number of rich people (wealthy)
    88    . = missing data
    27    1 = absence of rich (original code 10)
    41    2 = presence of rich, no information on numbers 
              (original code 20)
    27    3 = few rich (original code 21)
     3    4 = many rich (original code 22)
1722. Sources of wealth
    91    . = missing data
    27    0 = absence of rich, variable 1717 coded 1 (original code 88)
     5    1 = presence of rich, no information on sources of wealth
              (original code 10)
     4    2 = acquired wealth of land (through buying or skill)
              (original code 11)
     8    3 = inheritance of land (original code 12)
     6    4 = acquired wealth of cattle (through buying or skill)
              (original code 13)
     1    5 = inheritance of cattle (original code 14)
     7    6 = acquired wealth (means of production other than cattle or land)
              (original code 15)
     1    7 = inherited wealth (means of production other than cattle or land)
              (original code 16)
    36    8 = more than one of the above (original code 177)
1723. Number of poor
    98    . = missing data
    32    1 = absence of poor (original code 10)
    41    2 = presence of poor, no information on percentage
              (original code 20)
     8    3 = few poor (original code 21)
     7    4 = many poor (original code 22)
1724. Number of dispossessed
    98    . = missing data
    57    1 = no dispossessed (original code 10)
    15    2 = presence of dispossessed, no information on percentage
              (original code 20)
    12    3 = few dispossessed (original code 21)
     4    4 = many dispossessed (original code 22)
1725. Possibility for peaceful territorial expansion
   101    . = missing data
    42    0 = no need for expansion: variable 1716 coded as 1
              (original code 88)
    18    1 = peaceful territorial expansion impossible (original
              code 10)
    17    2 = peaceful territorial expansion possible, no information
              on quality of land (original code 20)
     7    3 = access to land of good quality (original code 21)
     1    4 = access to land of restricted quality (original code 22)
1726. Communality of land
    88    . = missing data
    22    1 = land predominantly private property
    24    2 = land partially communally used
    52    3 = communal land use rights only
1727. Resource acquisition as motive for violent conflict management
    96    . = missing data
     7    0 = absence of violent conflict management (original code 88)
    31    1 = resource acquisition no motive
    52    2 = resource acquisition motive for violent conflict management
1728. Rich, poor, or dispossessed as one party in violent conflicts
   128    . = missing data
   26     0 = equal distribution of resources (original code 88)
   27     1 = rare or never
    3     2 = occasional
    1     3 = often
    1     4 = permanent
1729. Presence of an overarching political unit (codes not ordered)
   85     . = missing data
   13     1 = local community autonomous (original code 10)
    2     2 = local community is part of a precolonial state
              (original code 20)
    6     3 = ethnic group to which the local community belongs is
              politically dominant in the precolonial state
              (original code 21)
    4     4 = ethnic group to which the local community belongs
              occupies a politically subordinate position in the
              precolonial state (original code 22)
   33     5 = local community is part of a colonial state
              (original code 30)
    3     6 = local community is part of a postcolonial state
              (original code 40)
    7     7 = ethnic group to which the local community belongs is
              politically dominant in the postcolonial state
              (original code 41)
   33     8 = ethnic group to which the local community belongs
              occupies a politically subordinate position in the
              postcolonial state (original code 42)
1730. Administrative integration of local community within overarching political unit
     (codes not ordered)
   90     . = missing data
   14     0 = local community not part of an overarching political unit
              (variable 1725 coded as 1) (original code 88)
   28     1 = overarching political unit claims administrative hierarchy without
              actual execution (original code 10)
   18     2 = administration representative absent or only sporadically present,
              administrative functions are executed from outside
              (original code 20)
    3     3 = administration representative present (e.g. military, civilian
              administrators, school personnel)
              (original code 30)
   24     4 = same as above 4, administration representative member of the same
              ethnic group as local community (original
              code 31)
    9     5 = same as above 4, administration representative of different ethnic
              affiliation than local community
              (original code 32)
1731. Power participation of local elite within overarching political unit (codes not ordered)
   95     . = missing data
   46     0 = local community not part of an overarching political unit (variable 1725 coded  
              as 1); ethnic group occupies a dominant position within overarching political  
              unit (variable 1725 coded as 3 or 7); overarching political unit does not  
              execute administrative functions (variable
              1726 coded as 2) (original code 88)
     8    1 = no elite present in ethnic group of which the local community is a part
              
    17    2 = local elite does not participate in decisions of overarching political
              unit
    20    3 = local elite occupies leading positions within overarching political unit,
              at the local or regional level
1732.  Presence of wage labor
    97    . = missing data
    36    1 = no wage labor
    22    2 = wage labor present, migratory labor unimportant
    31    3 = wage labor, mainly in the form of migratory labor
1733.  Market exchange within local community
    90    . = missing data
    23    1 = no market exchange (original code 10)
    10    2 = market exchange within local community present, no further information
              (original code 20)
    27    3 = market exchange within local community present, involving local
              and regional products (original code 21)
    36    4 = market exchange within local community present, involving local,
              regional, and supra-regional products (original
              code 22)
1734.  Market exchange outside of local community
    87    . = missing data
    10    1 = no market exchange outside of local community
              (original code 10)
     5    2 = market exchange outside of local community (at trading posts, market
              places), no further information (original code 20)
    26    3 = market exchange outside of local community, involving local and
              regional products (original code 21)
    58    4 = market exchange outside of local community, involving local, regional,
              and supra-regional products (original code 22)
1735.  Relationship between production for subsistence and production for market exchange
    93    . = missing data
    68    1 = production for consumption more important
    25    2 = production for consumption and production for market exchange
              of equal importance
1736.  Tribute, taxation, expropriation
   108    . = missing data
    27    1 = no tribute, taxation, or expropriation (original code 10)
     3    2 = payment of tribute, taxation, or expropriation occur
              (original code 20)
     3    3 = corvee labor (original code 21)
    15    4 = money (original code 22)
     6    5 = mobile goods (original code 23)
    24    6 = more than one of the above (original code 24)
1737.  Extent of burden caused by tribute payments or taxation
   111    . = missing data
    27    0 = no tribute or taxation (original code 88)
     4    1 = sporadic taxation or request for tribute (original code 10)
     3    2 = the exactions are reported not to be burdensome
              (original code 20)
     2    3 = the exactions are reported to be burdensome (original code 21)
    19    4 = regular taxation or request for tribute (original code 30)
     7    5 = the exactions are reported not to be burdensome (original code 31)
    13    6 = the exactions are reported to be burdensome (original code 32)
1738.  Presence of formal education within local community
    96    . = missing data
    50    1 = no formal education (original code 10)
     6    2 = formal education present (original code 20)
    21    3 = small fraction of local community is formally educated
              (original code 21)
     5    4 = large part of local community is formally educated
              (original code 22)
     8    5 = members of local community have a higher education
              (original code 23)
1739.  Types of violence against overarching political institution (codes not ordered)
   105    . = missing data
    24    0 = no overarching political unit (variable 1729 coded as 1)
              (original code 88)
    27    1 = violent acts absent
    12    2 = acts of violence, in reaction against attacks by overarching political unit
    18    3 = active resistance, aiming at revolution
1740.  Levels of political hierarchy
    85    . = missing data
    17    1 = no political office (original code 10)
     1    2 = no political office at the head of local community, but segments of
              different local communities belong to supralocal non-territorially
              organized political unit (original code 20)
     1    3 = highest political office one level above smallest supralocal non-territorially
              organized political unit (original code 21)
     3    4 = highest political office two levels above smallest supralocal non-territorially 
              organized political unit (original code 22)
     0    5 = highest political office three levels above smallest supralocal 
              non-territorially organized political unit (original code 23)
     0    6 = highest political office four levels above smallest supralocal
              non-territorially organized political unit (original code 24)
    33    7 = highest political office at the head of local community
              (=politically autonomous local community) (original code 30)
    15    8 = highest political office one level above local community
              (original code 31)
    13    9 = highest political office two levels above local community
              (original code 32) 
    10   10 = highest political office three levels above local community
              (original code 33)
     8   11 = highest political office four or more levels above local community
              (original code 34)
1741.  Overarching formal jurisdiction within unit of maximal political authority
    91    . = missing data
    31    1 = no formal jurisdiction present
     6    2 = highest level of formal jurisdiction below the unit of maximal political
              authority
    58    3 = highest level of formal jurisdiction at the level of maximal political
              authority
1742.  Selection of officials at the lowest level of political hierarchy (codes not ordered)
    90    . = missing data
    51    0 = no political office above the level of the local community (variable 1730
              coded as 1,2, or 3 (original code 88)
    25    1 = selection of officials at the lowest level of political hierarchy independent
              of higher-ranking officials
    11    2 = selection of officials at the lowest level of political hierarchy within
              local community, but it has to be reconfirmed by higher-ranking officials
     9    3 = officials at the lowest level of political hierarchy are determined by
              higher-ranking officials
1743.  Sanctions
    88    . = missing data
    17    0 = no formal political office present (variable 1740 coded
              as 1) (original code 88)
    26    1 = no or few means of coercion
    17    2 = restricted means of coercion, e.g. only for certain types of decisions
    38    3 = coercive means to enforce all decisions
1744.  Lower level participation in decision making of the unit of maximal political authority
    91    . = missing data
    17    0 = no formal political office present (variable 1740 coded as 1)
              (original code 88)
    24    1 = decision making at the highest level of political authority independent
              of lower-ranking levels, groups, or individuals
    21    2 = decisions at the highest level of political authority are made after
              consultation with representatives of lower-ranking levels, groups, or
              individuals
    33    3 = lower-ranking individuals or group representatives fully participate in 
              decision making at the highest level of political authority, they are members
              of the decision making body
1745.  Religio-political overlap (codes not ordered)
    96    . = missing data
    17    0 = no formal political office present (variable 1740 coded as 1)
              (original code 88)
    18    1 = religious specialists have no influence on decision making at the level of
              maximal political authority
    19    2 = religious specialists participate in decision making at the level of
              maximal political authority
    36    3 = officials at the level of maximal political authority are at the same time
              religious specialists
1746.  Sources of legitimation of power (codes not ordered)
    86    . = missing data
    17    0 = no formal political office present (variable 1740 coded as 1)
              (original code 88)
     0    1 = supernatural powers
     0    2 = office holder has been installed by gods
     8    3 = office holder belongs to privileged descent group
     7    4 = office holder elected by the represented group
     3    5 = office holder elected by subordinate authorities
     0    6 = office holder is formal owner of the group's land
     0    7 = wealth based on possession of mobile property
     6    8 = office inherited
     3    9 = seniority
     1   10 = office holder installed by overarching administration, e.g. colonial power
     1   11 = other sources of legitimation
    54   12 = multiple sources of legitimation; more than one of the above
              (original code 77)
1747.  Frequency of external warfare: unit of maximal political authority
    95    . = missing data
    17    0 = no formal political office present (variable 1740 coded as 1)
              (original code 88)
    13    1 = rare or never
    15    2 = occasional
    27    3 = often
    19    4 = permanent
CONAN data base Part II
   STDS82.DAT Vars. 1748-1780
1748.  Frequency of internal warfare; i.e. between local communities within unit of maximal 
      political authority
    96    . = missing data
    51    0 = no political office above the level of the local community
             (variable 1740 coded as 1, 2, or 7) (original code 88)
    15    1 = rare or never
    11    2 = occasional
    11    3 = often
     2    4 = permanent
1749.  Frequency of internal warfare involving non-territorially
      organized groups within unit of maximal political authority
    96    . = missing data
    51    0 = no political office above the level of the local community
              (variable 1740 coded as 1, 2, or 7) (original code 88)
    20    1 = rare or never
     9    2 = occasional
     7    3 = often
     3    4 = permanent
1750.  Frequency of violent conflict between groups within local communities
   114    . = missing data
    51    1 = rare or never
    12    2 = occasional
     7    3 = often
     2    4 = permanent
1751.  Social stratification
    90    . = missing data
    17    1 = no differences in access to economic resources, political power, and/or status
    45    2 = differences in access to economic resources, political power, and/or status,
              not resulting in class formation
    17    3 = two classes
    17    4 = complex stratification into more than two classes
1752.  Groom's dependency on relatives for marriage transactions
    90    . = missing data
    10    1 = no marriage transactions
     5    2 = marriage transactions, but not by the groom or his kin
    26    3 = groom is able to procure the necessary goods for marriage transactions or else
              can provide alternatives as e.g., bride service
    27    4 = groom depends on the help of father or another single relative of the father
              for marriage transaction
    15    5 = groom depends on the help of father or a relative of the father and additional
              paternal relatives
    13    6 = groom depends on help of non-paternal or not exclusively paternal relatives
              to provide for marriage transaction
1753.  Depth of Unilineal descent (codes not ordered)
    90    . = missing data
    22    1 = patrilineal descent, no information on genealogical depth (original code 1000)
     2    2 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 002 (original code 1002)
     4    3 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 003 (original code 1003)
     6    4 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 004 (original code 1004)
     4    5 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 005 (original code 1005)
     1    6 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 006 (original code 1006)
     1    7 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 008 (original code 1008)
     2    8 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 009 (original code 1009)
     1    9 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 011 (original code 1011)
     1   10 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 015 (original code 1015)
     1   11 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 030 (original code 1030)
    14   12 = matrilineal descent, no information on genealogical depth (original code 2000)
     1   13 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 002 (original code 2002)
     1   14 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 003 (original code 2003)
     1   15 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 004 (original code 2004)
     2   16 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 006 (original code 2006)
     1   17 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 007 (original code 2007)
     1   18 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 009 (original code 2009)
     1   19 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 011 (original code 2011)
     1   20 = double descent, genealogical depth = 002 (original code 3002)
     2   21 = double descent, genealogical depth = 003 (original code 3003)
     1   22 = double descent, genealogical depth = 004 (original code 3004)
     1   23 = double descent, genealogical depth = 005 (original code 3005)
    24   24 = no unilineal descent (original code 4000)
1754.  Size of maximal effective kin group
    93    . = missing data
    34    1 = absent
    59    2 = present
1755.  Local distribution of maximal effective kin group (codes not ordered)
          
    93    . = missing data
    34    0 = does not apply, variable 1754 coded as 1 (original code 88)
    18    1 = maximal effective kin group forms part of local community
    12    2 = maximal effective kin group congruent with local community, no subgroups
              discernible
     3    3 = maximal effective kin group congruent with local community, with spatially
              segregated subgroups (e.g. wards)
     7    4 = maximal effective kin group covers a bounded territory including a number of 
              local communities, which form segments of the maximal effective kin group
     2    5 = maximal effective kin group is dispersed among several local communities, 
              located in the same territory as local communities inhabited by other effective 
              kin groups
    17    6 = segments of maximal effective kin groups coreside with segments of other 
              maximal effective kin groups in several local communities
1756.  Size of local community
   108    .  = missing data
    17    1  = between 10 and 50
    18    2  = between 51 and 100
     6    3  = between 101 and 150
    12    4  = between 151 and 200
     5    5  = between 201 and 250
     3    6  = between 251 and 300
     6    7  = between 301 and 500
     4    8  = between 501 and 1000
     7    9  = greater than 1001
1757.  Frequency of violent conflict involving at least one maximal effective kin group
      (codes not ordered)
   101    . = missing data
    34    0 = does not apply, variable 1754 coded as 1 (original code 88)
    12    1 = rare or never
    16    2 = occasional
    18    3 = often
     5    4 = permanent
1758.  Frequency of violent conflict involving at least one local community
    97    . = missing data
    25    1 = rare or never
    21    2 = occasional
    30    3 = often
    13    4 = permanent
1759.  Affection during early childhood
   115    . = missing data
     1    1 = children often experience emotional rejection; no further information about
              loving affection (original code 10)
     6    2 = children receive noticeably more emotional rejection than loving affection 
              (original code 11)
     8    3 = children receive emotional rejection and loving affection to the same degree 
              (original code 20)
    45    4 = children often experience loving affection; no further information about 
              emotional rejection (original code 30)
    11    5 = children receive noticeably more loving affection than emotional rejection 
              (original code 31)
1760.  Frequency of interactions between boys (early childhood) and male adults
   107    . = missing data
    12    1 = boys have almost no contact with adult males
    24    2 = even though boys have contact with adult males, they have more contact with 
              adult females
    26    3 = contact with male and female adults is about the same
    17    4 = boys have noticeably more contact with male than female adults
1761.  Inculcation of children's trust in other persons
   161    . = missing data
     8    1 = inculcation of mistrust and fear in children; the socializing agents scare the
              children by pretending to harm them, or by instilling of fear by reference to 
              potentially harmful persons, groups, or supernatural beings.
    10    2 = Children's mistrust is restricted to a certain group of persons. Instilling of 
              fear by certain persons or warning of  potential threat occurs rarely.
     7    3 = inculcation of trust in children; the socializing agents never scare children 
              or warn them of distant persons or groups.
1762.  Positive reinforcement of children's willingness to share, give, and help (generosity)
   155    . = missing data
     3    1 = generosity is rarely fostered; the children rarely exhibit willingness to 
              share, give, or help. This behavior rarely causes punishment.
    10    2 = generosity is moderately fostered; the children show willingness to share, 
              give, or help. A lack of this behavior causes punishment or admonishment.
    18    3 = generosity is strongly fostered; other adults and children frequently request 
              the children to share, give, and help.
1763.  Emphasis on honesty
   139    . = missing data
     2    1 = honesty is not furthered. (Dishonesty is generally accepted.)
     2    2 = honesty is rarely furthered. (Dishonest behavior is only accepted towards a 
              specific group of persons.)
     9    3 = honesty is furthered
    34    4 = honesty is explicitly furthered. (Dishonest behavior of children is the cause 
              for punishment and reprimands.)
1764.  Reaction of socializing agents towards violent behavior of boys in late childhood
   133    . = missing data
    14    1 = violence of children is generally objected (original code 10)
     4    2 = violence of children is tolerated (socializing agents only interfere when there 
              is danger of serious injuries); no data on restriction of violence to specific 
              group of persons(original code 20)
    13    3 = violence of children is tolerated only towards specific group of persons 
              (original code 21)
     3    4 = violence of children is tolerated regardless of group of persons (original code 
              22)
    16    5 = violence of children is explicitly encouraged; no data on restriction to 
              specific group of persons (original code 30)
     2    6 = violence of children is explicitly encouraged only towards specific group of 
              persons (original code 31)
     1    7 = violence of children is explicitly encouraged regardless of group of persons 
              (original code 32)
1765.  Emphasis on courage of boys in late childhood
   147    . = missing data
     5    1 = courage is not emphasized; children are protected from harm which may be caused 
              by scary situations, cold, and physical injuries
    11    2 = courage is mildly emphasized; children are not protected from potentially 
              dangerous situations; the expression of fear and pain is tolerated
    23    3 = courage is strongly emphasized; children are expected to tolerate pain and 
              overcome fear in dangerous situations; the expression of fear and pain is not 
              tolerated
1766.  Corporal punishment of boys in late childhood
   107    . = missing data
    32    1 = children are not punished physically, corporal punishment as a means of 
              education is rejected (original code 10)
    10    2 = children are punished physically; no information on frequency of occurrence 
              (original code 20)
    27    3 = children are rarely punished physically for only certain types of misbehavior 
              (original code 21)
    10    4 = children are often punished physically for almost any type of misbehavior 
              (original code 22)
1767.  Ideology of male superiority
   104    . = missing data
    47    1 = no ideology of male superiority
     8    2 = weakly articulated ideology of male superiority
    27    3 = strongly articulated ideology of male superiority (it is the basic determinant 
              of gender relations)
1768.  Attitude towards physical violence against members of local
      community
   118    . = missing data
    51    1 = physical violence within local community is rejected
    13    2 = physical violence within local community is tolerated or accepted
     4    3 = physical violence within local community is appreciated
1769.  Attitude towards physical violence against members of same ethnic group, not restricted 
      to local community
   124    . = missing data
    31    1 = physical violence within ethnic group is rejected
    21    2 = physical violence within ethnic group is tolerated or accepted
    10    3 = physical violence within ethnic group is appreciated
1770.  Attitude towards physical violence against members of other ethnic groups
   145    . = missing data
     1    0 = no contact with other ethnic groups (original code 88)
     5    1 = physical violence outside of ethnic group is rejected (original code 10)
     3    2 = physical violence outside of ethnic group is rejected because of military 
              inferiority or cowardice (original code 11)
     5    3 = physical violence is tolerated or accepted - specification of the enemies is 
              absent (original code 20)
     1    4 = physical violence is tolerated or accepted - but not against the majority of 
              other ethnic groups (original code 21)
     5    5 = physical violence is tolerated or accepted against the majority of other ethnic 
              groups (original code 22)
    14    6 = physical violence is appreciated - no further specification against whom 
              (original code 30)
     3    7 = physical violence is appreciated - but not against the majority of other ethnic 
              groups (original code 31)
     4    8 = physical violence is appreciated against the majority of other ethnic groups 
              (original code 32)
1771.  Loyalty within ethnic group
   100    . = missing data
    41    1 = low
    18    2 = middle
    27    3 = high
1772.  Hostility towards other ethnic groups
   113    . = missing data
     1    0 = no contact with other ethnic groups (original code 88)
     8    1 = no or negligible hostility (original code 10)
     6    2 = weak degree of hostility (original code 20)
    14    3 = moderate degree of hostility (original code 30)
     9    4 = moderate degree of hostility, only directed against some other ethnic groups  
              (original code 31)
     8    5 = moderate degree of hostility; directed against almost all other ethnic groups  
              (original code 32)
     2    6 = high degree of hostility (original code 40)
     9    7 = high degree of hostility; only directed against some other ethnic groups  
              (original code 41)
    16    8 = high degree of hostility; directed against almost all other ethnic groups  
              (original code 42)
1773.  Prestige of warriors
   111    . = missing data
    12    0 = no warriors (original code 88)
     9    1 = low prestige, warriors receive no special recognition (original code  10)
    13    2 = middle to high prestige; warriors have a good reputation, no data on other  
              sources of reputation (original code 20)
    12    3 = medium prestige of warriors, other sources of reputation are valued higher  
              (original code 21)
    15    4 = high prestige of warriors, other equally valued sources of reputation exist  
              (original code 22)
    14    5 = very high prestige, to gain prestige as a warrior is of special importance for  
              every man (original code 24)
1774.  Revenge related norms
   106    . = missing data
    15    1 = revenge taking is forbidden (original code 10)
    17    2 = taking of revenge is neither forbidden nor prescribed (original code 20)
    18    3 = taking of revenge is prescribed but compensation by payment equally valued  
              (original code 21)
    16    4 = taking of revenge is prescribed (original code 30)
    14    5 = taking of revenge is prescribed, retaliation is allowed only against the  
              culprit (original code 31)
1775.  Reglementation of intraethnic violence
   120    . = missing data
    23    0 = no intraethnic violence (variable 1776 coded as 1) (original code 88)
    10    1 = no reglementation
    25    2 = moderate reglementation
     8    3 = highly reglemented or ritualized
1776.  Frequency of intraethnic violence
    93    . = missing data
    23    1 = rare or never
    28    2 = occasional
    29    3 = often
    13    4 = permanent
1777.  Intensity of intraethnic violence
   116    . = missing data
    22    0 = no intraethnic violence (variable 1776 coded as 1) (original code 88)
    30    1 = low; when violence occurs, only occasional victims
    12    2 = moderate; when violence occurs many victims, ca. one half of one of the parties  
              in conflict is killed
     6    3 = high; one of the parties in conflict is nearly extinguished
1778.  Frequency of interethnic violence/attacking
    97    . = missing data
     4    0 = no contact with other ethnic groups (original code 88)
    26    1 = rare or never
    20    2 = occasional
    24    3 = often
    15    4 = permanent
1779.  Weapons used in warfare
   106    . = missing data
    18    1 = projectiles
     4    2 = shock weapons
    58    3 = both
1780.  Defensive (protective) weapons used in warfare
   126    . = missing data
    21    1 = no protective weapons
     6    2 = body armor
    26    3 = shields
     7    4 = both