Human Social Complexity and World Cultures 2008

From InterSciWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

ANTHRO 174AW: Fall 2008

Contents

Enrollment

ANTHRO 174AW: HUMAN SOCIAL COMPLEXITY, lec A (60330) <Doug White> Fall 2008 Tue., Thu. Sep 25 to Dec 5 - 12:30 pm to 1:50 pm in SST 155. Veterans Day Tues Nov 11, Thurs 27 is Thanksgiving. No class Office hours Thurs 2:00-3:00 SSPA 4169 and by appt drwhite (at} uci.edu TA Lydia Zacher (Office hours Tues 2:00-3:00 SST 633, lzacher (at}uci.edu) will assist in reading preparation, writing projects and research consultation.

Writing class (science + humanities=social science writing), UC Irvine, School of Social Science. <Headings> are wiki hyperlinks; those in red remain to be filled. When wiki pages are printed the hyperlinks become visible.

At home use <http://www.oac.uci.edu/security/vpn/> not <http://www.oac.uci.edu/help/proxy/> to install the VPN campus tunnel if you are unable to connect to the uci license for internet data and articles worldwide

Feedback and Wiki use

In the final two to four minutes of each lecture (as suggested by Fred Mosteller) please write brief responses to three questions (turn in on paper): 1) What was the most important point in the lecture? 2) What was the muddiest point? 3) What would you like to hear more about?

Use the Mozilla Firefox browser (makes spellcheck available for edits) to login under your real name not a webname, then enter your name here: 174AW wiki-users (see Fall 2008 174AW Users when done)

2008: About the class

Human Social Complexity and World Cultures: Douglas Fry’s book, Beyond War: The Human Potential for Peace, is the basic required reading and as such introduces the approaches we will use in the class. The book provides the needed continuity and background for the various subjects we will discuss on related topics of peace, war, law, justice, politics, human evolution and our evolutionary futures as we can explore them through the lens of anthropological studies on human societies. QUOTE FROM PREFACE: “There is a natural tendency to think in terms of the here and now of everyday life. But as we enter the twenty-first century, many of the challenges facing humanity demand a broader context. The macroscopic perspective of anthropology, with its expansive time frame and culturally comparative orientation, can provide unique insights into the nature of war and the potential for peace. A cross-cultural perspective shows, for instance, that humans everywhere seek justice-although the paths to justice vary. Some entail violence but others do not. Much violence, in fact, stems from people defending their rights or attempting to correct injustices. Anthropological and historical cases show that it is possible to replace violent means of justice seeking with nonviolent approaches. Herein lies a broader lesson for creating and maintaining peace.”

The main premise of the book is that patently false and falsified assumptions about “human nature” can, through our beliefs, have drastic consequences for how we conduct our lives and how our social energies should be directed. The more we get into the big questions like these, the more detailed questions arise that need to be addressed. Through discussion, use of data and analytic tools, and the vehicle of your own writing and presentations we will learn to think through big topics of major importance for our evaluations of contemporary social issues and choices and how we think through them as educated professionals.

More generally, this research and writing class and our class discussions will focus on:

  • How to pose a linked set of research questions in successive drafts of your term paper
  • How to move from a proposal to a working draft, to a final draft and paper
  • How to evaluate previous work on the questions you pose (use of sources, bibliography, empirical studies, computerized data)
  • How to establish what are the reasonable or likely alternative working hypotheses that can be tested
  • How to find data relevant to testing these hypotheses (studies, codebook, computerized data)
  • How to test hypotheses with available data
  • What are the pitfalls to examination and comparisons needed to evaluate how the data you choose to use (among those provided in class) are defined and systematically set up or codified in a form suitable for testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions.
  • How to think about the relationships you are studying in probabilistic terms rather than as if descriptive data provide a basis for theory or drawing conclusions.

I will show how to use critical and grounded analyses and techniques of analysis and writing in the study of questions that we often take for granted as part of our own cultural beliefs and how these apply to studying culture, politics, economics, law, human behavior, or, in short, the primary topics of human experience. This techniques may provide a superb background for entry into a large range of contemporary professions.

Fry’s book uses a range of carefully analyzed case studies, and contrasts what the author and other researchers have found in empirical studies (fieldwork, historical work, archaeology, evolutionary reconstruction) as against claims about the warlike “nature” of humans. Many other authors have used one or more or other similar approaches to investigate claims about human behavior, cultures, and generalizations about politics (polysci), social organization, sexuality, gender, economics, slavery, crime, etc. etc.

Week 1. Scores of books (some online, others not) on major research topics, Doug Fry’s among them, have been written and benefitted from the SCCS database that we use in this class. In addition to Fry (read: week 1 and 2, entire book, footnotes to controversial points and sources, guide to case studies in the appendix). These are listed under books and articles, below. For those interested in comparison in anthropology, a new book (2007, by Robert Hunt), is available at the bookstore, "Beyond Relativism: Rethinking Comparability in Cultural Anthropology".

Textbooks and readings

Fry, Douglas. 2007. Beyond War. Oxford: Oxford University press. Required but not in bookstore. Read weeks 1-2. Amazon $16 (for contrasting views you might want to do a double order with Otterbein) gbooks pages - these are chapters 1-3 only - up to page 32, then you will need the book.

Otterbein, Keith. 2004. How War Began. Required and very useful for assignments. (Order together with Fry to reduce shipping or see below for online copy) Amazon $20

Recommended: probably the best current introduction to Anthropology, Theory, Kinship, and some relevant network concepts: Eriksen, Thomas Hylland 2004. What is Anthropology? University of Michigan Press $11 used at Amazon.


Readings

<Grades and Due Dates for HumSocCmplx08> -- lots of ways to get credit, lots of options, or follow a straight-line track related to the questions raised by Fry's book or in the following essay by the instructor. In any case you will do a report to the class on your project using electronic media (wiki, ppt, a cool youtube video focused on content, etc.) - repeats below under Assignments etc.

Read weeks 1-2 Fry 2007 whole book (dont worry is VERY LARGE PRINT and 233 pages, a very easy read, and enjoyable)

Read week 1 Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (This explains the database that we use with Spss)

Read week 2 "Blood Feuds": Cross-Cultural Variations in Kin Group Vengeance Karen Paige Ericksen and Heather Horton. 1992. Cross-Cultural Research 26(1-4): 57-85 DOI: 10.1177/106939719202600103. For use in conjunction with Fry's book and the SCCS data. We can learn with these data how internal peace relates to adjudication versus a moral imperative to revenge.

Bell, Duran. 2008. Marriage Payments: a fundamental reconsideration. Structure and Dynamics: eJournal of Anthropological and Related Sciences 3:2: 20pp. This article links to Ericksen and Horton's, who say that blood feuds occur in the context of marriage bargains that were of major importance in earlier historical periods.

Tools of peace in pre-state societies: Avoidance and joking (Graphic)

Week 3 or 4: Quiz on Fry’s book. (date depending on readiness but sooner the better)

Read week 3 1990 Douglas R. White, World-system and regional linkages as causally implicated in local level conflicts at the ethnographic horizon. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie 115: 111-134.

Boehm, Christoper. 1993 Egalitarian Behavior and Reverse Dominance Hierarchy. Current Anthropology 34:227-254. [This paper won the Stirling Prize in Psychologica Anthropology]

Leslie E. Sponsel. 1996. The Natural History of Peace: The Positive View of Human Nature and Its Potential in Thomas Gregor, ed., A Natural History of Peace.

Keeping the Peace: Conflict Resolution and Peaceful Societies around the World Graham Kemp and Douglas P. Fry, eds. New York: Routledge, 2004. 231 pp. Review by Leslie E. Sponsel, American Anthropologist 108(2): 423-424

References: Peaceful societies LOTS OF PDFS FROM CASE STUDIES

Bonta, Bruce D. 1996. Conflict Resolution among Peaceful Societies: The Culture of Peacefulness Journal of Peace Research 33: 403-420.

1999 Keith F. Otterbein A History of Research on Warfare in Anthropology American Anthropologist 101(4): 794-805. Note how Otterbein describes main sequence theory as converging to Material causes --> Efficient Causes --> Consequences but neglects beliefs (does Fry 2007 provide a new emphasis?), differs from Fry on the "myth of the peaceful savage" position of Keeley (1996), who divides writers on warfare into hawks and doves whereas Otterbein's "position is that the evidence from prehistory supports neither of these ideal types."

Read weeks 4-9 Given the variety of on-line articles that may be used in projects, weekly readings will be added to reflect the projects and interests of students. Feel free to post suggested readings, especially in relation to your project or class interests.

Intelligence, Coalitional Killing, and the Antecedents of War xxx. Paul Roscoe, with Commentary and Reply. 2007. American anthropologist 109(3):485-495.

Good guides for your writing

Online reference articles, many online

http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/courses/SyllabusWorldCulturalComplexity.pdf

Anthrosource: Anthrology articles Find other SCCS references for your paper topic - links to pdfs (but deactivated by changes as jstor) Article Search for Standard Cross-Cultural Sample Studies and pdfs better however to Go to Jstor and use keyworks and (or) paste "Standard Cross-Cultural Sample" into the search window. This retrieves 255+ pdf articles. Add a subject or author keyword as well if you wish. Here us a list of all Jstor articles citing the SCCS in the bibliography rather than the text (about one-tenth of those above).

There is also an incipient Encyclopedia of World Cultures.

Simulations of the evolution of war, of institutions, of cooperation by Sam Bowles (Santa Fe Institute) and collaborators.

Books using SCCS, Methods, Tutorials

Thousands of articles on hundreds of subjects have been written using the SCCS data, and hundreds of research projects and authors have contributed to the database of the SCCS that you will learn to use for your term paper.

SCCS Library books - Online books: SCCS and Cross-Cultural Methods

Spss - Tutorials, etc.

Writing assignments, exercises, research tools and class or wiki presentation

<Grades and Due Dates for HumSocCmplx08> -- lots of ways to get credit, lots of options, or follow a straight-line track related to the questions raised by Fry's book or in the following essay by the instructor. In any case you will do a report to the class on your project using electronic media (wiki, ppt, a cool youtube video focused on content, etc.)

An illustration for a Term Paper topic related to Fry's book

Students in this class often ask for an example of an original-research term paper relating to the themes of this class (which vary from year to year). Often a student will volunteer to offer their final paper for the next years' classes. This year, the appearance of Fry's book makes it easier for me to offer my own example, based on two days of new research given the course readings and database.

click here for a pdf of what follows THAT HAS THE TWO TABLES for this "lecture/writing example". You do not have to follow my agenda here: there are over 2020 other variables for you to use in your paper. You do not have to find and code new variables, you can search the codebook to find variables to use in your study. But let's look at the tables in pdf or powerpoint. How significant is this using Fisher exact? 3:6 :: 8:1 and 0:56.:: 7:73

A research writer has to be something of a sleuth, a detective who digs into the facts, and an investigator who develops hunches, and then looks into other aspects of the case, the likely suspects, and probes for further data. Later on the research writer has to present the case, both for the defense and the prosecution. Fry’s data and how he uses it is rather interesting. Fry refers to the major samples (SCCS, Otterbein’s random sample) of ethnographically known societies where the data converge on an estimate of at least 12% of those societies (much higher if we exclude societies “Pacified” by state societies, variable 1654) have “No Armed conflict between political communities,” that is, no prestate war. He says 10% (footnote 13, p. 12) for Otterbein’s sample, and 8% for the “nonpacified” societies of the SCCS according to Ember (p. 13) which is an underestimate because they include feuding and homicide for revenge in their coding for warfare. Warfare is "Armed conflict between political communities" (Fry 2007). Logically, homicide is not warfare. To figure out an estimate of the true occurrence of warfare in the SCCS, I noted that his Appendix 2 (p 237-8) of 74 Nonwarring societies includes 20 from the SCCS, and that all of the societies in his cross-tabulation of simple and complex hunters (hunter-gatherers) by no war / war (p. 79) are SCCS societies (one possible project is to go through and determine the state/nonstate division in the SCCS and which of the states are war / no war). The fact that ALL the Nonwarring societies in this table are simple hunters is a central part of his argument that humans are not “essentially” warlike. Playing the sleuth, I filled a column of 186 numbers of the SCCS spreadsheet with the default code (2=Warring or Pacified) and then entered the 20 societies of the (1=Nonwarring) categories. To reproduce his table (Figure 6.4 p. 79), I filled another SCCS column of 186 numbers with (3=Other) and then added (1=Simple hunters) and (2=Complex hunters) for the societies in Figure 6.4. This gives 20/114=17.5% or about 18% of nonpacified SCCS societies that are Nonwarring, of which 13 are simple hunters. Having my two new columns coded, we will be able to reproduce his Figure 6.4 in class but also to do new research with two new SCCS variables.

Here is an example of new research, building off of Fry’s book. On page 15 Fry notes a study by Ericksen and Horton (1992: reference given on p. 143), who coded two new SCCS variables for the response to violent actions. One coded one of four types of kin-group vengeance that were considered legitimate in societies with feuding, and one of two types of response where kin-group vengeance was not considered legitimate. One of the latter responses was formal adjudication and the other self-redress. The second variable coded the target of vengeance, ranging from "malefactor(s)-only" to "anyone in their kin group." (Because the data for 186 societies were numerically coded in two columns, these two were not difficult to enter as two new SCCS variables. This took about 90 minutes, entering numbers 1-to-186 in the first column of an excel spreadsheet and the two variables in columns 2-3), then inserting three new columns in the Spss spreadsheet and doing a copy/paste from one to the other.

Because Fry’s book deals with morality and conflict resolution, I thought these two variables would be interesting to cross-tabulate by whether the societies were Warring or Nonwarring (Fry/s dichotomous variable for Pacified societies). Table 1 was made in Spss. It shows that for both simple hunters and (not versus) nonhunters, the correlates between the variables of conflict resolution (Erickson) and war (Fry) are:

a.	the vengeance imperative with “Armed conflict between political communities” 
b.	illegitimacy of vengeance with “Nonwarring” (a and b apply to both hunters & nonhunters)
(see table 1)

Fry-Ericksen Table2.jpg Further, as shown in Table 2 (Extract from Table 1), non-hunter societies (like our own) that considered kin-group vengeance as illegitimate used adjudication 91% of the time in dealing with crime, while simple hunters did so by some other form of direct redress (88%, with adjudication by only 12%).

Simple Hunters.jpg
Hunter War.jpg

Maps Making maps in Spss and GIS Commentary. Self-redress is the new unitary executive approach taken by Bush and Cheney in the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq. They ignored U.S. and Geneva conventions governing torture[1](Taxi to the Dark Side), shunned international and domestic law enforcement and intelligence services, and did not pressure the Taliban government to turn over Al Qaeda as international terrorists. Anthropologists doing fieldwork in Afghanistan before the invasion (e.g., Mike Fischer) reported that the Taliban leadership was considering giving up Bin Laden and his group, which would have spared the invasion. This would have averted the financial and economic losses the U.S. has suffered not to say the enormous losses of lives, both military and civilian. If we consider Bin Laden’s 9/11 attack as illegitimate vengeance against the U.S., the response of Bush and Cheney is entirely contrary to normative behavior in a state society with legal procedures and means of responding to criminal behavior through the mechanisms of law enforcement and intelligence services, both domestic and international. The unitary executive strategy only makes sense if it is one intended to lead to empire.

Conclusions and further questions. The main objective of Fry’s writing is to ask the reader to reexamine those beliefs that are deeply held (like the warlike nature of humans) that prevents us from solving the real problems of our lives and the world we live in. This brief study of Fry’s and Ericksen’s data not only supports Fry’s evidence that humans are not intrinsically warlike. He showed that among hunter-gatherers, all the Non-warring societies are simple hunters, not horse-mounted (like our images of the Wild-West) or complex hunter-gatherers (like the Northwest coast), all of whom are Warring. Simple hunters, resembling our early ancestors, are highly individualistic, and may lack kin-group vengeance or feuding, like many contemporary state societies. This short study, however, uses supplementary data (from Ericksen) to go beyond his argument. Table 1 shows that

a.	Among the simple hunters, 88% of those who do not regard kin-group vengeance as legitimate 

are Non-warring, while of those societies that do use kin-group vengeance (and not as a last resort), 67% are warring. This gives us an evolutionary explanation for the path from peaceful to warlike societies: the evolution of corporate kin-groups and kin-group use of vengeance as a means of retribution for wrongs that escalates into war. The evolution of war, then, is plausibly a product of social organization (corporate kin groups) and beliefs (in the necessity of vengeance).

b.	For nonhunters there is a significant correlation between the avoidance of kin-group vengeance 

and lack of states or warfare, although further codes would need to be developed for which of the state societies in this table have war and which do not. Table 2 shows that comparing conflict resolution outside kin-group vengeance

a.	non-hunter societies use adjudication (91%), simple hunters do not (9%)
b.	but simple hunter societies use self-redress (88%), non-hunters do not (12%) 

If the majority of American citizens do believe that humans are warlike by nature, Fry’s argument is that a change in this belief based on scientific, ethnographic, archaeological, and other evidence, may dispose us to seek legitimate means of resolving international terrorism and conflicts. Another belief to which the climate of fear has disposed us is that one must not criticize the Bush-Cheney government, given the “need” for an all-powerful government. One might argue that more research of the type that Fry and others have begun, based on attention to sound definitions, sound data, and sound reasoning, is needed. As Fry notes, such research is needed to counter deeply rooted beliefs that are propagated by mistaken scholarship, corporations like Exxon, and autocratic political authorities. Doubly so because Bush-Cheney and Exxon advocates have undertaken costly and powerful measures to undermine scientific freedom and objective government and media publication by editing out evidence of global warming, for example, and disseminating biased reports directly from the White House to the media on a wide swath of other topics, who report it as “news.” Clearly, research on peace and war is relevant and needed to inform beliefs, and can have an enormous impact on our ability to solve the problems of the future. This small bit of research has tackled one problem, but not addressed issues of conflict resolution in state societies, or for issues of states whose intention is to transform into conquerors or empires, but those questions can also be approached with comparative data.

After reading Fry and this illustrative essay, you might like to reexamine Tools of peace in (mostly) pre-state societies: Avoidance and joking (Graphic) as means of conflict resolution relevant to Fry's argument, and in this context look again at Bell, Duran. 2008. Marriage Payments: a fundamental reconsideration. which links to Ericksen and Horton's view that blood feuds occur in the context of marriage bargains only in earlier historical periods.

On states and empires you might look at 2008 Dynamics of Human Behavior (Cohesion and Resistance). In press. 'Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. SFI Working paper 08-09-042

See also: 25 peaceful societies list by Bruce Bonta. All but the Amish, Hutterites and Tahitians are listed by Fry in his 74 Nonwarring society list (p. 236) but only five of those (Mbuti, Nubians, Siamese (Thai), Lepcha, and Copper Eskimo) are in the SCCS. Bonta's definition of "peaceful" goes beyond that on Non-warring to Non-feuding and little or no interpersonal violence. According to Otterbein, Bonta (1993), in his Peaceful Peoples: An Annotated Bibliography, has a list of 47 peaceful societies. This is available at Langston Library for the ambitious. Thomas Gregor's 1996 (Langston Library) A Natural History of Peace has a series of chapters on general issues and ethnographic case studies.

To grasp or cite the basic working methods of scientific analysis, read: Chamberlin, T.C., 1890, The method of multiple working hypotheses: Science, v. 15, p. 92–96. Find this article online [2] clean version in pdf Commentary

Exercise 1: Hypothesis tests with SCCS on how pairs of topics relate

Due Thurs 9th Oct Here we use Spss with SCCS2020wMapCoord.sav data. In Spss/Edit/Options click (*) Display names and (*) File to see variable numbers in your variable lists. Labels will appear in your table. For cross-tabs (XTAB) use ANalysis/Descriptive Statistics/Crosstabs then /Statistics (*)Cramer's and (*)Tau-b then /Cells [*]Observed and [*]Row (or Col, never both). Other useful analyses are /Analyze/Data Reduction, /Analyze/Regression, /Analyze/Correlate; Graphs/Legacy/Scatter/Dot

Lets note some statements in FRY as see how we test them:

  1. pg. 15 Ericksen and Horton (above) on blood feud and the Embers on warfare. Try: Kin Group Vengeance (KGV) vs. Marc Ross code v767 "Conflict between communities of same society"
  2. pg. 79 can we replicate Fry's "Nonwar" with "Simpler Hunter-Gatherers"

Lets follow up on Fry's note on how definitions may be misleading

  1. pg. 13 Embers: define war so broadly as to encompass feuding and revenge. Try: Kin Group Vengeance vs. Embers' 1649 or vs. Wheeler's 891 (Internal war). What do we learn?
  2. What are the effects of Formal adjudication versus moral imperative (KGV) on conflict?

Examples in Class: SCSS XTABS/DATA REDUCTION as against Conflict Resolution

Paper draft In Spss, do a cross-tab with stats and a graph with trendline Choose a pair of topics that have sufficient coded data from the <SCCS index of variables> to do an <SCCS test of hypotheses> about how one measurable construct materially affects another, or each mutually affects the other, avoiding merely semantic overlaps between the constructs.

Exercise 2: Ethnographic Wiki writing and reading essay

Due Thurs 16th Oct (See also SCCS societies - books in UCI library).

Wiki writing assignment: Go to the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample Index and do the collaborative assignment. Also do one reading from the four societies you select and write 2 pages on what you could learn on one of your societies

When you choose an ethnographic reading bear in mind these are communities focused in time and place from the <SCCS ethnographic bibliography, p. 9 is a list, use "find" for the name of a given society as an entry> when you are looking for bibliography (optionally: see the <list of SCCS societies>) [3] or, alternately, the SCCS societies in the <eHRAF>.

You can include in your two pages, optionally:

Where does your community lie on terms of <some dimensions of culture>?
Using the Wikipedia link to this society (not the same as this wiki, see assignment): Does the ethnography reflect any impacts of globalization and intersocietal contacts? Does the Wikipedia site.
Optional: Pick a second SCCS culture to compare and contrast with the first on our preliminary dimensions of culture. Compare the codes on these dimensions in the <<Spss dataset used in class>> to your judgments, justified by <quotes from sources> for your ethnographies.

Required, independent of your writeup: Look at the <Introduction to the Standard Cross Cultural Survey Module> to see how variables such as these are used for comparisons and tests of hypotheses.

Optional (to think about in preparation for the next assignment): Do any of the tables in the Module relate to our dimensions of culture? How? What kinds of statements can you make from the tables in the Modules about RELATIONSHIPS among dimensions of culture, not limited to those we have already examined?

For those interested in comparison in anthropology, a new book (2007, by Robert Hunt), is available at the bookstore, "Beyond Relativism: Rethinking Comparability in Cultural Anthropology".

Exercise 3: Factors of culture analytic mini-essay

Due Thurs 16th Oct Do a single-factor <<factor analytic study>> that enlarges the <SCCS factors of culture -- see this link for ideas for study --> either by finding new variables from the <SCCS index of variables> that

combine to form a new single factor structure (more about <single factor structure>).
or fit one of the SCCS factors of culture.
correlate with but do not fit one of the SCCS factors of culture but instead help to form new radial factors.

For cross-cultural readings with the SCCS see http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/courses/JSTORSearchResults2.htm

Oct 9 course notes for this paper. For October 11: (emailed) - You will be able to get the computer portion of factor analytic assignment done -- all but the writing -- if you go carefully through the codebook on-line <SCCS index of variables> (circa 2000 variables but easy to page through, also to search/find for keywords), copy and paste those you are interested in into word, print a copy for yourself, and bring to class. Natasha and I can then check out your variables if you are having trouble, and recommend <recodes> where you might need them. We go through the exercise and also the way to easily recode. It should be easy if you come prepared. Remember to add up the number of societies coded ". = Missing data" and those with other numeric codes that indicate missing data relevant to your factor dimension, and subtract missing from 186 - if the number is much below 80 it is probably not a good variable to include so consider it an "alternate" rather than a "likely" variable for use with the factor analysis. Background on the single factor model.

Here is the interpretation of the Spss results you will need for part 1. But rather than Spss there is a much better Factor Analysis in the open source R software that has a one-factor significance test, providing a direct evaluation. This is software you can install at home.

Back to [Advanced tutorials in data analysis]

Alternate paper topics (may be expanded on request)

Marriage Payments Project

Marriage payments project with Bell and White If you have read Duran Bell (above) Marriage Payments: a fundamental reconsideration and find it interesting you may join a group within the class to understand the world of conflicts and alliances linked to marriage transactions. Table 1 in the paper, explicated in the text, can be the basis for the group to develop a codebook for Marriage Payments, and each participant can code 5 ethnographic cases listed as "Principal" or " " sources in the SCCS ethnographic bibliography and you can get the extra credit for developing the on-line links to these sources (Langston or urls in pdf from Jstor for example) following the # 5.3 Exercise in Ethnographic Wiki writing and reading. The instructor and emeritus professor Duran Bell (a very popular UCI undergraduate teacher) will help by reviewing the codebook and codes you develop from each reading.

Other

Sustainability comparison and Diversity

Ethnography, History, and Comparison

Ignore<Grades and Due Dates for HumSocCmplx07>

Lectures: HSC and World Cultures

Two questions: first class - hand in on a sheet of paper

(click here for earlier online lectures)

Sept 25 Class Notes and <DW: Responses>

Sept 25 08 174AW Class Notes

Compiled from the end-of class Feedback questions

  • Most Important Part of Class:
  • Professor’s message to be independent thinkers, broaden their horizons (18)
  • We live in tough times and need to do something about it (11)
  • The reality of data as applicable to real world problems (2)
  • The importance of databases in writing papers (2)
  • People are biased and the information we receive in the media is biased (1)
  • Good examples from real world given (1)
  • Course overview (1) <DW: will do Sept 30>
  • Muddiest Part:
  • Lecture points scattered, unclear, too broad (6)
  • Class structure and requirements (6)
  • How the government issues are connected to this class (6)
  • How to do the paper, assignments, readings (4)
  • Hard to hear and understand professor (3)
  • Website was hard to understand how to use (3)
  • Book discussions (2)
  • Some side stories hard to understand (2)
  • Would like to learn more:
  • Class structure and requirements (13)
  • Relationship of world cultural systems (30
  • Political issues (4)
  • How to solve the problems that professor described (2)
  • Human nature (1)
  • Forces other than government that affect out lives (1)
  • More professor stories (1)

Sept 25 questions from a 174AW student

September 30th Lecture Notes

Most important part of the lecture

  • Went over research paper
  • Is hunting warlike?
  • Using Crosstabs to organize and collect data for research paper
  • Fry used No War and War on horizontal axis and Simple hunters and gatherers and complex hunters on the vertical axis
  • to use crosstabs on SSPS here are the directions:

on the school computers go to Windows Explorer then UGLApps on "thanagar" then Antro 174 then SccS2020wMap then SPSS will open for the grid to change the variables go to New then Value labels 1=no war, 2=war View customize variable view, to change variables click 3 dots Analyze, then descriptive statistics, crosstabs

To add tables to research paper cut and copy because no extra stuff on page. You will get points off if random stuff on the graphs

You can use a flashdrive to save work or talk to Professor about the software

How do different authors define war? War: organized activity using weaponery to kill people of the "other side" -Some consider fist fights and others consider worse

  • Reading tips: take note of the definitions by different authors:useful for paper
  • the definitions you use will change the meaning of data

Important pages: pg. 15 and pg. 79

Sept 30 Lecture Outline

  • 1. Go over the sample paper Spss today!
  • 2. Assignments leading to the term paper
Exercise 1
Exercise 2
Exercise 3
  • 3. How to use the reading options
http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/Human_Social_Complexity_and_World_Cultures#Readings
http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/Human_Social_Complexity_and_World_Cultures#Online_reference_articles.2C_many_online
  • 4. Review the answers to student questions
http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/Two_questions:_first_class
http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/Human_Social_Complexity_and_World_Cultures#Sept_25_Class_Notes_and_.3CDW:_Responses.3E
http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/Sept_25_questions_from_a_174AW_student (good questions!)

Student course notes Sept 25

September 30th Lecture Notes

Most important part of the lecture

  • Went over research paper
  • Is hunting warlike?
  • Using Crosstabs to organize and collect data for research paper
  • Fry used No War and War on horizontal axis and Simple hunters and gatherers and complex hunters on the vertical axis
  • To use crosstabs on SSPS here are the directions:

on the school computers go to Windows Explorer then UGLApps on "thanagar" then Antro 174 then SccS2020wMap then SPSS will open for the grid to change the variables go to New then Value labels 1=no war, 2=war View customize variable view, to change variables click 3 dots Analyze, then descriptive statistics, crosstabs

  • To add tables to research paper cut and copy because no extra stuff on page. You will get points off if random stuff on the graphs
  • You can use a flashdrive to save work or talk to Professor about the software
  • How do different authors define war? War: organized activity using weaponery to kill people of the "other side" -Some consider fist fights and others consider worse
  • Reading tips: take note of the definitions by different authors:useful for paper the definitions you use will change the meaning of data
  • Important pages: pg. 15 and pg. 79

Sept 30 Class feedback

Main points:

  • looking at the SCCS database in SPSS – explanation of the SCCS
  • How to use the computer resources/data to do the assignments
  • How to use Anthro and Fry data, depending on the topic of our research question
  • For any topic we choose: Challenge assumptions with evidence
  • Use of the book (Fry) and on-line and other books and articles important for the term paper <DW: Oct 2 >

On the example of Warfare:

  • Are hunter-gathers warlike? (Data from Fry, Ericksen) <DW: sample paper now has use of maps from Spss>
  • Complex hunter-gathers tend to “all” have warfare
  • Matters of definition of war – also murky as to differences <DW: check these out when you get the book>
  • Discussed our reactions to war’s inevitability; people have different opinions

Murky:

  • Speak louder please <DW: ok>
  • How not to get lost flipping thru the wiki <DW: course outline pages will help>
  • Graph and data – how to interpret
  • Cross-tabs, how to use it, use of the variables in our paper <DW: use of codebooks key, Oct 2nd>
  • What data can be used, how recoded? <DW: will get to that next week>
  • How to use/read the data for an original paper? <DW: Oct 2, read enough to get ideas for which there are codebook entries - there is also a codebook index, topics index, etc>
  • Spss – how to integrate with the paper <DW: through the codebook for whats IN the Spss file>

Like to see more of:

  • How much flexibility in the paper? Related to Fry’s book or any interest of ours <DW: yes>
  • Ideas for the research paper, more on that assignment <DW: start with codebook>
  • Explore the computer side
  • Explain Spss: What is it, purpose of using it
  • More about the data sets and their use
  • More instructions in using Spss and SCCS data
  • More on statistics
  • Human reactions to wars
  • Specific assignments, due dates
  • Sound effects for W.

Oct 2 Lecture Outline

Lecture October 2, 2008

Oct 2 Class feedback

Main points:

  • (Re: Class goals, how to): Use techniques in Spss to find correlations between variables chosen from the SCCS database for the research paper and then learn
  • How to compare and draw conclusions from data? ("Detailed description of exercise 1 was very helpful and gave a much better feeling of direction" Tho the lecture had alot of redundancy, repeated alot, I feel there is more to know, or we get behind)
  • How to read and use the codebook (which looked really useful)
  • Review of Spss cross-tabs using different variables
  • How to use Jstor articles on-line (and books, both on-line and in library)
  • Characteristics <DW: not "their views") of different societies e.g., on war and resources, but choose variables in line with your paper topic and interests
  • (Side comments on: Faults in our contemporary economy)

Murky:

  • Go over class goals again <DW: See above>
  • What to do for computer assignments (go over again) and when are they due? <DW: see under 5. Written assignments>
  • How to use the wiki (directions, instructions) <DW: will take questions on this in class>
  • Still need a better sense of direction for assignment 1 <DW: will go over in class>
  • When should we complete the Fry book? <DW: before you start your paper, as just below>
  • <DW: Ex 1 due by TUES week 3 Oct 14 rough draft due week 4, Oct 21, have read Fry by then, exercise 2 is due Oct 28 - see top of this page for grading>
  • Do we use codebook #s as the var#s in Spss? <DW: yes>
  • How many variables to use in our papers? How many cross-tabs? Charts? Sources? etc
  • How do we begin and develop our papers?
  • SCCS system still kind of hard to understand but I will read some more on the web
  • Table and cross-tabs hard to interpret
  • Go over factor analysis (factors of culture) for exercise 3
  • Specific question: How would I use the codebook and SCCS data to obtain a cross tab with the variables Watercraft and Warfare? Would this be the only variables I would use? <DW: Will discuss in class>

Like to see more of:

  • Tying research to the paper
  • How to relate the graphs to the paper?
  • How to find the correlation or p-value with Spss?
  • How are exercises to be organized?
  • More focus, more energy
  • Most interesting: How much information has been pulled together on the site to further research such as for the paper

Oct 7 Lecture Outline

  • 1. Discussions of exercises
  • 1 Exercise 1 due in a week (Tuesday Oct 14) Week 4
  • 2 Exercise 2 due anytime (will postpone discussion till later)
  • 3 Exercise 3 due in 2 weeks (Tuesday Oct 21) Week 5
  • 2. Explanatory concepts and logical relations (vocabulary)
  • 1 (a) Entailment IF X then Y (b) Monotone entailment (the more X the more Y)
  • 2 (a) Prediction X if and only if Y (b) Correlation (the more X the more Y and vice versa)
  • 3 Curvilinear -- none of the above. If each variables has many categories, try /Analyze/Regression/Curve Estimation
  • 4 Significance testing and Statistical measures (a) Cramer's V from categories of X to those of Y (b) Tau (measure of 2.2)
  • 3. Goal of comparisons and drawing conclusions from your data to get a research paper
  • 1 Tying codebook, topics, and readings to your proposed draft
  • 2 Tying exercises 1 and 3, crosstabs, factors and possibly maps to your draft
  • 4. Working up the paper topic (proposal, draft, presentation, final paper)
  • 1 Rough draft of paper due in 3 weeks (Tuesday Oct 28) Week 6
  • 2 Polishing a presentation and a draft
  • 5. Final product: in progress and completed research
  • 1 Presentation anytime from week 6
  • 2 Final paper due exam week

Oct 7 Class notes

Kimberly Ling Oct 7 Class notes

Oct 7 Class feedback

Main points:

  • How to gather data through the codebook and external readings and how to use SPSS.
  • How to create table on Word for your crosstab.
  • How to pick two variables and run them through SPSS.
  • Pick an interesting topic!
  • How to do exercise 1.
  • The class was much more clear. (This student ran a crosstab of divorce and sleeping arrangements and it had a high correlation with a low significance)

Murky:

  • How to find research on our topics.
  • How to interpret ambiguous results / how to tell if results are significant.
  • Professor was too fast - hard to keep up.
  • Statistics part.
  • How to correlate the two topics.
  • How to interpret data.
  • How to pick two variables that have high correlation and low randomness.
  • How to tie crosstab into paper.

Like to see more of:

  • Discussions of causality between variables and their relation to specific examples of those relationships.
  • Exercise #1 details.
  • How class presentations should be done.
  • How to pick good variables.
  • How to make graphs.
  • Data interpretation.
  • Using something other than writing on the board, which is hard for people to see.

Questions:

  • Does "you need two topics" mean "you need two variables?"
  • What was the importance of looking at the various different studies in the index of the codebook?
  • Does exercise 1 need to be just a crosstab (or explanation/analysis as well)?
  • Do we have to start over if our topics do not create a correlated result?
  • Are we supposed to make crosstabs until we get to one that correlates well?
  • Does final paper need to relate to war?
  • Can we use a low correlation to disprove a seemingly logical hypothesis?
  • Can we add notes on our own without volunteering in class?

Oct 9 Lecture Outline part 1

  • Get Notetakers for this: Last time Professor was too fast - hard to keep up. <DW: We'll go over this enough times that you will get it, but the sooner you get it the better! Don't wait around to be the last one. Study up.>
  • 1. Assignment #1 due tuesday so lets look at examples and ask about difficulties
  • 2. Murky items from last time - <DW: Still murky after doing Exercise 1?>
  • How to find research on our topics. <DW: Go to on-line articles and books - lets take students' ideas as examples if there are still difficulties - learn from each other>
  • How to pick two variables that have high correlation and low randomness. <DW: It helps to pick variables with less missing data (see codebook or your crosstab N), but in advance its not just "picking" two variables, you have to pick variables (preferably a whole set not just two) that are likely to be related according to some idea or hypotheses that you have in mind. You have to think about this. Its not just mechanical, following instructions. You have to be creative.>
  • How to correlate the two topics. <DW: With Spss, just follow instructions, this is the easy part. If you haven't figured this out you either haven't been paying attention, asked your neighbor, raised your hand, been to class, read the instructions. You have to be assertive and attentive to learn.>
  • Statistics part. <DW: You will see a tab for statistics. Open it, click Cramer's V and Tau only>. Lets recall Explanatory concepts and logical relations (vocabulary)
  • 1 (a) Entailment IF X then Y (b) Monotone entailment (the more X the more Y)
  • 2 (a) Prediction X if and only if Y (b) Correlation (the more X the more Y and vice versa)
  • 3 Curvilinear -- none of the above (Cramer's V bigger in absolute value that tau, OTHERWISE, IS SIGNIFICANT, interpret tau as indicating a linear relations). If each variables has many categories, try /Analyze/Regression/Curve Estimation
Discussions of causality between variables and their relation to specific examples of those relationships.
  • How to interpret questions: use Screen (e.g., WORD) rather than blackboard which is hard to see
  • How to interpret ambiguous results / how to tell if results are significant. <DW: significance of p less than .05 (e.g., p<.05, on the right of the crosstab)>. Keep the table if it is ambiguous as it may be useful later, maybe you need to recode.
  • How to interpret data. <DW: Do stats first, if significant, positive or negative tau? That tells you the correlation. If Cramer's V is much higher in absolute value than tau, you have a curvilinear=nonlinear or categorical relationship between the variables. Then go back to the crosstab options, click cells, and add row percentages. You might rather have column percentages but DONT DO BOTH or percentage by ALL! Don't put a variable with too many categories as a column variable>
  • How to tie crosstab into paper. <DW: We will open Word and cut and paste the Crosstab tab and the stats table -- NOTHING ELSE -- into word. Then we will put the hypotheses above the tables describe the results below.>

Oct 9 Lecture Outline part 2

3. We'll go over the next assignment: FACTORS. Its pretty easy to do a factor analysis but hard to get a single factor unless you pay attention to the instructions - Due next Tuesday Oct 21.

  • Spss /Analyze/Data Reduction. The window will say Factor Analysis. Select your variables in one of two ways:
1 Variables that measure the same thing and have lots of overlapping cases
2 Variables that measure different aspects of the same abstract concept, using only one variable per aspect -- question being: Is there any common variance to these aspects to suggest some more generic dimension?
  • You must have 4 or more variables - then do three different factor analyses, separately, within the |OPTIONS| button choices for MISSING VALUES
1 (x) Exclude cases listwise (fewer cases but complete data on each)
2 (x) Exclude cases pairwise (more cases but incomplete data for some societies)
3 (x) Replace with mean (may be very inaccurate but all cases included)
  • Include in your results all three output tables but Only if ANY of the three satisfy all three of these criteria
  1. Single Main Factor - The first number in the Eigenvalues column of the Total Variance table should be close to 3, and considerably greater than one. The number here, like 3.2, means that the covariance equivalent of 3.2 of your K variables (say 3.2/5, thats VERY GOOD) correlate with the first factor.
  2. No Second Factor - The second number should be less than one. (The ambiguous case is where the second number is 1 or just a tiny amount greater (e.g. 1.05 max), and the first is 2 or more times greater. Here you will want the first Eigenvalue to be greater than 3). An eigenvalue of 1 or less is an indicator that this and subsequent factors (first, second, third, etc) are all random. YOU WONT SEE ANY FACTORS IN THE ANALYSIS IF THEIR EIGENVALUE IS LESS THAN 1, i.e., random.
  3. Each Variable Contributes - Each of the numbers in the "Component" table should be greater than 0.6 (the maximum is 1).
=.6 x .6 =.36 = 36% of the variance
  • We will try some examples from (click:) SCCS factors of culture but you can try other combinations. TO TRY NEW COMBINATIONS:
  1. You can try adding 1 variable at a time to existing factors until something "Works" according to the Single factor structure above.
  2. Just above |OPTIONS| in /Analyze/Data Reduction click |SCORES| and check (x) Save as variables (whichever option you want). You can then use (Main menu) /Analyze/Correlate and include the name of the very last variable in your Spss file (the factor scores), then add new variables (DONT USE ANY OF THOSE YOU USED TO CREATE in the factor!!) and run this option, which will tell you if you have any items that are highly correlated (greater than correlation values of .6). You can then try adding these to the factor. At each stage after adding ONE variable to the factor, use (Main menu) /Analyze/Descriptive Statistics/Frequencies, enter your FACTOR variable (last in the Spss list) and see HOW MANY CASES have been coded for your FACTOR. If its 50 or more thats good!
  3. You want to have A MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CASES CODED ON YOUR NEW FACTOR (defined by a list of variables that fit the single-factor criteria).
  4. Once you have one factor identified (ideally, including a variable not included in the previous list of (click:) SCCS factors of culture) then you have the assignment done. Paste the main tables from the Factor Analysis into your assignment to turn in, and explain what you've got and why you thought it would work.
  5. You should have fun with this exercise. And each result will be a new discovery, added to our list of SCCS factors of culture. Make sure you save your "recipe list" of variables AND OPTIONS to recreate your factor when you need it in a later class session or to include in your term paper.
  6. You can of course use any of the existing factors (many SCCS factors of culture are saved at the end of the SCCS data file) -- or --- your new factor (saved by you from your "recipe list" and options used to create it) in your paper.

Notes from Lydia, Office hours

  • How to pick good variables for your papers.
  • How to make graphs.
  • How class presentations should be done.
  • Two students asked me (Lydia) to ask you if there is any way that they can see a past student's paper so that they can better understand the format you are looking for. I pointed them to both your paper and the example student presentation web site but they seem to want a student paper. <DW: Students can go my home page, click "courses" at the top, and then search for earlier "world cultures" classes, open them, and search for sample or student papers. If they or you find anything esp. useful we/they/you could post to the wiki.>
  • Lydia By the time students finish their rough draft, they should be ready to present. Therefore, I assume their rough drafts should be pretty complete as far as information and will just need fine tuning and help with the writing parts for the final.... is this correct? <DW: hopefully, or we will go over what they need for resubmittal> Research and research writing is all about drafts and revisions (and suggestions or critiques from other readers), and we try to do that for the students>

Oct 9 Class feedback

  • Main points
  • I found my paper topic - good!
  • How to use codebook (searching, the two side indices), matching variables in Spss, interpret the cross-tabs in Spss, find external readings (Clearer, thanks!)
  • Explaining how to use correlations/significance level when doing crosstabs.
  • Personal help with the assignment #1 (Made much clearer when hands-on. Great idea to have us work and ask questions!
  • How to create crosstab table in Word.
  • Murky
  • So topics are based off codebook topics? <DW: yes>
  • When are class presentations? Based on what
  • So topics are based off codebook topics? <DW: your rough draft/ project for final paper>
  • In Spss does value=correlation <DW: yes>
  • If we do several crosstabs, does that mean we can use several variables? <DW: yes>
  • Can we add notes on our own w/out volunteering ourselves in class? <DW: yes>
  • Two topics=Two variables? <DW: no, for crosstabs, two sets of variables each set for different but possibly related variables>
  • Are we supposed to cross-tab until we find a high correlation? <DW: better to have a topic and think about what would be good choices to study - then, yes>
  • Can we use a low correlation and refute a seemingly logical hypothesis? <DW: yes, but then try to explain why not and look for or propose alternatives>
  • Does final paper have to related to warfare? <DW: no, thats just a strongly documented example>
  • The purpose of factor analysis
  • Analyzing factors <DW: recall -- two types>
  • Fast and "hard" to keep up, now really that I couldn't
  • Want more
  • How to interpret factor analysis
  • More on data interpretation in Crosstabs. Writing on board hard to see!
  • More on what the numbers for Cramer V and Tau mean and how to interpret.
  • Suggestions on Topics for papers; more context to find topics
  • Better idea of how to find related topics <DW: do some of the readings, find a topic, search for more readings>
  • How to incorporate other variables and crosstabs to support hypotheses
  • More discussion of causality between variables and how is that exemplified in specific societies

Oct 9 Class Notes

User:Ami Patel User:Jeffrey Hong

  • How to pick good variables
Around 50 (not 15) cases are good (below 20 almost useless).
To see labels (names and numbers) of variables in selecting them for crosstabs in main menu
Edit/options/display names
  • Tables for pairs of variables (or Pair with additional Layer variable)
The significance needs to be less than .05
To add percentages to the table, you go to "cells" in the cross tabs menu
Select either rows or columns.
  • Correlations: Cramer is always larger in absolute value than tau.
If both are equal, choose tau.
If Cramer is very much larger that tau, and still significant, or is much more significant, then you probably have a curvilinear (nonlinear) relationship and take care how to interpret row by row and col by column. Possibly you need to recode (will deal with that later)
  • HomeWork
Create a hypothesis and why you think it might be true.
Include the tables and interpret them.
If the finding can be replicated (varying one or both variables by substituting a similar variable) then it will help especially with the hypothesis.
Do not include the case processing summary in the homework.

Oct 14 Lecture Outline

  • By request, students have Spss and the SCCS2020*.save file in the library 2nd floor ext 4-4976 to check, 3 workstations, available up to 2 hours per student.
  • New Marriage payments project with Bell and White term paper option available as a project codebook with a background reading at Marriage Payments: a fundamental reconsideration. This ties in with Exercise #2 for linking to sources So far we have two working on this, from my Anthro129 class Put your name here if you want to participate and have this count as your term paper! At the end we will have a small pretest sample within the SCCS coded for one of the most interesting topics in social organization. The sources you will use for 4-5 societies will tie in with Exercise #2 for linking to sources
  • How to fit crosstabs to WORD.
  • USING PERCENTAGES - this is one of the hardest thing to get right.
  • You may want to correct this error in your Exercise 1 and resubmit:
You should compare percentages only in the same row or in the same column. Don't compare a percentage from one row and column to a percentage in another row and another column, which is meaningless (they can vary independently and indicate nothing about correlation). Compare, for example, two (or more) different rows for contrastive percents in two (or more) different columns: Here, percentage by rows, so each row sums to 100%.
Similarly, for two columns and two rows: Here, percentage by cols, each column sums to 100%.
  • In any case, check that you do this right in your paper draft, your presentation, and your paper.
IF THERE IS A LINEAR RELATION (tau is significant and similar in absolute value to Cramer's V) and if you have two or more rows you can say (using the names of the variables):
The more the variable measured in the rows increases, the more the percentages increase the variable measured in the columns (assuming that row and column orderings each measure increases in their variable and that tau is positive; otherwise adjust accordingly). Here, percentage by rows, so each row sums to 100%.
ALTERNATELY
The more the variable measured in the cols increases, the more the percentages increase the variable measured in the rows (assuming that row and column orderings each measure increases in their variable and that tau is positive; otherwise adjust accordingly). Here, percentage by cols, so each col sums to 100%.

October 14 Feedback page

  • Main points
  • DON'T include "Case Summaries" (1st table in Xtab with number of variables) in any of our work
  • Factor analysis and how to use it to build better variables for the Research Paper (covered extensively; hands-on practicum next time)
  • How correlations are involved in F.A.
  • The purpose of S.F.A. (Single-Factor Analsyis) is to get one combined variable from 4+ others that as a composite variable is more reliable than any of the original variables that are combined.
  • Murky
  • Can you do F.A. with two differently grouped sets of variables? <DW: Yes, but that is better done once Single-Factor Analysis has been done to get composite variables, then graph relations between them or with single variables.>
  • How to graph the variables <DW: will cover later>
  • Components
  • Slower: its complicated
  • Want more
  • More on components
  • More examples in class
  • Explanation of the statistics we are getting
  • Explain more mathematical topics in depth
Meaning of values in F.A.
  • How we incorporate S.F.A. in our rough draft (or paper)
  • Can we put out an instructional tutorial that gives all the information on S.F.A. and F.A. generally? Perhaps we can do this Thursday.
  • Usage of F.A. and S.F.A.

Oct 14 Lecture Notes

Class Notes by User:Steve Sanchez

(Tuesday October 14, 2008) by User:Albert Jin & User:Samantha Chan -- thanks, you two <DW>

  • Problem with fitting Spss data chart on word
  • 'edit => paste special => picture
  • highlight notable data
  • play around with features on word
  • can add visual enhancements to crosstabs etc.

Factor Analysis - Two kinds

1) similar variables - measure the same thing - PRINCIPLE: combining measures give a better measure - A USE of factor analysis - replication of several measures each by another in your table OR let factor analysis do the combined measure
2) variables that measure different aspects of some more general dimension
  • OBJECT HERE: TEST FOR A SINGLE FACTOR
  • SPSS => Analyze => Data Reduction => Factor => Factor Analysis (insert variables)
  • what to do with missing values: replace with mean (gives more values, but will screw up numbers), replace pairs (okay if lots of data)
  • component - having common variation; measure of what they have in common
if component total is one, variables are independent, not part of a factor.
high % of variance is less independent, loading on factor (you want see loading of a SINGLE FIRST FACTOR
  • Cross check with /Analysis/correlate => bivariate correlations (for as many variables as you enter
  • correlation squared = variance accounted for
  • Tau squared = variance (ratio or percent)
  • you want percentage of variance >.36 = ,60 correlation or higher for each variable in the factor
  • so each variable must contribute more than one-third of its variance to the factor to qualify
  • from example in class: tau=.4 x .4 = .16 = 16% would be a variable that does not qualify

Oct 16 Lecture Outline

  • More on Understanding S.F.A.. If you can imagine a vector analysis with N orthogonal dimensions for the variations on each of your N=4 variables. Now define a projection of a single line (new vector) in that space as a weighted sum of the N independent dimensions. This line will project onto each of the N independent dimensions. Now vary the weightings of this projection until the mappings of the N sets of independent variables on this new projection line form N sets of labels for each case, each marking a linear transformation of values of its independent variable. Now there are 4 such labels for each case on this projection. Take their centroid as a "predictor" of all N original values, and define the error of this predictor in terms of sum of squares. Now rotate the weightings of this new vectors to change its location in this space, and optimize its location in terms of least squared error as a predictor of all N variables. This is the first principal component in a "single value decomposition." If you want more, see Single factor structure. For F.A. generally, now imaging you take the difference between the actual values on each variable, and subtract the predicted value, leaving the residuals. Then repeat the previous analysis on the residuals. This gives the second principal factor, and so forth. The objective of S.F.A. is to test whether a given set of variables has a common dimension of variation, and no confounding second dimension, by the use of the three S.F.A. test criteria above. If your variable pass this test, then you can use factor scores as a more accurate and reliable substitute measure for each of the N original variables.
  • Practicum in class. If you have not already chosen 4 variables from the codebook that relate to your project or the crosstabs you just completed, then you have several choices:
  1. go to the SCCS codes page, and choose the link to index of variables. Then either
Pick one from the list at the top of known factors in the SCCS, e.g., 4 of the variables 774 780 783 892 894 903 for external war
or Go down the page to a TOPIC (e.g., CONFLICT) and choose 4 or more of the variables under a topic

OR GO TO SCCS factors of culture and look for 4 variables under a known factor previously discovered by another student.

  • Integrating a factor into your draft or term paper. If you find a factor with 4+ variables that relates to your topic, you may create factor scores that represent the original variables at a higher level of resolution (less measurement error obtained by a best-weighted combination of your original variables). You create a factor score by going back to /Analysis/Data reduction and prepare to test for a single factor, but also clicking the Scores option and go back over Single Factor Analysis Exercise Instructions

Analysis of the Cross-Tab Exercise

  • Of 15 points DW took off the following: -1 for not noticing V >> Tau, should interpret as categorical
-1 notice correlation is very weak, not quite significant (over-interpretation)
-2 seeing something about a specific category thats not justified (over-interpretation)
-2 notice tau = V, indicates linearity (under-interpretation)
-2 not paying attention to how specific categories behave (under-interpretation)
-2 not paying attention to curvilinearity (under-interpretation)
-2 not paying attention to how a variable is defined (under-interpretation) - as in codebook
-2 didn't explain tau or significance
-2 no use of %ages when they were appropriate
-2 its not the size of the NUMBERS OF CASES in the table that is important but the RATIOS
-2 conflation of the definition in one category with that in another
-2 inclusion of those pesky "Case Processing Summaries" I warned against
-1 use of "prove" rather than "test"
-1 lots of serious spelling errors (e.g., affect for effect)
-15 (redo) Correlating a Guttman scale with a variable used to construct the scale (they are not independent)
discuss: What is a Guttman scale? - a series of present/absent variables that fall into a series where presence of an upper item (giving higher scale scores) entail the presence of all those below, i.e., like stair steps of successively appearing items.
-15 (redo) Getting correlation and significance backwards
-15 (redo) Table has a variable referred to by a completely different unrelated name (not paying attention)
-15 (redo) no inclusion of stats table at all nor reference to statistics (not paying attention)
  • IMPROVEMENTS CAN BE MADE IN NEXT ITERATION
  • Compare your %ages to those in the row or column that sum to 100%
  • Interpret the form of the relation e.g., monotone entailment
  • Could use a recode, e.g., to change the order of the categories in a variable, or to combine
  • Where you see DW has drawn a cross with four numbers in each quadrant
Further analysis can be done: with Fisher exact on-line test of probability.
These are the sums of numbers of cases in the four quadrants of your table surrounding the cross: upper left/right, lower left/right
  • Could pull out individual variables from Guttman scale, where used

Lecture Feedback from Students

Most Helpful:

Factor Analysis explanations and examples

Most Confusing:

How do we use factor analysis in our papers? <DW: Two uses:
Usage 1: To combine several variables into a single more reliable measure of a concept, e.g., "Women's economic power", save the factor score, and use it as the row variable in a crosstab, or use it in a /Analyze/correlate table.
Usage 2: If the S.F.A. was composed of quite different variables that you thought were related in some fundamental way, e.g., "gender biases against women", then the single factor outcome is itself a test of that hypothesis.
How do we interpret the numbers and data into meaning? <DW: If the first components score in the Total Variance Explained table is >3 for 4 or more variables, or >2.3 for 3 variables, it measures the effective number of variables (and variance) that conforms to a single dimension of common variation, with the contributions listed for each variable as correlations in the Component Matrix. In interpreting, pay attention to the signs of those correlations and copy/paste the variables into your paper when you use Factor Analysis, then figure out what each variable contributes to be factor: e.g., More X, Less Y, More Z combine to make the factor score.

Like to learn more about:

Fisher exact <DW: next class if time allows. If not, after that. basic idea is to contrast fewer categories in the table and test significance of deviation from randomness for these simpler contrasts>
Data interpretation
Tau-b and other statistics and how to understand them <DW: Tau-b is a positive or negative correlation whose square measures the amount of variance explained in a linear regression prediction (sum of squared differences from the prediction line)
More one-on-one help using Factor Analysis <DW: ok, can do next time>

October 16 Class Notes

Deborah Sun, Kimberly Ling, & Janling Ling Liu Anthro 174AW 10/16/08 Notes

· Students can re-do Exercise 1 and re-submit in for better grade · For Factor of Analysis have 3 places to search for variables (have to use minimum of 4 variables): 1). SCCS Code Page: http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/courses/SCCCodes.htm, a). Pick from group of known factors (at top of page) Need at least 50 cases =>Factor 1 ExternalWar50 (Good) 13 cases not sufficient=> Factor 1 ExternalWar13 (Bad) b). Choose variables under topics, starting with “Conflict” 2). SCCS Factors of Culture (from previous students): http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/SCCS_factors_of_culture · Once you find a factor, can use it in a cross-tab & find other correlations OR you can use individual variables & do cross-tabs. · After running the factor analysis, look at the “Total Variance Explained” table. 1). Look under the first column “Total”& first row “Initial Eigenvalues”, loading number has to be greater than 3 (If you have 4 variables). 3 variables is fine but loading number has to be greater than 2. 2). Otherwise need to take out other variables if they don’t form a single factor. a). Start with knocking out variables that differ significantly from the others under “Component Matrix”. Knock out the outliers that load up on the 2nd or 3rd factors (in Component Matrix). If you only have 4 variables, replace that weaker or way-too-strong one with another one closer to other numbers?

· What I used: Female Power (107, 657, 658, 659, 660, 661); knock out 107. Hunting (economy) (690, 204, 9, 10) a) Total Variance Explained table: Total 2.68 is GOOD. It means about 2.6 variables are similar.


· Factor Analysis ---From Wiki entry: a) "If you can imagine a vector analysis with N orthogonal dimensions for the variations on each of your N=4 variables. Now define a projection of a single line (new vector) in that space as a weighted sum of the N independent dimensions. This line will project onto each of the N independent dimensions. Now vary the weightings of this projection until the mappings of the N sets of independent variables on this new projection line form N sets of labels for each case, each marking a linear transformation of values of its independent variable. Now there are 4 such labels for each case on this projection. Take their centroid as a "predictor" of all N original values, and define the error of this predictor in terms of sum of squares. Now rotate the weightings of this new vectors to change its location in this space, and optimize its location in terms of least squared error as a predictor of all N variables. This is the first principal component in a "single value decomposition." If you want more, see Single factor structure. For F.A. generally, now imaging you take the difference between the actual values on each variable, and subtract the predicted value, leaving the residuals. Then repeat the previous analysis on the residuals. This gives the second principal factor, and so forth. The objective of S.F.A. is to test whether a given set of variables has a common dimension of variation, and no confounding second dimension, by the use of the three S.F.A. test criteria above. If your variable pass this test, then you can use factor scores as a more accurate and reliable substitute measure for each of the N original variables."

· Factor Analysis pulls out similarities and presents them to us. If they're related, that is.

· The more variables one has in their factors, the better. · Not necessary to use F.A. in the paper, can use crosstabs... but it can be a good supplement. · What's due on Tuesday: A print out of the Factor Analysis table and an explanation of what it means. (Positive or negative is okay. Positives correlate in same way. Negatives go in reverse order.)

Oct 21 Lecture

  • in SPSS, make sure you use /Edit/Options/Output/Outline Labeling -&- Pivot Table Labeling/Variables Labels & Variable Values/Values and Labels -- this will be essential for your rough drafts and papers, so we can see the variable numbers and well as the variable labels. In most cases these 4 options will already have been selected. COPY CODES FROM CODEBOOK INTO YOUR DOCUMENTS.
  • When doing a search in Mozilla Firefox (but not IExplorer), the search word is case sensitive, e.g., when searching for infanticide, also search for Infanticide (capitalized: first letter only). It is therefore advisable to use IExplorer for codebook searchers.
  • DW will be giving a talk to which you are all invited, this friday 1:30-2:45 in 3030 AIRC building on Kinship Computing and Complexity: Cohesion, Class and Community. For directions, abstract and powerpoint see Speaker. 1.33 course credits sill available for registration.
  • MAIN OBJECTIVE: How to plan out your paper using readings, hypotheses, cross-tabs, single-factor scores, and maps.
  • Idea here is to get a plan for the paper, and two further methods
  • How to make maps of the distributions of your variables using /Graphs/Legacy/Scatter-dot/Simple Scatter/Define (tutorial): make Latitude the Y axis and Longitude the X axis. Why maps? Thinking about historical factors:
Domesticated large animals in Eurasia
Pastoralists from East and North Africa through the Mid East through Central Asia
Major civilizations in Eurasia
Major world religions of Christianity (Europe), Islam (East and North Africa through the Mid East through Central Asia)
Impacts of European colonialism and trade
Northwest Coast, Pacific, Americas, Sub-Saharan Africa
Patrist-Matrist Macro-Regions Map -- SCCS test of hypotheses#Maps has others

Oct 23 Lecture Outline

  • 12% Ex 3- factors of culture, due week 5, Oct 21 - 32 people finished successfully
  • 3% Ex 2 - see below
  • Explain and walk thru how to use your Single Factor Score in you paper/project. Also resubmit your Exercise #3 if there were negative-signed correlations in the third table. In addition include your codes from the codebook in your draft and paper and proposal as an aid to explanation. And (for about 10 people) follow the instructions from last class for getting variable number on your output tables.
  • Practicum: Today, make maps for your variables, send them to me, and we will post them with the others on the map site.
Construct factor (will be last variable)
/Transform/Visual Binning --> collapses into fewer categories YOU MUST NAME THE NEW VARIABLE AND CREATE A FEW CATEGORIES
/Graph/Legacy/Scatterplot
Problem: have to get instructions for -99 in the column of your variables for rows 187--2000 or so (the cities)
Double click graph and "Edit Content"
  • Now graph should have continent outlines, different colors for your categories ... left click an element in the legend, left click again, get PROPERTIES, and find MARKERS -- fix size of continent outlines to 1, and CHANGE COLORS of FILE for the categories, eg red, green. blue.
  • HOW TO GET -99 for continent outline.
  • When done with that you can do with me the elusive Exercise 2 to locate bibliographic links to the case studies at Langston or in free e-book pdf sites.
  • Create your factor scores and
Run /Analysis/Correlate of your factor scores by other variables
Making maps in Spss Make Maps in Spss of your factor scores or other variables - doc version

Oct 23 Class Notes

by User:Ann Namie Notes 10/23

  • The factor analyses were pretty good. Out of 12 most people got 12s

Some people didn’t have labeling outlines. How to do correlations. Pick the correlations for the factors you pick.

  • need codes from codebook

Going to make maps for the variables

  • run factor analysis.
  • options > exclude cases list-wise.

Factor scores> Save as variables> regression. You can save the document on the computer if you sit in the same seat.

  • Graphs > Scatter dot > Simple Scatter and then add longitude Lattitude & the Factor 1.

-you should get a map with scatters of colorful dots. -Transform > visual binning -Use chart editor, and change the cities displayed -change color markers in properties

  • There is a tutorial on the website that goes more in depth of how to do this. The map of the codes is useful and can be used in your paper, to see how scaterred your factors may be.

Oct 23 Lecture Feedback from Students

more wanted

  • How we tie our initial crosstab in with our Single Factor Analysis (DW: S.F. Scores) and advance from that point. Talk more about correlations
  • Graphing and graph examples <DW: SCCS test of hypotheses#Maps>
  • Cutoff for binning factor variables

Oct 28 Lecture outline

Oct 28 Feedback

Main points

  • Good clarification on more useable statistics

Murky

  • When is powerpoint or web presentation due?
  • Is the rough due next Thursday? <DW: Ideally, if not today, then Tuesday, if not then ... Thursday>

More

  • More on the readings, Fry

Oct 30 Lecture outline

  • Quiz

INTERPRETING CROSS TABS

  • Finding Percentage patterns in cross-tabs
  • Using Recode to bring out ordinal Percentage patterns in cross-tabs
  • Use of the Fisher exact (e.g., 3:6 :: 8:1 and 0:56.:: 7:73) to do significance of dichotomous Percentage patterns in cross-tabs as a two-by-two table
  • Use of a Layer variable in a cross-tab: and use of v200 (world region) to test for replication.
  • Use of a Layer variable in a cross-tab: and use of v200 (world region) to test for replication. + *Use of a Layer variable in a cross-tab: and use of v200 (world region) to test for replication.
  • Things to check for with use of v200 (world region) layer variable: + *
  • If tau~Cramer (approx. equal), see if signs of tau agree for the regions with 8 or more cases. If they agree (leaving out the regions with too few cases to test for correlation) you have replication +
  • If they don't agree (again leaving out those regions with few cases), sort them into regions of positive and negative correlations, and propose some difference in those regions that might account for the differences. :If you feel ambitious see if you can find some VARIABLE that when used as a layer variable (e.g., pastoralism hi/low for an Old/New World pattern) will separate the cases with + and - correlations. +
  • In any case you can use layer variables to test more complex patterns or hypotheses involving 3 variables not just two.

Oct 30 Class notes

User:Jeffrey Hong

- percentage patterns
  - use variable 200 (world region) to compare to world percentages
  - fine which percentages are higher than world percentages
- Layer variable
 - in crosstabs add variable 200 to "Layer Variable" to compare regions
   to account for irregularities in percentages
- to draw on table:
  - view --> toolbars --> drawing 
  - use various tools to make circles and highlight certain trends
  - draw --> group - to make crosses
  - use crosses to compare dichotomies using Fisher exact Test

Oct 30 Class feedback

Main points

  • Cross-tab evaluation, what numbers to look at

Murky

  • The thing in the boxes off to the side of the chart and Fisher exact text

More

  • Still don't know how to make the graphs but want to
  • How to find sources and articles as references

Nov 4 Lecture outline notes

Compare cell percentages with total sample percentage
Look for the CONTRAST -- Hi --> one outcome ;;; Lo --> contrastive outcome
Find BREAKPOINTS on both variables
Make a "reduced" table e.g., 2x2 = dichotomized; 3x3 tricotomized; 2x3, 4x3, 3x4 ... etc
Add up the # of cases in the "reduced" table e.g., 2x2
Test significance of "reduced" table e.g., 2x2, with Fisher exact test
ALTERNATIVELY, use Spss /Transform/Recode/same variables/ and make the dichotomy or trichotomy by changing values -> new values in recode.
  • Making maps in Spss - single variable - Recode "." (missing data) to -99 first
  • BUT if no map --> and you get -99s in your crosstab Recode -99 to "." (missing data)
  • Pasting to word, saving, drafts

Nov 4 Class feedback

Main points

Murky

More
Cross-Tab of Warfare and Political Integration, p=.0000003
  • Could you put the table we worked with on the wiki? <DW: click image to right>. Note: Within the image you have the information to upgrade v892 to include category 4 (Fry: "No Warfare") by entering "4" for the 19 societies listed.

Nov 4 Class notes

November 4, 2008 Notes- User:Ami Patel

  • Paper
In paper, you should have percentages
Do a fisher exact test as well
Dichotomize- split it into 2 halves, not necessarily in half
Make reduced tables for example, 2x2, 3x3, etc.
Break variables up into detective units
Add up the number of cases in the reduced table
Test the significance
Alternatively, use SPSS to transform/recode the same variables and make dichotomy
Recode into same variables
Old & new values-21
  • References
Use sources in the back of Fry’s Book
www.anthrosource.net
 :To search press Cntl F
When putting in paper:
 :Intro….”…” (Fry 2007:237)
[1:237]
[1] Fry Douglas 2007
  • Rough Draft due this Thursday.

Nov 6 Lecture outline

FryWarFamine.jpg
  • Go over rough drafts
Replication, e.g. famine: 1683, 678, 1719, 1261-1270
Dont forget variable numbers in tables (reset in Spss)
Dont forget PERCENTAGES
Form of relation, e.g., Famine --> Warfare or Warfare --> famine? (thus No famine --> Less warfare).
CONTRAPOSITIVE: if x then y equivalent to if not y then not x
Construction of a v892_Fry variable (external way INCLUDING "No warfare")
include impt (or illustrative) codes as per codebook
Fisher exact up to 6x6 (can then do nxm)
  • When else to recode and how (e.g., extraneous codes --> "." missing data)
Recode for maps (fewer categories), e.g., recode factor scores
SCCS index of variables
  • Alternatives
e.g., Fixity of settlement vs. Political integration/Levels of Jurisdictional hierarchy

Nov 6 Class feedback

Main points

Murky

More

Nov 6 Class Notes

User:Deborah Sun In Fry's book, the bar for war was set too low

Contrapositive: If rain entails cloud, then no cloud entails no rain -If continual war entails famine, then no famine entails no war

On Crosstabs, its important to look at the corners of the tables for exceptions -Example with the crosstab posted on wiki from last class lecture: No armed conflict has very high famine

More practice with maps: Latitude=y-axis Longitude= x-axis

Nov 13 Lecture outline

  • Don't forget: NO case summaries, DO copy codebook definitions for key variables, show RECODES; use PERCENTAGES; V and tau ONLY, FISHER where needed; PAGE numbers of Quotes; Find and use REFS, always find the ARTICLE in codebook that is key to your variables and UNDERSTAND how your variables are coded (Gossip codes a good example); REFS CITED at back, should be CROSS-CULTURAL & SCCS not American samples only; ORG and CLARITY; keep paper CONCISE; INTRO - goal, method; FORM of relationship; EXPLICIT hypothesis, should be LOGICAL; make PRESENTATION 5 minutes only, points VISUALLY clear; MAPS: could show broad distribution, or clustering, or correlations between clusters for 2+ variablesl CAN USE Layer VARIABLE e.g. v200 -- to show replication.
  • Adobe acrobat installed to show how to convert pdf to jpg for upload file to graphic viewer
  • Use of Spss /Analyze/Regression where you have multiple independent variables
  • Signups for Presentations
  • Nov 18th First five speakers - ready to make a presentation
  1. Albert Jin – Major religions --> Aggressive Suicide
  2. Marlo Pabon – Money --> war
  3. Jonathan Park – Male aggression + Social aggression --> Warfare (regression)
  4. Heidi Rom - Gossip and Boasting --> against norm, e.g., Body type
  5. Deborah Sun – Gender preference in children --> Type of infanticide
If you put Hsu and Pabon together you would have a Guttman scale (Money --> war --> Famine) each successive set occurring only in the context of the previous one
  • Scheduling other presentations
  1. Tues Nov 18 5: Marlo, Albert, Jonathan, Heidi, Deborah,
  2. Thur Nov 20: (Lynsey, Nick - Marriage Payments), Samantha, Kim Ling, YooNa, Ami Patel, Christine Truong, Vivian, Jeffrey, Crystal
  3. Tues Nov 25 - Pei-Chih, Mito (Makimo), Janling, Austin, Steve, Theresa, Karl, Ann N, Kimberly S, Deandra Arena
  4. Tues Dec 2 - Agnes, Binh, Victoria, Vicky, Amy Strouse, (5 short) GENNADY GLADKIN, ROBERT LUND, YU SEOK NOJ, CHRISTINE QUACH, JAMES BROWN
  5. Thur Dec 4 (last class)!!! talks only by emergency, Summary discussion by Lydia
  • Papers run on a continuum
  1. Single topic – nothing to explain - redo
  2. Single factor – potential to explain – find corroboration (Setavanish)
  3. Independent-Dependent variables – something to explain (Hsu, Jin, Pabon)
  4. Multiple Independent variables- Dependent variable – Multicausal explanations (regression: Park, Sun) *also Sanchez
  5. Independent variable-Multiple Dependent variables – many things to explain (THE BEST CATEGORY TO BE IN!)

Nov 13 Class Notes

November 13, 2008 – Lecture Notes (Samantha Chan & Albert Jin) Presentation

  • Prepare for presentation (5-6 min); BE VISUALLY CLEAR
  • Fry’s Quiz Review:
Did your personal view on warfare and human aggression change after reading Fry’s

Multiple Independent Variable

  • SPSS -> Analyze -> Regression -> Linear

Example in class:

  • Guttman’s scale can be constructed by any number of cases
  • Dependent: v892; Independent: v669, v1677, v1676
can use any number of IV’s
Options: use prob of f (entry .1; removal .15); exclude cases pairwise
In this case, 669 eliminated (b/c sig = .999)
Take out v1676, 669 sig = .455

Curve estimation

Is an option

Making maps in Spss

  • Graphs -> Legacy Dialogs -> Scatter

example: Fry’s war

  • recode if no map outline
  • Labels: variable view, values-some have specific labels, others don’t
use freq to check out variable/values

Nov 13 Class feedback

Main points

Murky

Nov 18 Lecture outline

First five speaker presentations

  1. Albert Jin: Major religions entailed by Aggressive Suicide
  2. Marlo Pabon – Money --> war. Monetization and Warfare. "New set of Eyes." Judgments based on our own evaluation of data. Question Hypothesis Research Analyze Conclusion. Fry's book helpful. Study codebook. Found groundbreaking variable and hypothesis. v17 (any kind of money) v. Fry(recode) Warfare. Paper will focus on nonwarring societies. Is there a relation of agriculture & settlement (Single Factor). (DW: using dichotomies, controlling for FIXITY (layer): does Money --> War; controlling for Money(layer): does FIXITY --> War. "Is $ evil? or Does fixity make for competition --> war? How do societies stay Peaceful? How to help our society? We are warlike. Federal reserve controls $ in U.S. Is a private institution --> What $ is created, who needs it. They ok whether money goes to govt? Corruption? Lack of Transparency? Study that. The Financial crisis affects all aspects of our life. Can we find a solution to the problem --> would this enable us to become a nonwarring society? What implications for global prosperity.
  3. Jonathan Park – Male aggression + Social aggression --> Warfare (regression). Complex societies with more Male aggression (Guttman scale v669)-- more warfare. Fry p. 13 definition of Ember too broad; uses Posterman: Fry p. 16) armed communities etc. War: v679. Crosstab signif. Entailment: no aggr --> no warfare. Factor for aggression score. Regression. What causes: dropped top item from Guttman scale. That item correlates with warfare, only p<.07. New factor p<.012, without hostile groups.
  4. Heidi Rom - Gossip and Boasting --> against norm, e.g., Body type. Gossip - of those "about boasting" thought they would boast about attractiveness of women. Correlates with which body type is attractive. Extremes plump or slender correlated with gossip about boasting. Author's codes broke down gossip into topics, most "about breaking norms." Gender of gossip. Source: extension of observational learning, beyond immediate perceptual sphere. Other source: on attractiveness.
  5. Deborah Sun – Gender preference in children --> Type of infanticide infanticide of {females|males) --> (occurs in context of) preference for {males|females). China, India, Korea high female infanticide. China: as early as 800BC, associated with dowry. Policy issue in China. Prevention of infanticide, crackdown on abortion. Looked at sex ratio: also significant: when rations favors females: female infanticide, same for males. DW: Can USE layer variable as in Marlo's talk. Effects of famine on infanticide, represses infanticide.

Let me know if any of your scores are not recorded: #1, #3, #4, Rough Draft

Nov 18 Class Notes

Amy Strauss class notes Nov 18

Christine Truong class notes

November 18 1st Presentation: Marlo Pabon Money --> war. Monetization and Warfare. Warfare. Paper will focus on nonwarring societies. Is there a relation of agriculture & settlement

2nd Presentation: Jonathan Park Male aggression + Social aggression --> Warfare Complex societies with more Male aggression no aggression --> no warfare.

3rd Presentation: Heidi Rom Gossip and Boasting --> against norm, e.g., Body type. Gossip - of those "about boasting" thought they would boast about attractiveness of women. Correlates with which body type is attractive.

4th Presentation: Deborah Sun Gender preference in children --> Type of infanticide China, India, Korea high female infanticide. Policy issue in China. Prevention of infanticide, crackdown on abortion.

Nov 18 Class feedback

Main points

Murky

More

Nov 20 Lecture outline

  1. Lynsey Moncrieff, Nick Mosey - Marriage payments project with Bell and White 186 societies coding variables - Lynsey: Turks Aztecs Irish Romans, Abipon; Nick: !Kung, Lozi, Bemba, Siamese, Tikopia; Laura: Babylon, Hebrews, Irish, and Bedouins
  2. Samantha Chan, Writing and Politics. Literacy and political complexity; formal education for writing. When formal education available: adv. political org. Illiteracy a limitation on a polity in growth - James Howe. WHAT is writing? Chase and Deb. Hannon - a technology. Incl. computing, writing affects worldview and "being in the world". Compared polit. integration with written records. Tau =.4 very signif. (Could improve with a code that includes dependent in a state). Education in a community tau=.58, higher signif. Factor analysis writing/educ.: 71% common variance, first factor 2.88. Four maps. Use red/green or other high contrast on maps. Conclusions: Value of eduction, etc. --> which way is causality.
  3. Kimberly Ling. IS major. Hunters, Agric, Pol. Org. --> versus hunters, simple and complex (lower levels of pol. org.) Complex hunters [DW; confederacies --> peace? No: only 1 case]. More emphasis on territory, more food, more conflict. Agric, pastoral: more common in Eurasian societies. XTab: Shows the pattern tau=.57 very signif. Hunters rely much less on agric. Again tau=.55, signif. Lots of hunters of both type in Americas, Complex hunters in North America. Also fishing. Hunters low pol. org. tau=.41. v1740 seems not to be ordinal like others (could recode). Conclusions: Hunters not as much agric. as I thought. Consider 3rd category in Fry hunter variable. IS: international political development in general. How groups developed.
  4. YooNa Kim. Famine, Resources and Warfare. Fry book: Humans not innately warlike. UNESCO document 1986 asked this question. Learned and can be unlearned. Not biological or instinctive. So Why do people wage war? Situational: Famine and Resources. Crosstab: strong correl. tau=.233. Entailment: More famine --> more warfare. Resources as motive for violent conflict management. Warfare high --> high on this motive. Six famine related measures 4.186 single factor 70% common variance. Including motive still 3.+ eigen value. Factor no famine and external warfare tau=-.325. Africa high famine - high warfare. Great maps. Map color contrast could be better. Azar article. Interconnected conflict over resources. Carol and Mel Ember article. "Warfare, Aggression..." Possibility to prevent further warfare by reducing famine and resource competition.
  5. Ami Patel. Does father's role relate to homosexuality? Less presence --> higher homosexuality? Codes on young boys. Not exposed to sex? Symmetric relationships i.e., converse holds also. Doubling of frequencies. Rarely close highest effect tau=-.23 signif. .04. Fisher .06. Dichotomy shows entailment. Bigger nodes in graphs! Freud tested homosexuality supports the hypothesis. Attachment to mother --> ?? not studied.
  6. Christine Truong. Hypothesis - Stronger bond to husband less feeling of inferiority v626. Reading: Karen Sacks: prestige of women declines with increases in mode of production; also Hendrix Hossain. Ownership of econ resources and women's backing by ritual female solidarity v616. Symmetric. Then v 616 with Control of products. tau=.310. Symmetric. (DW: do these combine in effects on ritual solidarity in linear regression?). Or does causality go the other way. Maps: Solidarity scale. Reason to believe that women do strive to be independent from men.
  7. Vivian Liu. Fixity of Settlement and Freq. of Warfare. Hyp: More nomadic --> less warfare? Cost of migration, less energy for war. Hyp" Permanent settlement creates conflict. NEEDS PERCENTAGES. NEEDS CORRELATIONS AND SIGNIF. Maps: 1. Fixity, good in using size of dots. 2. Fry war. DO SEE correlation visually. Did the Fry recode. Did factor analysis for fixity. First eigen 3.4. Run fixity factor by warfare. (RUN MORE THAN ONE CROSSTAB.)
  8. Jeffrey Hong. Beauty standards - measured by subsistence. Plump versus thin. What "is" considered beauty influenced by symmetry, sexual dimorphism (biological). Body size: INVERSE correlation of subsistence (agric. potential) potential and plump versus thin. Correl tau=.?? signif =.01. Affected by economic health of societies NOT just what we perceive or biological innate judgments. Influence of fashion standards. More plump, less "control" in self discipline.
  9. Chrystal Kim. Labor among sexes. Does settlement affect D of L? !Kung. Women's arrows. Yanomamo both to agric. Trobrianders. Differentiation in gardens. Masai. Xtab Settlement D of L in food collection p=.0000002 Fisher. Also has Maps: in paper. Good use of case studies. RUN MORE THAN ONE CROSSTAB.

Nov 20 Class Notes

Cumulative personal class notes - Vivian Liu

Topic: Writing and Politics
writing is very significant to politics
showed cross-tabs, maps, single factor analysis
conclusion: formal education important to keeping records
  • 2nd Presentation: Lynsey and Nick
-Topic: Marriage Payments Project
-Lynsey: Turks, Aztecs, Irish, Romans, etc
-Nick: !Kung, Siamese, etc
-project/research done with Professor White and Bell
  • 3rd Presentation: Kim
-Topic: Hunters, Gatherers, and Political Organization
-differences between simple vs. complex hunters
-cross-tab showed a high correlation
-complex hunters do not rely as much on agriculture
  • 4th Presentation: YooNa
-Topic: Famine, Resources and Warfare
-Fry’s book: can be said that humans are naturally found warlike
-cross-tabs and maps included
  • 5th Presentation: Ami
-Topic: Does father’s role lead to homosexuality?
-cross-cultural study
-little father-son contact during early childhood increases probability of homosexuals
-conclusion: role of father during early childhood can influence frequency of homosexuality
  • 6th Presentation: Christine
-Topic: Women’s Status and Mode of Production
-Karen Sacks said women decline with the evolution of the mode of production
-stronger bond between women, less likely they are to feel inferior to men
-included cross-tabs and maps in presentation
  • 7th Presentation: Vivian
-Topic: Fixity of Settlement and Frequency of Warfare
-more nomadic society, less warlike they are likely to be
-included cross-tab and maps
-internal and external cross-tab
  • 8th Presentation: Jeffrey
-Topic: Beauty Standards
-Biology of Beauty
-what defines beauty?
-correlation between food levels as inverse to body size
  • 9th Presentation: Chrystal
Topic: Division of Labor
-is the labor equally divided between male and female?
-included cross-tabs
-had different examples of different tribes
-no linear correlation but fisher’s exact shows women doing most of the food collection

additional note by Yu S. Noh(9 presenters) 1st presenter: Samantha Chan

  • Topic: Writing and Politics
  • Writing is very significant resources to politics
  • Definition of writing: it’s a technology, learning and philosophical mean.
  • Written records have:
provided ways to keep peace its places.
been made use of judicial overnment’s to keep track of it’s citizens.
2nd Presenters: Lynsey and Nick 
  • Topic: Marriage Payments Project
  • project/research done with Professor White and Bell
  • Hypothesis: each socitety has payment of marriage relationship?
3rd Presentation: Kimberly Ling 
  • Topic: Hunters, Gatherers, and Political Organization
  • differences between simple vs. complex hunters

---used variables: food, mobility, warfare, and population

  • Agriculture indicates increasing complexity in society and development of political organization and may even be a cause of the
  • major related further concern: related to the process of the development in political organizatio,. especially of the states.

4th Presenter: YooNa Kim

  • Topic: Famine, Resources and Warfare
  • Hypothesis: If humans are not warlike by nature, then why do people wage war against each other?
People wage war against each other mostly due to their challenging conditional states or their situational problems, such as famine and resource problems.
  • Conclusion: Shows the possibility that the control of famine and resource problems can be used to prevent further warfare

Elucidates the truth that humans are not warlike or belligerent by nature and that their aggression is mostly derived from their devastations and desperation that are caused by situations

5th Presentation: Ami Patel

  • Topic: Does lack father’s role during early childhood lead to homosexuality?
  • Hypothesis: where the fatherhood is not present or somewhat present in the childhood—life may leads to higher frequency of homosexuality.
  • Freud’s study in homosexuality—relatively little father-son contact during early childhood increases the possibility of homosexuality
  • conclusion: role of father during early childhood can influence frequency of homosexuality

6th presenter

  • Hypothesis: stronger bond between women, less likely they are to feel inferior to men
  • source: women’s status are made of production—cross cultural test research found that women do strive to be independent from men.


7th presenter

  • Fixity of settlement & the frequency of war.
  • Hypothesis: the more nomadic society, the less warlike they are likely to be.
  • based on crosstab

8th presenter

  • Beauty Standard
  • biology of beauty, what defines beauty---body symmetry and sexual diaphone
  • From data: correlation between food levels has an inverse relation to body size. ---institutions, where there is less food, large size is more favorable.

9th presenter

  • Division of labor
  • Hypothesis: does settlement in a community affect type of labors.
  • Cases: Yanamamo, Masai.
  • conclusion : more likely women are related to food collecting labor

class notes by Christine Truong November 20 1st Presentation: Samantha Chan Writing and Politics writing is very significant to politics showed cross-tabs, maps, single factor analysis formal education is important to keeping records

2nd Presentation: Lynsey Moncrieff and Nick Mosey Marriage Payments Project Lynsey: Turks, Aztecs, Irish, Romans, etc Nick: Kung, Siamese, etc project/research done with Professor White and Bell

3rd Presentation: Kim Ling Hunters, Gatherers, and Political Organization differences between simple vs. complex hunters cross-tab showed a high correlation complex hunters do not rely as much on agriculture

4th Presentation: YooNa Kim Famine, Resources and Warfare Fry’s book: can be said that humans are naturally found warlike cross-tabs and maps included

5th Presentation: Ami Patel Does father’s role lead to homosexuality? little father-son contact during early childhood increases probability of homosexuals role of father during early childhood can influence frequency of homosexuality

6th Presentation: Christine Truong Women’s Status and Mode of Production Karen Sacks said women decline with the evolution of the mode of production stronger bond between women, less likely they are to feel inferior to men 7th Presentation: Vivian Liu Fixity of Settlement and Frequency of Warfare more nomadic society, less warlike they are likely to be internal and external cross-tab

8th Presentation: Jeffrey Hong Beauty Standards what defines beauty? correlation between food levels as inverse to body size

9th Presentation: Chrystal Kim Division of Labor is the labor equally divided between male and female? had different examples of different tribes

Nov 20 Class feedback

Main points

Murky

More

Nov 25 Lecture outline

Class nodes by Amy Strouse

  • Tues Nov 25-
  1. Alan Pei-Chih Hsu – war --> famine. If you put Hsu and Pabon (first talk) together you would have a Guttman scale (Money --> war --> Famine) each successive set occurring only in the context of the previous one. Presentation notes on Alan's War and Famine: Review of paper writing organization, his research questions (does warfare cause famine, what evidence is there?), hypothesis (warfare creates famine, famine present during warfare), clear crosstab and condensed table to show more clearly, statistics support, maps show geographical connection between warfare and famine, uses research from Darfur to show relevance of connection, concludes that famine can be reduced by reducing warfare as can child mortality and population reduction. Clearly presented and discussed.
  2. Miko (Mamiko) Hoshino, The Use of Monetary Systems in Societies. Discussion of what money is, its history, examples of what constitutes money and why it has value. Connection of warfare, power, politics, ritual payments and display to money. Visuals of types of money. Question: does size of community affect the forms and uses of media of exchange? Hypothesis: The larger the community, more frequent use of monetary system, based on more organized politics. Crosstab - good numbers but percentages would be helpful! Factor analysis shows close correlation between the variables chosen. Sources presented on topic, to be further explored for final paper. Maps would be helpful too.
  3. Janling Liu, Subsistence Economy and War. Hypothesis: Groups that require a weapon for hunting would be more warlike. Half hypothesis correct, half not. Crosstab shows that gathering groups are only groups with more no war. Statistics show correlation and low significance. Fisher's test shows very low results, reinforcing the correlation. Regression chart. Interesting facts tie in the results with deeper understanding. Nice reference to "How War Began" book. Good review of data - which are warlike, which are not and why, also gender aspect. Maps show geographical connection between war and agriculture. Clearly addressed and organized.
  4. Austin Lin, Aggression and Dominance (male superiority). Came out of interest in connection between male aggression connected to male dominance over women. Connections to examples of each from history and readings. Percentages would be helpful in crosstab. Analysis of statistics show low significance. Maps nicely show how in many cases there is overlap between aggression and male superiority. Concludes that male aggression is highly valued, but belief in male superiority is not high. He has future questions to follow up on other crosstabs and look for missing data. He wants to see is male aggression affects gender dynamics in society and also male aggression in today's society.
  5. Steve Sanchez - ARE YOU REGISTERED?
  6. Theresa Hoang, Aggression in Children and Warfare. Introduction, hypothesis that environment creates how children are while young, which will in turn determine how they are as they grow up. Late boys aggression vs warfare and fighting, also crosstab for aggression in all children vs warfare and fighting. Statistics back up results. Percents on crosstabs would help. Factor analysis on aggression in childhood variables. Concludes that aggression in young children does tend to lead to involvement in warfare and fighting. References and further questions about what is going on. Maps would be helpful as well, just to see where this is happening.
  7. Karl Behrens - ARE YOU REGISTERED?
  8. Ann Namie, Parental Relationships and how they effect children. Hypoethsis - marital status will effect children. Most of research on poligamy with good references, also relating polygamy to cultural reasons... map of polygamy. Non-traditional families on the rise (good references, numbers). Crosstab between role of father during infancy vs. polygamy shows that in polygamous relationships the father is more likely to be less close to child. Factor analysis on polygamy. Map on polygamy around the world, map on aggression in early boys shows possible connection between aggressive boys and polygamy. Distance between co-wives map shows that one wife close to lower aggression levels in boys. Discussion of further research. Concludes that in polygamous families, children are more likely to go through some distress which could lead to this aggression.
  9. Kimberly Sethavanish, Socially Organized crimes (homicide, assault, theft, trespass). Question - Are societies with socially organized crimes considered warring societies? She looked first at what defines war, referencing Fry and Otterbein. Nice differentiation between warring and feuding. Defines social organization types - bands, tribes, chiefdoms and states. Hypothesis - Societies with socially organized crime are not always considered warring, as sometimes the crimes count as social conflict resolution measures. Maps. Statistics show correlation and low significance. Crosstabs could be condensed to less columns/rows. Reference to Fry's discussion of internal feuding as separate from warfare with example story. Concludes that socially organized crimes are not necessarily warfare.
  10. Deandra Arena, Looks at individual aggression/assult and socially organized aggression, wanting to look at relationship between individual and socially organized crime. Does individual elevate into social aggression? Also, does social aggression fuel individual aggression? Hypothesis. Research on school violence showing that rejection has high impact on individual aggression. Further research in Fry's book looking at historical instances. Other research looks at gender aspect - male aggression. Looks at gangs in California to show role of individual aggression. Notes other factors influencing violence. Map of individual aggression/homicide and of socially organized homicides, which has higher incidence. Statistics back up correlation. Crosstabs back up claim but could be condensed into smaller table! uses brief clip on gangs on youtube to show how high school bullies escalate into well known gang in Orange County. Shows how individuals band together to be able to execute socially organized crime together. Conclusions. Well organized, interesting, multimedia.
  11. Tu Anh Tran - ARE YOU REGISTERED?

aditional note by Yu seok Noh The first presenter

  • hypothesis: warfare generates famine.
  • conclusion: famine would be reduced by preventing warfare.

2nd presenter

  • using of money (politics, display, ritual payment) definition of money.
  • warfare rarely occurs without involvement of money
  • hypothesis: the lager the community, the more frequent a monetary system.

3rd presenter

  • the subsistence economy and war
  • hypothesis: advanced industry are more warlike.

4th presenter

  • topic: aggression and dominance
  • hypothesis: 1. Men seem to exhibit unnecessary aggression and creates type of dominance over women in society.
  • conclusion: male aggression is valued in most societies from the cross tab data. No to most societies believing in male superiority.

5th presenter

  • topic: aggression in children and warfare
  • hypothesis: how children are when they are young will reflect the way they will be as they grow.
  • conclusion: aggression in young children does tend to lead to involvement in warfare and fighting

6th presenter

  • topic: socially organized crime
  • hypothesis: no societies with socially organized crimes are not considered warring societies.
  • conclusion: socially organized crimes are not necessarily warfare

7th presenter

  • topic: Parental Relationships and how they effect children.
  • hypothesis: marital status will effect children
  • conclusion: in polygamous families, children are more likely to go through some distress which could lead to this aggression

8th presenter

  • topic: individual aggression and socially organized aggression
  • hypothesis: crime commitment between individual crime and socially organized crime.

Conclusion: individual crime in homicide and assault escalated to organized crime

Class Notes by Pei-Chih Hsu

Dec 2 Lecture outline

  • Tues Dec 2-
  1. Agnes Tam, A Father's Role in Promoting Aggression. Video to highlight how children imitate parents "Children See Children Do." Looks at father's role in promoting female aggression. Hypothesis that father involvement leads to social aggression. Data shows that closer the relationship, lower aggression.Then looks at difference in gender of parental caretaker - male caretaker = higher aggression as a result. Aggressiveness transferred from parents, both male and female. Good significance. Factor analysis of aggression within community. Map of male toughness and of roles of caretakers. Ends up focusing on aggression in females more than in males, interesting. No references yet.
  2. Binh Pham, Effects of Food SUpply on Society and War. Hypothesis is that more food supply --> less war. Discusses food supply possibilities. Crosstab. Stats show too high of signif. which in and of itself tells us something, but need to look for other crosstabs. Factor analysis creates not quite high enough eigen value, although the components are close. Maps external war only to highlight where external war does not occur. Maps hunting contribution to food supply. No references yet.
  3. Victoria Piar, Non-parental caretakers and their Influence. Prefaces by talking about commonality of children raised by non-parental caretakers. Hypothesis: boys with non-parental caretakers more aggressive. Nature/nurture question - does caretaker role matter? Considers what other variables may cause aggression as well. Crosstab shows good stats. Huge crosstab - need to consolidate! Maps show where types of caretakers are located, as well as late boy aggression. Factor analysis - good discussion of why she chose variables. Strong factor results. Discusses other factors to consider based on outside readings - attachment is the important thing, not who it is to,.. also genetic importance, which she disproves with map.
  4. Vicky Giakoumis, Nice outline of presentation. Asks whether level of education in community influences number of children / sex of children wanted in community. Shows her assumptions that less education = desire for more kids and more boys, and how they were mistaken. Preference for males more signif. in more educated communities! Great breakdown of variable breakdown, helpful. Nice color-coded crosstab and explanation.Not very many numbers, which makes hard to draw huge conclusions. Stats look good. Helpful reduced table and fisher's test. References discussing the issue would help add to strength of data, as there are not many cases in crosstab table. Maps well connected. Interesting possible explanations discusses.
  5. Amy Strouse, Nature vs. Nurture - is male aggression a natural or a leaner behavior? Looks at late boy aggression vs. male aggression. Good referencing original studies and how they define variables. Great stats. Overview of other crosstabs and findings that explore influence of father's role, interpersonal violence, and bodily contact. What is around the child shapes how child behaves. Biological research to reinforce nurture importance except in extreme cases, and highlight testosterone not as important in aggression as thought. Great references and connections.
  6. Gennady Gladkin,
  7. Yu Seok Noh, Extramarital affairs and divorce rates. Clear presentation, crosstabs, statistics. interesting questions and connections to research on characteristics of males who cheat on partners. More references needed. Good use of maps. Well done.
  8. ROBERT LUND - ARE YOU REGISTERED?
  9. CHRISTINE QUACH - ARE YOU REGISTERED?
  10. JAMES BROWN - ARE YOU REGISTERED?

Dec 2 Class notes

User:Ann Namie

Presentation 1: Chidren Aggression and role of father

  • -video on how children do what they see.
  • -Crosstabs Male aggression and relationship to child
  • -Factors = aggression between a community.

Presentation 2:The Effects of Food Supply on Society and War

  • -Crosstabs food supply and external war. There wasnt much of a significance.
  • -Map of external War Only and Hunting contribution to food supply
  • -hopefully there will be enough food for societies so there doesnt have to be war.

Presentation3:Non-parental caretakers and their influence

  • Nature vs. Nurture: nurture effect on behavior? Child's level of affression
  • relation of the caretaker really plays an important role as it is believe to have?
  • Crosstab: Early boy nonparent caretaker vs. aggression late boy
  • Maps different non-parent caretakers/aggression
  • factors: early boy late boy early girl late girl aggression
  • level of attachment and genetics can be another factor.

Presentation 4: Educated communities and preference of sex & number of children.

  • Members of communites that are minimally educated tend to want more children and have a higher preference for males. but was wrong.
  • Preferred sex and number of children. presence of formal education within local community
  • not enough data to determine the preference of male/female for no education.
  • P=0.018 so less randomness for crosstabs
  • map, Preferred sex and number of children
  • People might prefer boys to carry on family name
  • increase in educational levelfor women in the past decade has caused a decrease in their fertility rate.

Presentation5: Male aggression natural or leaner behavior?

  • Crosstabs: Agression Late boys tole of father, Early childhood p=0.044, moderate or frequent interpersonal violence, aggression. In this case P=.000.
  • relationship btwn testostrone, cortisol and aggression in adolescent males by popma et al found that only in combo of low cortisol and high testoserone was there a significant relationship to overt aggression.
  • examples of different research

Presentation 6: Extramarital Sex by the male in a marriage leads to divorce

  • Maps frequency of extramarital sex / frequency of divorce
  • Patterns of conduct in instances of sexual misconduct by male.

Anthro 174AW Notes 12/2/08 by Janling Liu #68221737

Presentations:

1.) Agnes Tam- A Father’s Role in Promoting Aggression • Hypothesis- The more involoved a father is in their child’s upbringing, the more aggression. • Crosstab chart shows the different percentages in the different emphasis on aggression whether they are present or not. • Male predominantly are more present with violence compared to female predominantly. • Siginificant numbers are low so fairly significant to each other. • Factor Analysis: Chose aggression within a community. • Showed maps on the role of father and early childhood where aggression would take place. Also had a map on the ideology of male toughness.

2.) Binh Pham- The Effects of Food Supply on Society and War • Hypothesis- The greather the food supply, the less conflict and less external war will be. • There are many food supplies with external war conflicts. • Eigenvalues- the different varialbes chosen. The total intital eigenvaule for the first componenet was 2.204. want to be significantly greater than 1, and close to 3. • Also showed maps of the external war only. • There was also a map of hunting contribution to food supply. • Conclusion- hopefully there will be enough food for socieities around the world that won’t result in too many external war conflicts.

3.) Victoria Piar- Non-Parently Caretakers and their Influence • Hypothesis- Young boys whose primary caretakers are non-parental, will have higher levels of aggression than those whose primary caretakers are parental. • Important because it is good to see if the relation of the caretaker really plays an important role as it is believed to have. • Correlated crosstab- had two variables and cramer’s V is not much in absolute value and kendall’s b is not as much significant. • One of the highest is 68.3% and is relevant to the moderate role. • Map shows the different types of principal non-parental caretakers are located.

4.) Vicky Giakoumis- Presence/level of education in a Community • Hypothesis- Members of communities that are minimally educated tend to want more children and have a higher preference for males than the members of communities that have a higher level of education. • Wrong because members of communities that were minimally educated did want to have more children than members of communities that have a higher level of eduction. • Two variables- v950 and v1738 • Crosstab chart- to observe the relationship between the sex and number of children preferences of many community members amongst communities with different levels of education. • Maps shows the presence of formal education within local communities.

5.) Amy Strouse or Gennady Gladkin?- Nature vs. Nurture. Is male aggression a natural or a learned behavior? • Crosstab- male aggression vs. late boy aggression. Used it because the late boy aggression is around 6-12 and general male aggression is striclty with adult male. • Also did another crosstab such as v300 aggression late boy vs v54 role of father are significant with p=.044. • Biological research- relationship between testoterone, cortisol, and aggression levels. Only in the combination of low cortisol and high testosterone was there a significant relationship to overt aggression. • Anthropological research- research done by Hall III and aggression and perceived parental rejection shows a direct correlation between perceived parental rejection and aggressive behavior. • Must teach our children regardless on their physical appearnace whether they are girls or boys.

6.) Yu Seok Noh- Extramartial Sex by the Male in a Marriage leads to Divorce • Hypothesis- Male extramartial sexy in male leads to divorce. • Crosstab- correlated with the two variables. • The maps show the frequency of extramarital sex in males and the frequency of divorce. • Analysis/research- patterns of conduct in instances of sexual misconduct by male. Has marital as well as extramarital relations. • Some men think that women do not please them with sexual needs. • In Southeast Asia, it has the highest and strongest correlation to males.

Class Notes by User: Pei-Chih Hsu

Dec. 4 Class Notes

by Jonathan Park -Paper due Friday of next week (12-12-08). Emailed to Lydia and Professor White (around/before noon is best)

-Exercise 2:

Choose a community that was used in the codebook. Write about an area that makes most sense to you for your paper about that community in 2 pages. Email to Lydia.

-Fisher Exact Test (brief overview):

Basically condensing your crosstab into 4 numbers. Result will give you a p-value which is same as significance value found in statistical tests used in class. Want p-value of less than .05. Tail is the direction of causality.

Class content by students - enter your own

174AW 2007 Class notes - personalized page

174aw Class comments, questions - if its red you're the first

Anthropology 174AW Fall 2008 Student Notes from Lecture

174AW wiki-users

Human Complex Systems (HCS) Courses 2008-2009

Undergrad, Grad: UCI, Fall-Winter-Spring 2007-2008: Course: social networks and complexity

  • Winter: 240B Soc Sci (71500) 1.33 credits per quarter, no prerequisites, 240A not required, no graduate standing required

Grad Seminar, UCI, Spring 2008 (taught at UCSD, UCI students by interactive video): Anthropological Models and Methods 2008

  • Winter: 240B Soc Sci (71500) 1.33 credits per quarter, no prerequisites, 240A not required

Undergrad, UCI, Fall 2007: Human Social Complexity and World Cultures

Grad Seminar, UCI, Fall 2007: Network Theory and Social Complexity

UCI eee pages

Undergrad, UCLA