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- Betweenness centrality measures for directed graphs Douglas R. White, Stephen P. Borgatti. University of California, Irvine, CA 92717, USA University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA This paper generalizes Freeman’s geodesic centrality measures for betweenness on undi- rected graphs to the more general directed case. Four steps are taken. The point centrality measure is first generalized for directed graphs. Second, a unique maximally centralized graph is defined for directed graphs, holding constant the numbers of points with reciprocatable (incoming and outgoing) versus only unreciprocatable (outgoing only or incoming only) arcs, and focusing the measure on the maximally central arrangement of arcs within these constraints. Alternatively, one may simply normalize on the number of arcs. This enables the third step of defining the relative behveenness centralities of a point, independent of the number of points. This normalization step for directed centrality measures removes Gould’s objection that centrality measures for directed graphs are not interpretable because they lack a standard for maximality. The relative directed centrality converges with Freeman’s betweenness measure in the case of undirected graphs with no isolates. The fourth step is to define the measures of this concept of graph centralization in terms of the dominance of the most central point. 1. Introduction Betweenness centrality (Freeman 1977, 1979, 1980) is a fundamen- tal measurement concept for the analysis of social networks. The recent book by Hage and Harary (1991) demonstrates some of its many descriptive and predictive uses. It was originally defined, how- ever, only for undirected graphs. This constitutes a rather severe limit on its potential utility for directed (nonsymmetric) graphs and social networks. Gould (1987) argues that measures of betweenness centrality are possible for the directed case, but that owing to lack of a unit of measurement and of a unique definition of the maximally central- ized graph for the directed case, the measure remains uninterpretable. * Corresponding author. 037%8733/94/$07.00 0 1994 - Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved SSDI 0378-8733(93)00242-O
(18) Betweenness centrality measures for directed graphs. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51992830_Betweenness_centrality_measures_for_directed_graphs?fullTextFileContent [accessed Mar 30 2018].
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Arturo Durazo. Good morning. How have you and Lilyan been, Doug?! How are Scott and his family? Do you have more grandchildren? How are things at UC Irvine? I wanted you to be the first to know that I’m getting close to concluding my PhD training at UC Merced. You have been on my mind because I’m very grateful for all you’ve done throughout my adult life to keep me inspired about a research career. During my time at UC Merced, I became very enamored with academia. Originally, I imagined my self going back to Kaiser Permanente to be in one of their research and evaluation programs. However, my time at UC Merced has allowed me to be more in touch with how much I enjoy helping young adults develop their ideas and professional goals. Particularly on that note, I applied for the UCOP President’s postdoctoral fellowship. Also, I applied for three other postdoc posts this past week—UCSF, ASU, and USC. While I’ve already gone through the stages of grief on the UCOP PPFP because it has about 2% funding (they had 800 applicants this year!), the UCSFs Tobacco Control fellowship sounds promising. One of my committee members, Anna Song, has gone much up to bat for me so that they seriously consider me. So all going forward! I hope that all is terrific with you and yours. With kind regards/~Arturo
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MUN 1:27IN THE EVENIN' -- hi Scott et al -- MUN 3:59IN THE EVENIN'. Scott White-- you can install facebook messenger on your phone and then just message me whenever you want THR' 9:44IN THE MORNIN'. Douglas. how do we install facebook messenger? thanks--from Scott -- Go to app store on iphone and download facebook messenger
2018 Irene Horowitz (marquis) <firstname.lastname@example.org> Jan 2018. Irene+horowitz+(marquis)*SEE BELOW ||We are pleased to announce that Marquis Who's Who has selected you for our official 2018 Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award. You have been selected to receive this prestigious award as a result of your hard work and dedication to your profession.
Thank you for the updates to your biography. I have passed it on to the editorial department for you. Have a nice weekend! Ilene From: Douglas White  Sent: Wednesday, January 31, 2018 5:45 PM To: Ilene Horowitz (marquis); drwhite Subject: We are pleased to announce that Marquis Who's We are pleased to announce that Marquis Who's Who has selected you for our official 2018 Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award. You have been selected to receive this prestigious award as a result of your hard work and dedication to your profession. Irene Horowitz (marquis) 2018 Irene Horowitz (marquis) <email@example.com> Jan 2018. Irene+horowitz+(marquis)*SEE BELOW ||We are pleased to announce that Marquis Who's Who has selected you for our official 2018 Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award. You have been selected to receive this prestigious award as a result of your hard work and dedication to your profession. Irene Horowitz (marquis) Press). ---- Hi, Mr. White- As per our conversation, here are some questions we would like you to answer for your Lifetime Achievement announcement: 1. What is your greatest career or personal achievement to date or of what are you most proud? 2. Throughout your life, who has most inspired you? 3. How many years have you been in your particular career field or industry? 4. How do you define success? 5. If you could revisit your youth, what advice would you offer your 18-year-old self? 6. Have you been published? Please provide us with a list of your published work. 7. What are your intentions for the next chapter of your life? What unfulfilled goals/objectives are you aiming to achieve? 8. What awards have you received during your career? 9. What kind of legacy do you aspire to leave? 10. What words of encouragement would you give to someone entering your career field? 11. Why did you choose your particular career? Please get this back to me as soon as possible. 1. Standard Cross-Cultural Sample as a means of understanding 2. G. P. Murdock (early culturalist) 3. 55 yrs (and earlier) 4. accomplishing objectives and attaining (e.g.) insights, working with smart people 5. work at the highest level 6. yes - 150 publications and publishing of new books 7. am 75... work with top insights and others 8. Alexander von Humboldt foundational understanding 9. Top work accomplishments in chosen areas 10. Shoot for your best work 11. Anthropology as context for study Best, Ilene Horowitz Account Director, Branding Department Marquis Who’s Who Phone: (908) 673-0100 ext. 1354 firstname.lastname@example.org www.marquiswhoswho.com cid:image003.jpg@01D1AA15.B1873B80
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I'm forwarding a notice from eScholarship to you, in case you don't automatically get it. I hope all is well. Take care, Greg
http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/SfiPhoto.htm Lilyan 858 888 6223
You can view the statistics for the publications you manage via the link(s) below:
Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences: Social Dynamics and Complexity Social Dynamics and Complexity: Structure and Dynamics Social Dynamics and Complexity: World Cultures eJournal
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On Tuesday, January 30, 2018 10:24 AM, " email@example.com <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
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Dear eScholarship Editor/Administrator, You may have noticed that you haven’t received usage statistics for the publication(s) you manage in eScholarship since the redesigned site launched. That’s because we’ve been working on developing a completely new reporting service that updates nightly and enables you to customize your view of usage information. We’re pleased to announce that this new eScholarship usage statistics service is now live! You can view the statistics for the publications you manage via the link(s) below:
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The biggest defect of tax cuts — any tax cuts — is that they represent a huge lost opportunity to invest in our future. If the past generation has taught us anything, it’s that tax cuts for investors and a soaring stock market do little or nothing to help most Americans. By contrast, we know that public investments in productive physical and human assets do help, and they disproportionately help the less well off. Rich people have plenty of private capital to invest. Those who aren’t rich have their human capital (which rests on public investments) and the public capital that we all share as citizens: transportation and communication networks, shared scientific knowledge fostered by public R&D spending, civic institutions and so on.
If we really want to boost growth, we need to return to the successful investment model that really made America great in the 20th century. And that requires more revenues, not less; a more effective IRS, not a weaker one.
Additional information about the contents of these reports is available in our help center: https://help.escholarship.org/support/solutions/folders/9000181583 Remember: you can increase your readership by referring people to the URLs of your papers in eScholarship. Regards, The eScholarship Team email@example.com eScholarship provides a suite of open access scholarly publishing and repository services that enable UC departments, research units, publishing programs, and individual scholars to have direct control over the creation and dissemination of their scholarship. Learn more about eScholarship: http://escholarship.org/ Learn more about UC's Open Access Policy: http://osc.universityofcalifornia.edu/open-access-policy/ This message is being sent to you because you are listed as an administrator for one or more publications on eScholarship. If you are no longer the administrator for these publications please contact us so that we may update our records and prevent future mailings: https://help.escholarship.org/support/tickets/new Note that replies to this message are routed to an unmonitored mailbox.
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Its been a long time since I have submitted my piece for your edited Companion to Cross-Cultural Research by Wiley. Is there any news about the status of this publication? Please let me know. Giovanni. Thanks from Giovanni Connections to others. It has been a long time since I have submitted my piece for your edited Companion to Cross-Cultural Research by Wiley. Is there any news about the status of this WILEY publication? Please, let me know. Giovanni
Dr Jamie Tehrani - Durham University https://www.dur.ac.uk › Department of Anthropology › Staff. (email at email@example.com). Biography. My research focuses on how culture evolves as it gets transmitted from person to person and from generation to generation. I am interested in understanding what makes some things catch on, others die out, and how these processes shape patterns of cultural diversity Smith, Cameron M.Ruppell, Julia C. 2011. Abstract. Discoveries of modern biology are forcing a re-evaluation of even the central pillars of neo-Darwinian evolution. Anthropologists study the processes and results of biological and biocultural evolution, so they must be aware of the scope and nature of these changes in biology. We introduce these changes, comment briefly on how will influence anthropology, and suggest numerous readings to introduce anthropologists to the significance and substance of the new evolutionary synthesis. https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/anth_fac/84/. *** "What Anthropologists Should Know About the New Evolutionary Synthesis"
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Subject: Re: reconstructing the codebooks and datasets for the CoSSci Thu, 20 Apr 2017 01:59:50 +0000. From: Anthon Eff <Anthon.Eff@mtsu.edu>. To: Doug White <email@example.com>…
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_R._White https://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=Douglas_R._White&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8 MRI brain with and without contrast - Ordered by Abraham S C Chyung, MD on January 10, 2018. NEUROQUANT VOLUMETRIC EVALUATION Hi Douglas, please add me to your LinkedIn network http://abcnews.go.com https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Douglas_White http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory/risk-middle-class-gop-tax-cuts-fade-52012410 https://myscripps.org/mychart/ check your spam folder or call us at 1-800-ESURANCE (1-800-378-7262). https://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=Spectrum&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8 https://www.getspectrumdeals.com/spectrum100/lp_triple_play?ca.mp=Google&ca.cr=224915681501&ca.kw=spectrum&ca.mt=e&cb.device=c&lfokp=spectrum&o=sem&lfoloc=9031346&ca.target=kwd-297170438153&offer=ws Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist 2-year Research Awardee https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Douglas_White
Please review the attachment carefully and should you have any questions regarding this quote or would like to purchase coverage, please contact Esurance- Instant Quote at 866 439 5633 or firstname.lastname@example.org. Thank you for choosing Esurance for your automobile insurance. In response to your request: we have attached your documents to this email. Please don't hesitate to let us know if we can be of further assistance. We're here to help you 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. Sincerely, The Esurance Customer Service Team Email: email@example.com Telephone: 1-800-ESURANCE (1-800-378-7262) https://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=Douglas_R._White&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8. Showing results for Douglas R.White
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Douglas R. White - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_R._White Douglas R. White (born 1942) is an American complexity researcher, social anthropologist, sociologist, and social network researcher at the University of California, Irvine. Contents. [hide]. 1 Biography; Work; 3 Books; 4 References; 5 External links. Biography. Douglas White was born in Minneapolis in 1942.
Biography · Work · Books
Douglas R. White, Anthropologist and Sociologist, Home Page ... eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/ InterSci Complexity wiki - Univ of Calif paperback 'what could be the most important book in anthropology in fifty years' Click: hardback edition White and Johansen Click: Networks and Complexity Special Issue Click: Structure and Dynamics/World Cultures eJournals Click: volume edited with Tom Schweizer Click: volume ... UCI Faculty Profiles: Douglas R. White https://www.faculty.uci.edu/scripts/ucifacultyprofiles/detaildept.cfm?id=3122 Aug 6, 2011 - Douglas R. White. Positions: Professor, Anthropology School of Social Sciences Graduate Director, Social Networks School of Social Sciences. Degree: PH.D., Minnesota, 1969. Academic Distinctions. Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ( Distinguished Senior Social Scientist). Research Interests:. VITA: Douglas R.White, Anthropology & Social Science Professor, UC .. eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/6wwwvita.html James Moody and Douglas R. White, 2003, Social Cohesion and Embeddedness: A Hierarchical Concept of Social Groups. American Sociological Review 68(1):1-25. Implemented in NetMiner v2.4.0 (fall 2003) Biography in Who's Who in America. 1994-present. Biography in International Who's Who. 2000-present. Douglas R. White | University of California, Irvine (UCI) | ResearchGate https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Douglas_White Douglas R. White of University of California, Irvine | UCI is on ResearchGate. Read 173 publications, 3 answers and contact Douglas R. White on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists. Douglas R. White | NIST https://www.nist.gov/people/douglas-r-white Apr 4, 2017 - Douglas White leads the National Software Reference Library project for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Doug has worked at NIST since 1987. His experience has covered distributed systems, distributed databases and telecommunication protocols, real time biomonitoring, real ... Douglas R White Profiles | Facebook https://www.facebook.com/public/Douglas-R-White View the profiles of people named Douglas R White. Join Facebook to connect with Douglas R White and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power... Douglas R. White | Santa Fe Institute samoa.santafe.edu › About › People Doug White, PhD Minnesota, 1969, and born in 1942 in Minneapolis, is a social anthropologist and complexity researcher whose work includes mathematical modeling, network analysis, and simulation in sociology and economics. His fields of study include political economic and social networks, ethnohistorical sociology, ... Douglas R. White | IDEAS/RePEc https://ideas.repec.org/e/pwh37.html Douglas R. White: current contact information and listing of economic research of this author provided by RePEc/IDEAS. Amazon.com: Douglas R. White: Books, Biography, Blog, Audiobooks ... https://www.amazon.com/Douglas-R.-White/e/B002HU23SI Douglas R. White, PhD Minnesota, 1969, and born in 1942 in Minneapolis, is a social anthropologist whose work includes mathematical modeling and network analysis and simulation in sociology. His fields of study include political economic and social networks, ethnohistorical sociology, comparative and long- term ...
Garry Chick and Doug as Editors?
Was bogged down with prostate cancer, now better, i.e., won't be dying of it; now more energy; could we pair up for the book, authors and chapters ready could we do the steps of sending chapters to the publisher together? I could send the full set of manuscripts and send them together i.e. jointly as the editors?
On 1/3/18 1:01 PM, Garry Chick wrote: Dear Doug I have not received any information regarding The Companion to Cross-Cultural Research since your message in February 2017. Is it still in the works? All the best for 2018. Regards, Garry
Implications of the Neolithic Revolution for Male-Male Competition and Violent Conflict M Apostolou - Mankind Quarterly, 2017 … Analysis of 19 variables from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample provides strong support for this hypothesis. Based on these findings, it is argued that the agropastoral revolution has resulted in the strengthening of male-male competition …
My address is 13881 Tustin East Drive apt C54 ... Tustin, CA 92780 ... I only have a small mailbox, otherwise it is left in front of my door.
Doug, Fitz, Conner, Dao, Book Manuscript
Tom Cotton https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Cotton big figure/follower of Trump
Jan 10 2017 Margot -- will check result Humboldt
DRW 1963 start Phd-1969 Phd.
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Scott: “Some forecasts peg the California market as getting close to $2 billion in 2018, and as much as $5 billion by 2020,” said Sidline, an executive at the public relations firm the Cannabis Story Lab in Portland, Oregon”
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The Plot to Loot America’s Wilderness A little-known bureaucrat named James Cason is reshaping the Department of the Interior. By Adam Federman TODAY 6:00 AM fbtwmailmsgwa federman_Cason-parks_img Illustration by Nurul Hana Anwar.
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One day in Mid-March, James Cason, the associate deputy secretary at the Department of the Interior, convened an impromptu meeting of the senior staff of the Bureau of Land Management. Cason, whose office is on the sixth floor, rarely wandered the halls, and some career civil servants still had never met him. A soft-spoken and unassuming man, Cason has cycled in and out of Republican administrations since the early 1980s and has largely avoided public attention. But people who have worked with him know him as a highly effective administrator and a disciple of some of the department’s most notorious anti-environment leaders in previous years—a “hatchet man,” in the words of one former DOI employee who worked with him during the George W. Bush administration. This article was reported in partnership with the Investigative Fund at the Nation Institute.
About 30 employees were ushered into a conference room, where Cason announced that Kristin Bail, acting director of the BLM, would be replaced by Mike Nedd. The move itself wasn’t all that surprising: Bail, who came from a conservation background, had been appointed in the final days of the Obama administration to serve in a temporary capacity; Nedd, who had been assistant director for energy, minerals, and realty management since 2007, was viewed as better positioned to implement the new administration’s pro-industry agenda.
But the way Cason handled the meeting sent a stark message. According to two people who were present, he delivered what appeared to be hastily prepared remarks thanking Bail for her service but telling her that she was no longer needed in the position. One employee, who has since left the DOI, said it was unclear whether Bail had been told beforehand of her demotion. “It was one of the most awkward, disrespectful things I’ve ever seen,” the former employee said. The spectacle amounted to a kind of public dismissal—and a warning shot. The meeting ended as abruptly as it had begun, with employees left staring at their seats. By the end of the day, Bail was carrying her things out of her office in a box and looking for another place to sit.
Bail’s transfer was the opening salvo in an unprecedented restructuring of the DOI. Three months later, in what some department staffers now call the “Thursday-night massacre,” Cason sent memos to more than two dozen of the DOI’s highest-ranking civil servants informing them of reassignments; they had 15 days to accept the new positions or retire. The Office of the Inspector General is currently investigating how the transfers were determined; some employees believe they were designed to push out long-serving staff as part of a department-wide purge, and that climate scientists in particular were targeted.
Cason, who once described himself as the department’s “regulatory czar,” has also overseen the dismantling of rules governing energy development on public lands. The DOI is poised to open up millions of acres to drilling and mining—from Utah’s red-rock country to the frigid, perilous waters off Alaska’s coast—while stripping away basic environmental protections and reducing transparency. Across the Trump administration, the new mantra is “energy dominance”—a vision of the world in which the United States will amplify its influence with a dramatic expansion of oil, gas, and coal production, whatever the environmental costs. The DOI is poised to open up millions of acres to drilling and mining, from Utah’s red-rock country to Alaska’s frigid coastal waters. The axing of regulations and personnel is occurring with remarkable speed. In contrast to other federal departments mired by inept leadership in the Trump era, a small group of seasoned insiders has kept things humming along at the Department of the Interior, Cason chief among them. In the early months of the administration, according to one former DOI employee, there seemed to be few decisions, no matter how small, that didn’t cross his desk.
“From what I can tell, Jim Cason is running the show,” the former employee said. “I think he’s overseeing everything.” In addition to orchestrating the personnel reassignments and chairing the regulatory-reform task force that has rewritten or eliminated many Obama-era policies, Cason has been tasked with reviewing every grant or cooperative agreement of $100,000 or more, as well as any pending decisions with “nationwide, regional, or statewide impact.” He wrote the Federal Register notice announcing the department’s controversial review of 27 national monuments, and he has been granted virtual carte blanche to set policy as it relates to the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
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Cason’s return to the DOI doesn’t surprise Jim Cubie, who was chief counsel to Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) in 1989, when Leahy oversaw an Agriculture Committee hearing on Cason’s nomination to a top environmental post in the George H.W. Bush administration. Cason’s track record so alarmed the committee that he was eventually forced to withdraw his name from consideration. Now he’s back in a position that doesn’t require Senate approval. “He’ll do a lot of damage,” Cubie predicted.
Cason is one of only a handful of political appointees with deep knowledge of the Department of the Interior. (The DOI declined to make Cason available for an interview.) He faithfully carried out the agendas of two of the most controversial interior secretaries in recent memory—James Watt and Gale Norton. From 1985 to 1989, during the Reagan administration, Cason was deputy assistant secretary for land and minerals management; in that capacity, he worked closely with Steven Griles, a former coal lobbyist and the chief architect of some of the most environmentally destructive policies of the Reagan years. Griles helped to engineer the regulatory changes that facilitated mountaintop-removal mining, and he interfered with a Fish and Wildlife Service report on the potential environmental damage caused by coastal drilling. As head of the DOI’s Office of Surface Mining in the early 1980s, Griles also failed to collect tens of millions of dollars in civil penalties owed by companies that had broken environmental laws.
Throughout this period, Cason served as Griles’s right-hand man, according to a former congressional staffer familiar with his record. “He learned well at Griles’s knee about how to get stuff done,” the staffer said. The two became close friends; Griles was best man at Cason’s wedding in 1990. And in 2001, when Griles returned to the department under George W. Bush after more than a decade of lobbying for coal companies and other special interests, Cason joined him as his associate deputy. According to a former DOI employee who worked with Cason during the Bush administration, “Griles would have whatever idea, and Jim would figure out how to get it implemented. He’s quite effective at doing that. He was known as Griles’s hatchet man.”
But unlike Griles, who was sentenced to 10 months in prison after lying to Congress about his ties to the disgraced lobbyist Jack Abramoff, Cason has largely avoided the public eye. His personal style is exceedingly restrained, particularly in contrast with more flamboyant and controversial colleagues like Griles, who was known for being a brash talker with a volatile temper. Cason has a monotone way of speaking; he often dresses in a subdued blue suit and tie and seems to go out of his way to be agreeable. In an appearance on C-SPAN in 2005, as the Abramoff investigations were gaining momentum, a caller described Cason as a “Republican toady” and attacked the DOI for its policies toward Native Americans. Cason replied evenly, “OK, well, that’s certainly a good point of view too.”
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Even when not behind the scenes at the DOI, Cason maintained a low profile. He’s never worked as a registered lobbyist. During the Clinton administration, he lived in Western New York and was vice president of risk management at a company that manufactures ceramic-fiber products for industrial applications. More recently, he’s done consulting work for Booz Allen Hamilton and Kelly Anderson & Associates (now KAA Federal Solutions), a business-management firm that works with federal and industrial clients. On his financial-disclosure form, submitted in July, Cason provided so few details about the contracting work he’d done with the Quapaw tribe in Oklahoma that, after queries by ProPublica, the DOI was forced to submit a revised version. In it, Cason revealed that over a five-month period in 2016, he’d earned $50,000 doing “research” for the tribe. (The department’s ethics lawyer called the omission an “oversight.”)
KAA chief executive officer Tim Vigotsky, who hired Cason in 2012, describes him as a policy wonk who knows the DOI better than anyone. “There’s not a lot of flash,” Vigotsky said. “He works long hours—whatever it takes.” Because Cason wasn’t registered as a lobbyist at Booz Allen or Kelly Anderson, it’s unclear who his clients in the energy sector might have been. Vigotsky called Kelly Anderson’s list a “who’s who” of the industry but wouldn’t reveal the names of private clients. Much of the firm’s work involves providing assistance to companies seeking federal contracts. On his résumé, Cason stated that, in addition to providing consulting support for Native American, commercial, and federal clients, he helped to “network access to government officials.”
A window into what has otherwise been a veiled career opened in 1989, when Cason was nominated to serve as assistant secretary for natural resources and environment at the Department of Agriculture under George H.W. Bush. Few people had ever heard of Cason, who was only 35 when his confirmation hearings took place. The position is typically filled by noncontroversial policy experts, and the hearings are rarely the stuff of high-stakes political theater. But Cason’s nomination was unusually contentious, in large part because of his former boss—James Watt, one of the most polarizing and unpopular interior secretaries ever to hold the position.
As the DOI’s head under Ronald Reagan, Watt was known for his staunch support of property rights and for his attempts to sell millions of acres of public lands to drilling and mining interests; he resigned in 1983, after stating that a coal advisory commission he’d established was balanced because it included “a black…a woman, two Jews, and a cripple.” In his opening remarks at Cason’s hearing, Senator Leahy wasted little time in drawing a parallel between Cason and Watt. “Frankly, we do not need a James Watt clone in this position,” Leahy said. Jim Cubie, Leahy’s counsel, said they’d heard from a number of sources that “this guy’s going to be a disaster…. Anybody who was a Watt acolyte was trouble.”
In written testimony, Cason said he’d barely gotten to know Watt and “could not fairly or knowledgeably compare or contrast our philosophies.” Yet Cason revealed that his philosophy was in fact closely aligned with Watt’s when he faced a series of questions about his decision to approve the transfer of tens of thousands of acres of public land at below-market rates in 1986. The episode involved the sale of oil-shale claims to energy companies at $2.50 an acre; weeks later, some of the same land was sold to private developers at 800 times the original price, reaping a windfall of $37 million for the energy companies. Asked by Senator Kent Conrad (D-ND) whether the sale was “in the public interest,” Cason replied: “I think it is in the public interest to assure that we properly address private-property rights.” In that single sentence, Cason summed up Watt’s worldview.
“The whole department, and yourself as part of that department, were overly solicitous of business and industry points of view.” But the hearing wasn’t only a referendum on Watt—it demonstrated that Cason put his own stamp on a number of decisions that heavily favored industry. Cason’s involvement in the alleged suppression of a BLM report on the dangers to the spotted owl dominated press accounts of the hearings. At the time, there was great concern among conservationists that the logging of old-growth forests in Oregon would lead to the owl’s demise. Indeed, several studies carried out in the 1980s demonstrated that the forests were key to the species’s survival. The BLM report commissioned by Cason found that the spotted owl would be imperiled if logging continued. Cason later claimed that the report didn’t live up to the department’s scientific standards—but several individuals involved in the review testified that Cason simply disagreed with their conclusions and had asked the DOI to bury the report. After news of the report leaked to the press, Cason had the DOI release what many felt was a watered-down version of the original. (“Jim Cason is a seasoned Department of the Interior official who brings decades of government, private sector, and personal experience to the position,” a DOI spokesperson wrote in response to questions about his record, including the owl report. “We are lucky to have him.”)
Cason had also pushed through a series of industry-friendly measures in the final weeks of the Reagan administration. He lowered the royalties paid for coal mined on public lands; authorized a rule that made it possible for companies to mine in national parks or on Forest Service land (a rule considered so over the top that it was quickly withdrawn); traveled to Colorado to encourage—yet again—the transfer of thousands of acres of oil-shale claims at rock-bottom prices; and brokered an agreement with several major oil and gas companies that essentially undermined the federal government’s authority to audit royalty payments. Not only did Cason reach the latter deal without consulting state or tribal officials, whose constituents stood to lose out on millions in annual payments, but he also signed the agreement on letterhead from the industry’s attorneys. R. Max Peterson, then the executive vice president of the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, described Cason’s actions as “an inexcusable betrayal of the public trust.”
Even Republican members of the traditionally conservative Senate Agriculture Committee had their doubts. Summing up Cason’s years at the DOI, Indiana Senator Richard Lugar said: “The whole department, and yourself as part of that department, were overly solicitous of business and industry points of view.” Several weeks later, realizing that he didn’t have enough votes to secure the nomination, Cason withdrew his name.
All of that must have seemed like a distant memory this past summer, when Cason addressed a roomful of industry executives at the Colorado Oil and Gas Association’s annual energy summit in Denver. He spoke alongside Gale Norton, who had been the interior secretary for much of George W. Bush’s administration. Cason’s current post is the same one he held under Norton—but this time around, according to interviews with more than a half-dozen current and former DOI employees, he wields significantly more power. (Norton, who took a position with Royal Dutch Shell after leaving office in 2006, now runs her own consulting firm—Norton Regulatory Strategies—and works closely with the oil and gas industry.)
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With a list of the summit’s major sponsors—BP, Anadarko, Noble Energy—projected on the wall behind him, Cason explained that Donald Trump’s win in November marked a profound shift in direction. Though few would describe the Department of the Interior, even under President Obama, as unfriendly to oil and gas producers, Cason declared that the Trump administration had inherited “an anti-energy bias” and a “preservationist thought process” that needed rooting out.
“There’s not a lot of flash. He works long hours—whatever it takes.” While the DOI has often struggled to balance its dual mandate of conservation and resource development, the scales have now tipped decisively in favor of the oil and gas industry. As a candidate, Trump promised to “unleash America’s $50 trillion in untapped shale, oil, and natural-gas reserves, plus hundreds of years in clean-coal reserves”—a grandiose statement that has nonetheless become a kind of blueprint for his Department of the Interior. The long-held goal of “energy independence”—a stock phrase used by every administration at least since the Carter years—has been replaced by one of “energy dominance.” Trump officials believe that achieving it requires an aggressive push for increased access to public lands, including national monuments and offshore oil and gas reserves.
The DOI, as the largest landowner in the United States—managing roughly 500 million acres, one-fifth of the country’s landmass—is at the heart of this effort. The department also administers millions of acres in offshore oil and gas reserves. Trump has already reversed an Obama-era ban on drilling along part of the Atlantic coast and in the environmentally sensitive waters around Alaska. Now, Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke and Republicans in Congress are seeking to fulfill one of the industry’s long-sought goals: opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, the largest unexplored and undeveloped onshore basin in the United States. In December, the BLM will offer approximately 10.3 million acres of land in Alaska’s National Petroleum Reserve for oil and gas leasing. And next spring, the department will hold the largest oil- and gas-lease sale in the country’s history when it auctions off some 77 million acres of offshore reserves in the Gulf of Mexico.
Recently, the DOI announced that it would be running its operations more like a business, with the primary objective of generating revenue through energy production. According to a July report in Bloomberg News, Zinke is pushing to “retool the agency into a federal profit center.” The DOI’s climate-change webpage has undergone a makeover, too. Sometime between February and April, the department replaced a lengthy informational page with two short paragraphs describing the DOI’s preservation duties; the phrase “climate change” appears just once. And in April, the BLM—which is tasked with overseeing oil and gas leasing on federal land—changed the image on its home page from one of a couple of backpackers looking out onto a scenic landscape to a shot of a massive coal seam in Wyoming (an image that has since been removed).
In Denver, Cason reiterated that the DOI was more interested in facilitating energy development than regulating it; he told the roomful of oil and gas executives that they represented “a very important industry for the Department of Interior and the administration.” About a month after the conference, the DOI submitted a draft of its strategic vision for the next five years to the Office of Management and Budget. According to a copy of the plan obtained by The Nation, the department’s priorities include accelerating the exploitation of “vast amounts” of untapped energy reserves on public lands. The outline makes no mention of climate change—a phrase that appeared dozens of times in the previous strategic plan.
In October, the DOI released a report detailing the burdens on energy development and recommending sweeping changes that would undermine its own basic regulatory authority. The high-profile targets included a 2015 rule requiring rudimentary safeguards for fracking on public lands, as well as a conservation plan for the imperiled sage grouse. The report also raised the possibility of eliminating the federally required land-management plans that might limit drilling in certain areas; the conditions placed on development that affects endangered species or critical habitat; and even the collection of basic data related to energy production, which critics see as an attempt to muddy an already opaque process. Jeremy Nichols of the advocacy group Wild Earth Guardians called the proposed elimination of these common-sense measures “shocking even for this administration.”
The Department of the Interior is made up of nine bureaus, including the BLM and the Fish and Wildlife Service, with 70,000 employees and state and regional offices across the country. Secretary Zinke, a former Navy SEAL and one-term US congressman, has no experience managing such a large, decentralized bureaucracy, and he has relied heavily on his political appointees to run the department’s day-to-day operations. With Cason at the helm, a small circle of insiders orchestrated the aggressive deregulatory agenda and the unprecedented reshuffling of career staff.
“Cason is really an administrator,” a DOI employee who has known him since the George W. Bush administration told me. “He understands how to run an organization.” The position Cason now holds—associate deputy secretary—was created especially for him when he joined the Bush administration, most likely because of fears that he would not make it through another round of confirmation hearings. “They didn’t even try for a nomination, because they knew it would be dead on arrival,” said another former DOI employee who worked closely with Cason at the time.
In his remarks in Denver, Cason said it was evident from day one that career employees needed “an attitude adjustment.” New leadership, he continued, would force them to “adopt a different way of looking at things.” (In a recent speech before the National Petroleum Council, Interior Secretary Zinke described “30 percent” of DOI employees as “not loyal to the flag.”) As a member of the Executive Resources Board, which is responsible for senior-executive-level reassignments, Cason has overseen a series of personnel changes that appear designed to enhance the administration’s pro-oil-and-gas orientation. Under Zinke, the ERB is made up entirely of political appointees, despite strong recommendations from the Office of Personnel Management that the board include a mix of political and career employees “to provide…a balanced perspective.” According to Elizabeth Klein, who occupied Cason’s role in the Obama administration and served on the ERB for part of that time, there was a rough split between civil servants and political appointees.
The “Thursday-night massacre” occurred on June 15, when more than two dozen of the department’s Senior Executive Service (SES) employees, from nearly every agency, received memos informing them of the reassignments. None of the employees that The Nation spoke with were consulted in advance, which is considered both a common courtesy and responsible management. In most cases, even agency directors were kept in the dark until just before the memos went out. When one high-level supervisor asked if they were on the list, Cason reportedly replied, “Not this round.” The reassignments sent shock waves throughout the DOI. Dan Ashe, former director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, said the transfers were clearly designed to disrupt the normal order of things and to undermine the authority of senior civil servants. Cason, who had served as chief human-capital officer under Bush, was intimately familiar with the SES and personally knew many of the employees who were transferred.
“What they are doing to hand the keys over to the energy industry is pretty astounding.” Among those reassigned was Joel Clement, a senior policy adviser and widely respected climate scientist, who was moved to an accounting office overseeing royalty collection from the fossil-fuel industry. Clement later filed a whistle-blower complaint alleging that his reassignment was politically motivated; he has since resigned. In his departing letter, Clement blasted senior-level appointees for being “shackled to special interests such as oil, gas, and mining.” Virginia Burkett, who oversaw climate-science research at the US Geological Survey, was transferred to an undefined advisory role in the office of the assistant secretary for water and science; she ended up leaving the SES and returning to a lower-grade position. Cindy Dohner, the Fish and Wildlife Service’s highly respected Southeast regional director, who oversaw restoration efforts in the Gulf of Mexico after the BP disaster, was reassigned to serve as the agency’s director for international affairs. She resigned instead.
“It made people very afraid to make decisions about things or to advocate for what we would call ‘good government,’” said Debra Sonderman, who was moved after almost 20 years in her role as director of acquisition and property management. Sonderman, too, has resigned.
According to numerous reports, the DOI is planning another series of reassignments. Rumors have been circulating since June that they could be announced at any time. One former DOI employee said that the list has already been compiled, but the department is waiting for the inspector general’s investigation to conclude before pulling the trigger. “Everybody is looking over their shoulder,” said Ashe, the former Fish and Wildlife Service director.
Unlike other departments that have displayed a shocking level of dysfunction—a kind of embodiment of the Trump presidency itself—the DOI is operating with ruthless efficiency. This is largely due to the presence of experienced appointees like Cason and David Bernhardt, Zinke’s deputy secretary, who was confirmed in late July. A former corporate lobbyist whose clients included major oil and gas producers, Bernhardt was once described by Center for Western Priorities spokesman Aaron Weiss as a “walking conflict of interest.” (Cason served as acting deputy secretary until Bernhardt’s nomination.)
A handful of other DOI officials from the George W. Bush era have resurfaced after spending the past eight years working for far-right think tanks or as industry lobbyists. Doug Domenech, most recently director of the Fueling Freedom Project, which promotes “the forgotten moral case for fossil fuels,” is now assistant secretary for insular affairs, coordinating policy for American territories in the South Pacific. Daniel Jorjani, a longtime adviser for several of the Koch brothers’ groups, is helping to craft the department’s legal policy. Scott Cameron, who spent the past several years advising a lobbying firm whose clients include Shell Oil and the Marcellus Shale Coalition, is now overseeing the DOI’s budget.
The oil and gas industry is now taking full advantage of the access offered by its allies at the department. Cason has described the DOI as having an “open-door policy,” and in the first month and a half of the administration—before Zinke was even confirmed—met with top industry lawyers, corporate lobbyists, and industry trade groups, including the American Petroleum Institute and Peabody Energy. Zinke himself has had dozens of meetings with energy executives and lobbyists, including those from ExxonMobil and BP. He’s used taxpayer dollars to fly on a private jet owned by an oil-and-gas-exploration firm in Wyoming, and as a member of Congress he received hundreds of thousands of dollars in campaign contributions from the industry. So far, eight of the 12 secretarial orders he’s issued have called for greater access to drilling on public lands and in offshore waters.
RELATED ARTICLE The Nation EXCLUSIVE: THE INTERIOR DEPARTMENT SCRUBS CLIMATE CHANGE FROM ITS STRATEGIC PLAN Adam Federman In June, the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA) sent a midyear legislative agenda to its board of directors, announcing that the playing field for oil and gas producers has been “dramatically altered.” A copy obtained by The Nation shows that in just the first few months of the Trump administration, the lobbying group achieved an astonishing number of the regulatory rollbacks on its wish list, including an elimination of the fracking rule and another that would have closed a loophole allowing coal companies to calculate their own royalties on coal sold at below-market rates.
There is still a great deal that energy interests hope to accomplish during the Trump administration. Ending a rule to limit methane venting and flaring from wells is at the top of that list. Undermining protections for endangered species on federal land is another key item. A third is ensuring that future administrations are unable to finalize what the IPAA calls “harmful” air-quality regulations that it says would limit offshore development.
Kate Kelly, former senior adviser to then–Interior Secretary Sally Jewell and current director of the public-lands team at the Center for American Progress, warns that it’s difficult to appreciate just how radically the DOI’s policies have changed and what this means for the environment. “In totality, what they are doing to open up public lands to oil and gas development—to basically hand the keys over to the energy industry—is pretty astounding,” she said.
Cason shares the industry’s sense of having a rare opportunity to reshape the policy landscape. In Denver, he mused that the midterm elections weren’t too far off—and that the dynamic in the Senate, and possibly even the House, could change, making it more difficult to advance a deregulatory agenda. “You think about having four years to do things,” he said, “but for those of us who have been on the federal-government side of the fence, you don’t really have four years. And if you want to effect change, you have to have a sense of urgency from day one.”
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S.O.S. Puerto Rico As the crisis mounts government support dwindles. By Martin Kozlowski TODAY 8:00 AM fbtwmailmsgwa
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LABORENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICECITIES RISING Elon Musk Will Not Help Lead a Climate Leap Los Angeles activists are fighting for climate justice, but, at nearby Tesla, green jobs aren’t good jobs. By Naomi Klein and Avi Lewis YESTERDAY 12:41 PM fbtwmailmsgwa Elon-Musk-Tesla-rtr-img Tesla's Elon Musk at a forum on start-ups, January 26, 2016. (Reuters / Bobby Yip) The finger snapping started at an unlikely moment, in a session called “benchmarks for racial and economic justice.” OK, not an obviously inspiring name. But as the ambitious political demands popcorned around the room, the energy surged, and the snapping reached a crescendo.
“End corporate welfare as we know it.” “Get the combustion engine off the roads within 10 years.” “A massive expansion of public housing, built on the principle of development without displacement.” “All 5,000 diesel trucks servicing the port upgraded to locally manufactured electrics, financed by a new public bank.” As the afternoon sun danced in the courtyard fountain of the Audubon Center at Debs Park, 60 movement leaders from across the city—and from a sparkling spectrum of causes—gathered to share their wildest dreams of a different Los Angeles. This was the founding meeting of a new coalition, gathered to draft a document called the “L.A. Leap Manifesto”: a vision for a carbon-free city by 2025. Over two days, a clear picture emerged of a city that values all of its residents, as well as the natural systems—water, soil, air—that we all depend upon to thrive. No one and no place to be treated as disposable.
As Los Angeles City Councilmember Paul Koretz aptly put it in his kick-off for this historic gathering: “The record heat, hurricane and wildfire seasons show we are living in a climate emergency of shocking proportions we never expected so soon. Yet the answers can create jobs, save us money, make our neighborhoods cleaner and healthier, and transform the economy. It’s time for a true climate-justice mobilization starting right here in Los Angeles…and it’s time for all of us across the city to set aside our differences, find commonalities, and do it now, for all of our sakes.”
Faith leaders caucused with trade unionists. Food-justice and zero-waste evangelists brainstormed with housing activists fighting oil drilling in city neighborhoods. Physicians and environmental-justice advocates hatched plans with Tongva elders. What united us was a shared belief that as we make the deep changes required to battle the climate crisis, we have a once-in-a-century opportunity to build a much fairer, more inclusive society at the same time. “LA was built on oil; it was built on inequality. We have an opportunity to create a new economy right now,” as Martha Dina Argüello, executive director of Physicians for Social Responsibility–LA, put it.
RELATED ARTICLE The Nation THE PARIS CLIMATE ACCORD DIDN’T GO NEARLY FAR ENOUGH—CAN BONN DO BETTER? Michelle Chen Yet underlying the excitement was also a current of fear. Because in recent months there have been vivid examples of the opposite phenomenon: responses to climate change that actually deepen and exacerbate existing inequalities—between migrants and citizens, rich and working poor, workers and employers.
A case in point was playing out a half-day’s drive up the coast from where we gathered, at the Tesla plant in Fremont, California. Imagine the high-tech green future from every sci-fi film you have ever seen, and you can pretty much picture the factory. Ten thousand workers move through gleaming white spaces, welding sparks popping under the coordinated lurch of bright-red robot arms—all in the service of making pollution-free cars that run on the power of the sun.
Except there is one big problem: As one Tesla worker told a Guardian reporter a few months ago, “Everything feels like the future but us.”
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The Fremont workers make well below the national average for autoworkers, and they live in one of the most expensive areas in the country. For those with families, this futuristic job doesn’t even pay a living wage. Moreover, as Tesla has faced huge pressure to meet production targets for the more affordable Model 3 sedan, there have been ubiquitous reports of workplace injuries, punishing hours, and inadequate pay.
When workers began a union drive back in February, Elon Musk, Tesla’s messianic CEO, reacted poorly. First he sent a frantic evening e-mail to the factory’s staff promising “a really amazing party” instead—while also dangling “little things” like “free frozen yogurt stands” throughout the plant.
When that didn’t work, things got ugly, culminating in news a few weeks ago that hundreds of employees (possibly as many as 1,200) had been abruptly fired. Tesla blamed low performance, but refused to provide anyone with their latest performance reviews; pro-union workers said they had received only glowing ones and suspected that the purpose of the firings was partly to snuff out the union drive. (The company denies this and insists the worst problems have already been resolved.)
What’s clear is that something is badly amiss at American’s flagship “green jobs” workplace. And that’s a big problem, because climate action will never pick up the momentum this crisis demands if workers like those in the Fremont plant are treated like serfs in the gleaming future.
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We co-founded The Leap one year ago as an attempt to build broader coalitions to confront the climate crisis. We did it because, as the movement slogan goes, “to change everything, it takes everyone.”
But we also did it because it has become very clear that a big part of what blocks momentum for urgent, life-saving climate action is the fact that so many status-quo “green” policies are patently unjust: carbon taxes and renewable-energy programs that hike prices for the working poor while letting polluters off the hook; cap-and-trade schemes that give green cover to polluting industries in low-income communities of color; hydro, solar, and wind projects that are situated on the lands of Indigenous peoples but without their participation or sharing in the profits. And much more.
Debates about migration and border policy, meanwhile, consistently fail to acknowledge the role that climate destabilization is already playing in forcing millions from their lands and exacerbating conflict—or to ask the question of what big polluting countries like the United States owe to the poorer ones that are bearing the brunt of climate disruption.
As coalitions like the Climate Justice Alliance have been arguing for years, with so much injustice in the green-policy sphere, is it any wonder that that the mainstream climate movement has so far proved too small, and too homogenous, to full confront the fearsome power of the fossil-fuel lobby?
The Tesla case is particularly telling because it is highlights a much larger problem with trying to paper over these challenges with the shiny promise of “green jobs” for all. As Jon Barton, an SEIU deputy director, said at the Debs Park meeting: “We can’t ask folks to give up a unionized refinery job paying $100,000 a year for a non-union one installing solar panels paying less than half. That’s not a just transition.”
Which is why the recent Leap gathering spent much of its time digging into what it would take to make sure that green jobs are good jobs. After all, union members have reason to fear the phrase “just transition.” Those have traditionally been the last two words they heard before getting laid off, shuffled into humiliating retraining programs for more precarious service jobs.
And it’s not only union members who need justice in the transition to a new economy beyond fossil fuels. In Los Angeles, the black and brown folks being poisoned by industrial emissions in their neighborhoods—whether from oil drilling, battery recycling, or trucking corridors—are also the workers in those industries. They deserve not just clean air and water but also better-paying, more secure jobs in clean energy, manufacturing, and the vast project of building new transit and housing for the 21st century.
It’s tempting to imagine that men like Elon Musk can save the planet for us, that we just need to unleash the power of their innovation and wait for the magic. But as the workers in Fremont well know, the quest for profit very often comes at the expense of people—even when the product is green.
If we want the future to be fair, then we are going to have to design it that way, and fight for it. That’s the vision behind Leap Los Angeles. A city that looks like the future—with the people who have for too long been treated as if their lives and lands don’t matter showing us exactly how to get there.
KEEP READING CLIMATE CHANGENUCLEAR ARMS AND PROLIFERATIONJERRY BROWN California Governor Jerry Brown Is Doing Far More to Combat Climate Change Than Trump’s Washington When Trump opened a massive leadership void on climate change, nuclear weapons, and more, Brown stepped in. By James Carden YESTERDAY 12:08 PM fbtwmailmsgwa Jerry Brown Germany Jerry Brown speaking at the climate initiative “America's Pledge” during the World Climate Conference in Bonn, Germany, November 11, 2017. (Henning Kaiser / picture-alliance / dpa / AP Images) Feeling Overwhelmed? Sign up for Take Action Now, our newsletter that connects busy people to the resistance.
In 1995, French President Jacques Chirac, observing the presidency of Bill Clinton and his administration’s tepid response to the unfolding atrocities in the former Yugoslavia, observed, with barely concealed disgust, that “the position of leader of the free world is now vacant.”
The same thing could be said today of the presidency of Donald J. Trump. But in an unusual, and in some ways unprecedented development, a 79-year-old four-term governor and three-time presidential aspirant has swept into the void left by the inept, incompetent, and embarrassing Trump.
The governor, of course, is California’s Jerry Brown, who is about to wrap up a 10-day trip to Europe, where he made stops at the Vatican, Brussels, Stuttgart, Oslo, and Bonn, in an effort to show the international community that, despite Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement, the leader of the world’s sixth-largest economy remains committed to the fight against climate change.
At a meeting of climate-change experts and religious leaders at the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on November 4, Brown explained that American state and municipal leaders have it in their power to take action. There is “not just a top-down structure that we have in the United States, there are many elements,” and, given the commitments that “we’re seeing around the world, the Trump factor is very small.”
CLIMATE CHANGE The Nation THE PARIS CLIMATE ACCORD DIDN’T GO NEARLY FAR ENOUGH—CAN BONN DO BETTER? Michelle Chen A week later, at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bonn, Brown urged state and local leaders to take the initiative. “We can’t,” said Brown, “just wait for our national leaders—we need to take action together.”
Brown, who was appointed the UN conference’s special adviser for states and regions, reaffirmed the commitment of a number of American cities and states to the Paris agreement, and noted that those US businesses, states, and municipalities who remain committed to Paris represent “a bigger economy than any nation outside the US and China.”
While in Bonn, Brown also welcomed outgoing Virginia Governor Terry McAuliffe as the newest signatory to the Under2Coalition pledge. The coalition was formed in 2015 by a dozen states and provinces from across the globe, including Washington, California, Vermont and Oregon; Baden-Württemberg, Germany; Catalonia, Spain; and Ontario, Canada.
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Parties to the Under2MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) pledge to pursue “emission reductions consistent with a trajectory of 80 to 95 percent below 1990 levels by 2050 and/or achieving a per capita annual emission goal of less than 2 metric tons by 2050.”
In a sense, Trump’s reckless disregard for the Paris agreement acted as a spur to action. In an interview with the author Dave Eggers this past July, Brown observed that because Trump has taken “such an outlandish position” on climate change, he has perhaps inadvertently “heightened the focus” on it. “He’s given climate denial such a bad name,” said Brown, “that he’s given the climate-action movement a thrust that it would never have generated on its own.”
Brown is under no illusions that the road ahead will be an easy one. In a talk to the German Marshall Fund in Brussels on November 9, Brown warned that with climate change “there’s a lot of easy talk,” but “unless all the major players are in, we’re not going to get there—you need India, you need China, you need Russia—everybody has to be all in.”
The problem, said Brown, is that “nobody is in charge.”
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California Attorney General Xavier Becerra recently told Time magazine that these days, Brown is “a man on fire.” It is a description that is hard to dispute. From the moment Donald Trump announced his decision to unilaterally withdraw from the Paris climate accord on June 1, Brown has been in overdrive, traveling to China in June and Russia in September before taking off on this latest trip to Europe.
Perhaps in his efforts to counter, or at least partially negate, the reckless and shortsighted policies emanating out of Trump’s Washington, Brown might serve as a much-needed example to members of the so-called #resistance movement, which would be wise to spend more of its time formulating alternative solutions to pressing economic and foreign-policy challenges.
Indeed, the aforementioned Time magazine report noted that Brown does not like to use the word “resistance.” Instead, says Brown, “I’d like to reframe it as action.”
And Brown has hardly limited his own “actions” to climate change; he has also turned his attention to that other potential cause of global catastrophe: nuclear weapons.
Brown recently told a reporter at the Los Angeles Times that the ongoing threat of nuclear annihilation that we continue to live under, despite the end of the first cold war over 25 years ago, isn’t on most people’s radar because, as he puts it, “the end of the world is not news.”
But in March Brown traveled to Washington where he met with—and joined the board of—the Nuclear Threat Initiative, an advocacy group made up of distinguished nuclear scientists and foreign-policy experts that includes former US Senators Richard Lugar and Sam Nunn, former energy secretary Ernest Moniz, and former defense secretary William Perry.
For some, Trump’s reckless disregard for diplomacy and his childish saber rattling toward North Korean dictator Kim Jong-un has had the effect of bringing the risk of a nuclear war back home. As Brown put it, “You send a nuclear missile to L.A., it’s going to be a bad day for everybody. So you can’t wait for that. You’ve got to start talking.”
In a review of former defense secretary William Perry’s book, My Journey at the Nuclear Brink, Brown sounds the alarm over the risk of waging a second cold war with Russia, writing:
“Sleepwalking” is the term historians now use for the stupidities that got European leaders into World War I and for the mess they unleashed at Versailles. And sleepwalking still continues as NATO and Russia trade epithets and build their armies and Moscow and Washington modernize their nuclear overkill. A new cold war.
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Brown’s cautious and historically informed worldview is, sorry to say, at odds with what passes for foreign-policy “analysis,” especially as it pertains to Russia, in the Democratic Party of 2017.
With a year left in office, reporters and pundits are already peppering Brown with questions about his legacy (a word he clearly doesn’t care for) and whether he intends to try for what would be a fourth run at the White House in 2020. But these seem to be questions with which Brown is loathe to indulge.
For now, anyway, Brown seems intent on filling the gaping void in American leadership left by the current, and most unfortunate, occupant in the White House.
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- Laurent Tambayong Arlene Rulan 626 354 1853 -- Laurent 310 980 6340. firstname.lastname@example.org I am so sorry. Check out time. Sleeping out awhile waiting for the filter units and randomly, as usual, i m in a breakthrough abdominal pain. I couldn't lift and lying down in pain with my phone silence (I do that when in pain. Sorry again). Then Phone was in my pocket and I helped Arlene as much as I can. Still in a breakthrough pain. Rare. Usually 1/2 day. Maybe moving back extra pressure. 5 GIs couldn't find anything. This last one is the top of the pyramid. He keeps checking from all unusual angles but he wants to Disability Retirement me. "You clearly can't t teach by September (mid August actually). Go to HR. Start the process. This is already March." He hasn't given up but needs to protect his patient. I am scheduled for Fall 2017 or I'll be kicked out. I have kept the dept in blind for year. I shut my csuf email. HR said last year, it is not necessary to contact them. HR will manage it. HR is fiercely being on my side all the way. I ll just wait for the forms, they need calPERS green light first.
- - That doctor got me a permanent lifelong handicap tag 2 months ago. He looks stoic but really cares.
- - Regrets to you and Lilyan. We are grateful but in a sudden bad situation. I called you just to break the bad news about the unfortunate q-exponential survivability. If I can finish that one. There is one more data driven support for that. It is Carley's team data mining from a free source. She can't claim copyright. I use q-exp tech. Zero about that in her methods and I am the cleaner and maker of the networks. It is all my work thus her silence in the past. I just give her and ONR of USN thanks. I hopes more in the future was my plan. I think Israel SF was impressed by my wide spectrum published technics of analysis using the same data. Classic micro level SNA, mid level stability given the possible variations, macro level q-exp. I am still confident that combinations of those 2 variables measure beyond stability, they are predictive. My fitting results' 2 parameters are consistent to our paper's results. This really causes the disappointment of both sides. I miss data. They miss potentially critical analysis of sustainability and survival. --- I didn't expect to accept such kindness. Lilyan needs to be informed about the misscalls, please. She has a strong motherly tough-but-care character that I gratefully appreciate. I don't wish to agitate her. I am sorry I must stop. pain. likely bad sentences, too.
- Michael Villa (Mike) 858 999 1569 --call 4 any help -- complex: 752 7152 -- wife Dr. Nisa Schenley 752 5071 CVD '414 6474 -- 282 8840 business in our complex -- $15 for tube for Feet at night
- DBS120005UC Complex Social Science.docx And yes, the SDSC time you are asking for is on Comet. That’s where the job runs. UCI hosts the machine with the gateway server. That server sends jobs to Comet.
- [Social Science Gateway
- Also, you have to ask for the SDSC time every year. Your time runs out on 3/13. The deadline for getting a request in for 4/1 start was Jan 15. I’m sure I sent a note about that previously. Why don’t you send Ken Hackworth (email@example.com), who runs the allocations process a note and ask what the best path forward is? You’re not using a lot of time, but you want to have it available continuously so the gateway isn’t interrupted. I would ask Ken about future deadlines and put them on a calendar with a reminder system. Nancy
- Ken Hackworth (firstname.lastname@example.org), who runs the allocations process. Missed Jan 15 2017. When is the next data for a request for startup?
- Emailed Ken 23rd Feb - when is next time for a request for startup?
- Sinkovits, Robert <email@example.com> Robert Sinkovits http://www.sdsc.edu/~sinkovit/ 337 1039 (377 1055?) -- (858) 822 0995 --
- Silvy Achankunju has readied our chapters (Wiley Companion to Cross-Cultural Research) to go the Wiley book publisher, Joe White. Past March 15, will http://SocSciCompute.ss.uci.edu continue for use by researchers? Call Jon Nilsson: will the VM farm continue to run after March 15?
- Harry Mangalam <firstname.lastname@example.org> 949 285-4487 (contact email@example.com instead): The 'location' of your server is that it's a Virtual Machine on one of UCI's VM farms. Jon: The VM farm that Harry Mangalam is referring to is a great place to have a server. It is a very reliable virtual machine infrastructure similar to AWS, but hosted exclusively on-campus in UCI OIT's data center.
- I'm not quite sure what it is you would like to setup... you mention "DEf01f" which is one of the links on the left side bar of your socscicompute.ss.uci.edu galaxy instance. (But I'm not sure what you mean by "cross-cultural analyses".)** If you have a new tool or workflow that you'd like setup on our socscicompute.ss.uci.edu server, then you'd have to contract with Francisco Lopez <firstname.lastname@example.org> 1 949 824-8818 who can give more information should it be needed, re: size/OS/physical location of the VM farm should you need it. To get that done Jonathan Nilsson and Harry Mangalam can help.
- Candice Bradley
- Carmela Moore
- Cross-cultural analyses involves several databases, each for a sample of world societies that have common numbers of variables per society and a code for each variable. The codes form a rectangular set of variables, societies by variables. "DEF01f" is a computer program at intersciwiki that allow users or students to choose a database, examine a codebook for the dataset, choose a "dependent variable" from "DEF01f", then independent and additional variables, run the program, chose a map that locates societies in the "model", execute the program, see which independent variables predict the dependent variable, if any, and select to view relevant maps using the variable(s) in the model.
- The results of the analysis will test for predictors of the dependent variables and show selected maps of locations of variables.
- Tanya Mcmullin, Associate Editor, Social Sciences, John Wiley & Sons. Wiley Book]]
- Joe White - publisher for our Wiley book.
- Malcolm Dow
- Karl Reitz KPReitz@gmail.com
- David Gregory was at Dartmouth
2 Wilkins, Fischer, Brehm,Fitz,Joe White,Awbry,Ren Feng,Nancy
- Nancy Wilkins-Diehr email@example.com 534-5118
- M.D.Fischer@kent.ac.uk -- Michael Fischer <firstname.lastname@example.org> -- email@example.com
- Alessandra 212 945 8223
- XSEDE Ken Hackworth <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- Chris Boehm <email@example.com>
- Chris White 206-954-5034 Chris White <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- Garry Chick <email@example.com> http://news.psu.edu/photo/266469/2013/02/27/garry-chick Phone: +1 814 863 1941
- Fitz firstname.lastname@example.org phone 714 458 5039. 949 824 1536
- Joe White <email@example.com>
- Differential Logic : Sketch 3 Author: Jon Awbrey
- SW 1 206 384 9439 / 206 588 3207 / 206 303 7776
- DW 1 858 888 6220
- LW 1 858 888 6223
- CW 1 206 954 5034
- KatieW 1
- Susan Yoshihara <firstname.lastname@example.org> Hello Professor White, According to my records, your last FDCI award for a new computer was in 2012-13. You will be eligible again in 2016-17. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me. -Susan Yoshihara (949-824-7667). Title Administrative Analyst School of Social Sciences email@example.com Susan Yoshihara
- command-shift-4 --- 365
- Ren Feng <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- DBS120005UC Complex Social Science.docx
- Nancy: Right now the only active allocation you have is an educational allocation for the CoSSCI gateway that expires 3/13/17. You’ll want to get a renewal request in by 1/15/17 for a 4/1/17 start. They’ll be able to extend the current allocation for 2 weeks to cover that short gap. Allocations always occur at quarterly intervals. The schedule is at https://portal.xsede.org/allocation-request-steps#table1.
3 Henry Yen,Duran,Anthon,Dao,Fitz,Kron,Rudner
- Hi Doug,
- Are you still getting this message about backups? I believe you're working with a Mac laptop and you're using Time Machine to backup, is that correct?
- It sounds like the drive that was assigned to backups may not be connected for some reason. Typically, people use an external USB hard drive to back up with Time Machine.
- Here's a basic guide to using Time Machine: https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201250
- It may be best if you bring in your laptop and your backup drive so we can diagnose both here. Let me know if you would like to make an appointment!
- Best, --Henry Yen --Social Sciences Computing Services (x5476, email@example.com)
- CoSSci Collegium
- bank of America phone number (858)--- 552-4100
- Your activation code is:
Your order ID: 1051 Ukraine 1-800-830-8269 Zoom Support
Toll Free! for Mackeeper 1/2017 $417 2 year remote asst Russell 749.50 Your activation code is: Your order ID: 10536519
- Nancy Wilkens-Diehr
- Hank Stevens
- Achankunju <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- email@example.com Dao Vuong
- firstname.lastname@example.org Fitz
- email@example.com David Kronenfeld
- David Rudner@firstname.lastname@example.org David Rudner
- daniel Hruschka@asu.edu
- daria <email@example.com
- Vi Ben and Luisa Chu
- To Do Rewrite Wiley Ch 1: with focus on
- San Diego - house buy
- Virtual departments and Invisible colleges
- [Audible http://www.audible.com/mt/ellison2?source_code=PJEORTR1111160001] - Audible
- CoSSci Collegium
- mail checks to Barnhill for NC Senate, PO Box 1825, Wilmington, NC 28402
- Ben Chu Luisa Benjamin.CHU@Stonybrook.edu Unit 856, Vi at La Jolla Village, 8515 Costa Verde Blvd, San Diego, CA 92122; 858-230-7086
- avaaz a U.S. based civic organization launched in January 2007 that promotes global activism on issues such as climate change, human rights, animal rights, corruption, poverty, and conflict. The Guardian considers it is "the globe's largest and most powerful online activist network."
- LinkedIn People
- Harry Mangalam
- Fitz 714-458-5039
- Dao Vuong 714-458-5039
I checked intersciwiki --> http://socscicompute.ss.uci.edu/ --> without a user --> and anyone can use the software there, along with the dataset at http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/courses/SCCCodes.htm (main page) --> to do cross-cultural analysis from those codes (SCCS), which is something that Fitz could use to do articles with your help (maybe expanding the explanations on the web site) and get a teaching job at one of the CSU or other campuses. My former grad student and TA Ren Feng, is now using in his teaching at his university in China. You two could do some text that I could add to (intersciwiki --> http://socscicompute.ss.uci.edu/) for teach as well as writing articles.
Need some help and can give you all the other info you might need without driving down here... One of my Macs works fine. Another is missing my Mail Server Password. I can give you all the other info you might need without driving down... Doug
SENT to BEST BUY!
One of my Macs works fine. Another is missing the Mail Server Password ... might be easy to fix ... if you could fix it on that laptop (Scott knows how to zoom in from Seattle to La Jolla on my computers for example, no driving required)...
or can pay for your work as needed
firstname.lastname@example.org is my Google Account
- Jeff Stern
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- Mondul Bonesia * Jack Brown
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- Margot 508 674 4287 / only / worrying about relapse / Chris chemo / Jena petscan / remission / Chemo / stopped / numb up to hips Margot / Tom /
- Adan 415 730 0901
- Irmie Millonig cell 0043 650 234 53 00
- Ren Feng
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What Anthropologists Should Know About the New Evolutionary Synthesis. Cameron M. Smith and Julia C. Ruppell. Portland State University: Departments of Anthropology and Biology. Abstract: Discoveries of modern biology are forcing a re-evaluation of even the central pillars of neo-Darwinian evolution. Anthropologists study the processes and results of biological and biocultural evolution, so they must be aware of the scope and nature of these changes in biology. We introduce these changes, comment briefly on how they relate to anthropology, and suggest numerous readings to introduce anthropologists to the significance and substance of the new evolutionary synthesis(1). A New Evolutionary SynthesisThree decades of intense microbiological, biochemical, and genome research have resulted in significant new understanding of the evolutionary process. Central to this understanding has been the sequencing and functional decoding of the genomes of many species, including Homo sapiens sapiens. In short, biology is currently negotiating a synthesis of the same gravity as the 'modern‘ synthesis of mid-20th century (see Goldenfeld and Woese 2007, Rose and Oakley 2007, Koonin 2009a and Koonin 2009b; for an historical review of the 'modern‘ synthesis see Mayr and Provine 1998). In 2009 E.V. Koonin wrote that ―In the post-genomic era, all the major tenets of the modern synthesis have been, if not outright overturned, replaced by a new and incomparably more complex vision of the key aspects of evolution. So, not to mince words, the modern synthesis is gone (Koonin 2009a:474). Of course, not all biologists are convinced that biology is undergoing such a structural resynthesis, but universal consensus is rare in science and there is indeed a general atmosphere of significant new genomics-driven understanding throughout the field of evolutionary studies (e.g. Pigliucci and Müller (2010)). Anthropologists—who, by definition, study biocultural evolution—must have at least a working understanding of the issues under review in the new synthesis. Physical anthropologists study the biological and biocultural evolution of Homo and other members of the primate order, so their understanding of these issues must be complete. Archaeologists documenting and attempting to explain the change of human culture through time often invoke evolutionary principles or explicitly consider human culture to be an evolving information system with nontrivial parallels with biological evolution (e.g. Eerkens and Lipo 2005, Shennan 2009), so they must understand it as well. Some cultural anthropologists (e.g. Durham 1993, Hewlett 2001, Hewlett and Lamb 2005, Rappaport 1999) characterize culture as genuinely evolving—though without the archaic, progressivist, unilineal and sociobiological concepts that informed early cultural-evolution approaches (e.g. see Durham 1993:1-41)—and they should also be aware of the new evolutionary biology.Below we introduce some of the most important fields of investigation in the currently emerging synthesis. While the field is in flux, anthropologists should be aware of these dynamics at least in as much as they condition the basic concepts of neodarwinian (perhaps soon to be renamed postgenomic) evolution. Since anthropology studies humanity, and humanity is a continuously evolving product of the evolutionary process, these developments will eventually touch every facet of anthropology. Below we do not suggest how anthropologists should incorporate new evolutionary understanding to their own studies (though we do briefly comment on Smith and Ruppell: What Anthropologists Should Know About the New Evolutionary Synthesis: on implications for anthropology); rather we introduce important new perspectives and direct the reader to relevant summary reading material. Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT). It is now apparent that HGT—the acquisition of genetic material by one life form from another, unrelated life form, during the life course, and the passing of that novelty to the offspring—is not an occasional phenomenon but is prevalent in the world of asexually reproducing species (Choi and Kim 2007a, Gogarten, Doolittle and Lawrence 2002). Since many species reproduce asexually this means that much evolution proceeds in a somewhat Lamarckian fashion; not in the ̳use-disuse‘ sense, but in the ̳inheritance of acquired characteristics‘ sense. Horizontal gene transfer has also been documented among a few sexually reproducing species, and biologists warn that it is too early to relegate HGT to the asexual world (Keeling and Palmer 2008). An accessible overview of HGT, and its importance, can be found in Gogarten and Townsend (2005).Specifically regarding anthropology, increased understanding of the phenomenon of horizontal gene transfer will better our understanding of culture change. As mentioned, HGT indicates a significant component of somewhat Lamarckian genetic inheritance, and it has long been understood in evolutionary approaches to culture change that the spread of ideas—the units of information in cultural evolutionsometimes referred to as ―memes‖—can in significant ways also be characterized as Lamarckian, in that ideas are acquired not only by members of generation B from its parents (of generation A), but also from peers of generation B (e.g. Durham 1991: 180). Whether or not the term meme can be rescued after decades of debate is somewhat beside the point (see Shennan (2002)); whatever we want to call the unit of transmission in cultural evolution, it is central to understanding cultural evolution, and the concept has been used profitably in studies of cultural transmission among chimpanzees (e.g. Lycett, Collard and McGrew, 2007) and in humans, for example in the transmission of traditional modes of textile designs in Iran (Tehrani and Collard 2009).Critics of evolutionary approaches to culture often point out that culture is not biology, but in our view that does not matter;biology is currently better understanding what it, itself, is, and it is finding that evolution occurs in more than one mode. As Daniel Dennett has pointed out, in regard to this critique: ―Once we shift our focus away from our own multicellular, sexuallyreproducing lineages to the more numerous lineages on the planet, these standard objections lose much if not all their force. Memes are indeed not very much like elephant genomes, but so what?‖ (Dennet 1998). Thus the decades-old critique that ̳biology evolves in ways different from culture‘ is hopelessly out of date; of course it does, but evolution proceeds in many ways, and they include the evolution of sets of horizontally-transmitted cultural as well as genetic information. Recently, Gabora (2011) hasargued that darwinian natural selection is unable to account for the complexity of cultural evolution, advancing a cultural-evolution model that is significantly informed by the revelations of HGT.Understanding HGT will also, of course, simply improve our understanding of physical anthropology and hominin evolution, even if HGT is not found to directly structure much vertebrate evolution (see Generoux and Logsdon 2003, Salzberg et al. 2001 and Brown et al. 2001, but note these studies are each over decadeold and the issue is clearer today, as suggested in Alvarez et al. 2006 and discussed in Keeling 2009). This is because HGT may well be found to significantly structure the many species with which humanity coevolves, and that coevolution—as we discuss below—is not trivial or of only passing interest, but can, on multiple levels, be evolutionarily significant.Structure and Dynamics, 5(2), Article 1 (2011)2
Epigenetics: In another examination of evolutionary mechanisms that are unexpected in the strict neodarwinian approach, the field of ―epigenetics‖ explores environmentally induced, heritable variations in gene function. As with HGT, recent discoveries of epigenetic mechanisms have caused biologists to rethink the mechanisms, significance, and magnitude of inherited and heritable variation. Three processes—DNA methylation, RNA-associated silencing and histone modification—initiate and sustain epigenetic silencing (for reviews see Aguilera, 2010, Egger et al., 2004 and Choi and Kim, 2007b). What all of this means is that heritable gene expression may be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA; as with HGT, then, a life form‘s environment does more than just select for or against certain traits. Accessible introductions can be found in Bird (2007) and Egger et al. (2004).Specifically regarding anthropology, the greater understanding of epigenetics holds promise to enormously improve our understanding of the oft-mentioned, but poorly-defined, ̳functional complexes‘ of anatomical traits. For example, since the 1970‘s it has been appreciated in palaeoanthropolgy that anatomical characteristics or traits should not be understood as independent entities, but owe some of their given states to their relationship to other traits (examples of an appreciation of this approach include Howell, Washburn and Ciochon 1978 and especially Oxnard 1987). While this move away from studying ̳puzzle pieces‘, and towards ̳the fit-together puzzle‘ was certainly an advance, epigenetics takes us further. In a recent epigenetics-informed consideration of the hominin head, Lieberman recently shed light on just how epigenetic effects of one trait upon another can help clarify these ̳functional complexes‘ in a more subtle way, noting, for example, that certain genetic signaling factors are expressed as growth of certain portions of the neurocranium create tensions in the overall structure, and that the overall modular structure of the head must be considered in light of such factors, not just the usual waving of the wand, so to speak, of selection and adaptation (Lieberman 2011). Essentially, such an approach not only clarifies the nature of ̳functional complexes‘ but leads to a more realistic—although enormously more challenging—understanding of the variables influencing the phenotype. Now, even fossil anatomists must confront not just genetics but epigenetic effects. Mutagenesis: Mutation, any difference between parent and offspring genomes, is now understood to be common rather than rare; it is also understood to be less the result of unusual, 'one-off' events, like cosmic ray bombardment of DNA, than a result of many DNA-degrading mechanisms. In short, mutagenesis has been re-cast with a new perspective emphasizing the failure of DNA-repair mechanisms. A good entrance to the topic is found in Friedberg (2006).Naturally, this tidal shift in understanding mutagenesis will improve anthropological understanding of the origins and nature of biological variation, a fundamental element of the evolutionary process that has shaped all primates, including hominins. We will better understand, for example, different classes of both mutations and mutation-repair mechanisms. Extending from biological evolution, such insights could well inform a subtler understanding of the nature of innovation as a mechanism of cultural variation, tackled early on by Barnett (1963) and has more recently explored in studies as diverse as consideration of traditional basketry design transmission (Jordan and Shennan 2003), the role of cultural innovation in the evolution of behavioral modernity (Shennan2001) and the neural bases of innovation and novel idea association itself (e.g. Gabora 2010, 2011). Recently, the parallels between varieties of biological and cultural innovation have been explored in a volume published as part of the M.I.T. Press‘ Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology, indicating how thoroughly continental scholars (mostly) have adopted the cultural-evolutionary approach (O‘Brien and Shennan 2010), and in that Smith and Ruppell: What Anthropologists Should Know About the New Evolutionary Synthesis3 volume fundamental issues such as rate of novelty production (read ̳mutation rate‘) and appropriate definitions of cultural innovation are discussed in light of evolutionary biology—including mutagenesis—at large (e.g. Ariew 2010:34-35), indicating this early and exciting state of affairs. Developmental Evolutionary Biology (evo-devo): Molecular data show that most animals, ―...no matter how different in appearance, share several families of genes that regulate major aspects of body pattern.‖ (Carroll 2000:577), indicating that while phenotypes are of course a product of genetic instruction, the relationship of gene to trait is vastly complex because the timing of gene activation in the life-course is, among other factors, crucial to development of the phenotype. Thus the simplistic mapping of a gene 'protein phenotypic trait‘ is liable to be a gross oversimplification because it does not include the dimension of time. To update the common conception of ―one gene to one trait‖, Miquel Porta has characterized the genome as a 'jazz score' (Porta 2003) rather than a blueprint. We are only beginning to understand how the environment influences gene expression (activating or repressing genes) at different stages of development (see Adams 2008, Lobo 2008, and Philips 2008). An excellent popular-science introduction to ̳evo-devo‘ is found in Carroll (2005).With the proliferation of ancientDNA (A-DNA) studies, our understanding of evolution can now include not just the comparison of past and present genes, but their specific functions and the history of gene regulation itself. This proliferation (A-DNA studies are common in palaeoanthropology and archaeology today, whereas they were a novelty just ten years ago) is a result of new methods that allow the recovery and analysis of DNA from specimens tens of thousands of years old. Recently, A-DNA expert Svante Pääbo suggested that A-DNA might be recovered from specimens as old as a million years (Pääbo 2004), and researchers will surely try to push further back in time.Mutualisms and Coevolution: While a recent emphasis on cataloging gene functions has philosophically removed many organisms from their environments (see comments in section 3, below), molecular biology has also fortified ecological and systems biology perspectives by showing that most, if not all species have significant evolutionary relationships with other species (Douglas 2010:1-23). Coevolution, according to Thompson (1999:2116), ―...may be the most important process organizing the diversity of life.‖ For example, in humans, entire ecologies of microscopic life forms live in the mouth, nose, throat, and intestines, and these have coevolved with their host species (see, for example, Bäckhed et al. ., 2005 and Les Dethlefsen et al. . 2007). In short, systemic, integrative, and ecological studies of mutualisms such as parasitism and symbiosis will flourish under this paradigm, forcing a reconsideration of basic units and hierarchies (e.g. see Michod 1999 and Vermeij 1994). Good reviews of these topics are available in Douglas (2010) and Herre et al. (1999).Most anthropologists have long since made the transition from seeing humanity as the specific product of a somehow internally-guided evolutionary process to seeing humanity as one of many coevolving community members; in palaeoanthropology, for example, by placing early hominin evolution into a larger context of Plio-Pleistocene grassland evolution (e.g. see Brantingham 1998, Foley 1987). These approaches, however, will be updated with a greater appreciation for the significance and subtleties of coevolution. For example, humanityhas coevolved with its domesticates, as seen in the case of the independent evolution of lactose tolerance among several different ancient pastoralist populations (Tishkoff et al. 2006). And the parasites that have attended human migration and evolution can help us understand and even assemble new lines of evidence to date such migrations, as in the case of human-infecting Structure and Dynamics, 5(2), Article 1 (2011)4 schistosomes (blood worms), evolutionary ̳hitchikers‘ whose divergence from an African origin have been used to assist in understanding the Pleistocene colonization of the globe by the genus Homo(Morgan et al. 2005).Phenotypic Plasticity and Phenotypic Integration: In a 2004 survey of the history of biology, Carl Woese suggested that ―A heavy price was [in the past few decades] paid for molecular biology‘s obsession with metaphysical reductionism. It stripped the organism from its environment; separated it from its history, from the evolutionary flow; and shredded it into parts to the extent that a sense of the whole—the whole cell, thewhole multicellular organism, the biosphere—was effectively gone.‖ (Woese 2004:179). Recent interest in reintegrating species with environments, as mentioned above, has led to the re-examination of two concepts. The renewed study of phenotypic plasticity—summarized as ―environmentally-induced phenotypic variation‖ (Stearns 1989:436)—recognizes both putting species back into environments and accounting for the complexities of developmental biology, with unexpected new results: for example, stress responses in a life form can include mutagenesis (Galhardo et al. 2007). The evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity has led to the success of organisms in novel habitats, and potentially contributes to genetic differentiation and speciation (Agrawal 2001, Chownet al. ., 2007). The renewed study of phenotypic integration(complex patterns of covariation among functionally related traits) operationally addresses the details revealed by the study of phenotypic plasticity. Both fields reveal greater coevolutionary complexity than is emphasized in the ̳modern evolutionary synthesis‘. Phenotypic plasticity may be approached in Stearns (1989) and DeWitt and Schneider (2004); Pigliucci and Preston (2004) introduce phenotypic integration.The study of phenotypic plasticity and integration both tackle, in large part, complexity in biological systems; again, nothing is as simple as we may have wished. Complex systems, we have learned in the past few decades, are composed of variables of all manner of states (at any given moment) that interact in complex ways--including feedback relationships glimpsed in studies of phenotypic plasticity--such that changes in the system might result in unpredictable and qualitatively new phenomena, including complex adaptive systems (e.g. Kauffman 1993). Exactly how studies of phenotypic plasticity and integration will condition anthropological understanding is unclear (beyond the obvious improvement of physical anthropological understanding), but inasmuch as they will improve understanding of biological evolution, surely they will improve understanding of cultural evolution (even if to point out differences between the two).Niche Construction: Niche construction theory (NCT) addresses the fact that life forms—consciously or not—alter their selective environments and are not always simply passive precipitates of a given selective regime. Again, this address the actual complexity of evolving systems that lies behind the philosophical façade of evolution‘s essential simplicity. For example, ―Organisms do not just build environmental components, but [dampen]out variability in environmental conditions. Beavers, earthworms, ants, and countless other animals build complex artifacts, regulate temperatures and humidities inside them, control nutrient cycling and stoichiometric ratios around them, and in the process construct and defend benign and apposite nursery environments for their offspring.‖ (Laland and Brown 2006:95). While such interactions are not ignored in traditional evolutionary studies, niche construction theory is a coherent body of theory that can guide investigation, explanation and understanding of such interactions. A good introduction to niche construction theory is found in Odling-Smee, Laland and Feldman (2003); it is more concisely reiterated (with regard to humanity) in Laland, Kendal and Brown (2007). Finally, volume 366 (2011) of Transactions of the Royal Society (B) is dedicated to Smith and Ruppell: What Anthropologists Should Know About the New Evolutionary Synthesis5 niche construction theory. As ever, universal consensus is hard to find, and niche construction theory has been critiqued as unoriginal (e.g. Keller 2003) and obvious; Brodie (2005:249) has written that ―Few ecologists or evolutionary biologists would be surprised to learn that organisms interact with their environment in ways that change both the environment and the organism' s perception of it. What, then, is the importance of defining a new concept to encompass all such actions?‖Even if NCT is only new terminology for old knowledge, however, at the very least it provides a more considered terminology (we should always be careful of ̳common sense‘), and we argue that the significance of niche construction theory to anthropology is profound, as humanity has survived and proliferated not because of its biological equipage, but, in fact, in spite of thisfrail equipage and because of behavioral complexity and the ability to rapidly adapt via cultural innovation; this ability includes, in the new terminology, niche construction, the invention, building and maintenance of ecological niches by humanity for humanity, rather than humanity‘s simply being shaped by selective pressures of certain environments. Laland and Brown (2006) suggest that this recognition negates the claim, by opponents of evolutionary approaches to culture, that humanity is characterized in evolutionary approaches as simply a passive product of selective pressures. Also, Smith has applied niche construction theory to human / domesticate interactions, pointing out its utility by writing that ―"human efforts at shaping their natural landscapes have been classed under a number of terms [including] indigenous management...domesticated landscapes...indigenous resource management...all of these roughly synonymous terms...fall comfortably under the now far more general heading of niche construction.‖ (Smith 2007:191). How else niche construction theory will play out as an element of anthropology is unknown, but it seems sure to be significant, considering that the capacity for active niche construction appears to be one of humanity‘s most potent adaptive tools.2. What Now?Considering these insights, what's left of neodarwinism? A parallel with the split between Newtonian and Einsteinian physics may, for some time, be useful—or at least ease the transition to a new synthesis. In many cases, neodarwinianprinciples are sufficient to sketch out macroevolutionary phenomena; there are different types of life, and—for example—fossil material of these different forms can be discerned, and those life forms did change through time by the core evolutionary processes of replication, variation, and selection (Gingerich 2009:658). But deep down, on the molecular level, we know today that things are happening that we are only just perceiving, and they do not always adhere to standard neodarwinian conceptions. This should caution us, as ever in science, about proclaiming absolutes, and in anthropology it should cause us to educate ourselves on the new conceptions of evolution deriving largely from genomic research.Koonin (2009, Table 1) reviews the central tenets of neodarwinism in the pre-and post-genomic eras. We reiterate his review below in our own words.Is random, heritable variation the principal material for natural selection?Yes; but we must remember that mutation has many sources, and that randomness may apply less than we have thought.Does natural selection generate increasingly complex adaptations through time?Not necessarily; maladaptation and extinction are common, and genomes do not necessarily become more complex through time due to a number of constraints on variation.Structure and Dynamics, 5(2), Article 1 (2011)6 Does evolution proceed by making small changes?Not necessarily; much evolution occurs on a radically short timetable (e.g. see Koonin 2007), as in the case of bottlenecks. Rapid speciation may occur after extinction or arrival on ―islands‖ opens up niches previously unoccupied (Drossel, 2001, Latimer et al. 2005). Has evolution always proceeded in the same way?To an extent, yes; the essential processes of replication, variation and selection are required (see Dawkins 1983, Nelson 2007); however early evolution of Earth life was substantially different from that today, and in the last four million years the phenomenon of the decoupling of behavior from anatomyin the genus Homo (Pilbeam 1998:526)—largely synonymous with Homo‘s increasing reliance on extrasomatic means of adaptation to survive—has led to the ―evolution of evolution‖, in which culture appears as a second, parallel evolving information system of tremendous power (see Brosius 2003 regarding pros and cons of this power).Can we draw a line around a species?Yes and No; there are clearly different kinds of life, as in the case of an elephant and a cactus; but these must be recognized as shades in a spectrum of life forms, and among the asexually-reproducing species the entire concept of species, considering the revelations of HGT, must be reconsidered. Because species never stop evolving, and evolution is thus characterized by change, we must recognize that the lines drawn around or between species can in some ways be consideredarbitrary. Bapteste and Boucher (2008, Figure 3), and Bapteste et al. (2004, Figure 4) describe new methods for visualizing the relationships of species in the light of HGT.Can we continue to use the 'Tree of Life' as a metaphor?To a degree; but it mustbe remembered that genome elements are increasingly found to be mobile, and, as in the case of the previous question, we must be cautious with this device (see Bapteste et al. 2009 for a review of the metaphor).Do all life forms descend from a common ancestor?Yes, but the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) would not have been very similar to modern cells.3. CommentsWhether studying nonhuman primates, early Homo, or recent and modern Homo, anthropologists are studying the processes and products of biological and biocultural evolution. Recent advances in biological understanding show that evolution has multiple modes. Some evolution is essentially Lamarckian, some evolution is essentially neodarwinian, and different modes might have prevailed at different times in the history of life. In sum, there is much more to evolution than the simple neodarwinian principles most of us have learned. This does not mean that Darwinism is dead, that neodarwinism is dead, or that ̳evolution is wrong.‘ Rather than throwing out evolutionary principles we are better understanding the actual complexity of evolution. How biology itself proceeds in the future will condition, to an extent, how and what anthropologists will learn about evolution; as ever, there are social, political, and economic factors involved in biological science. In a review of the last century of biology, Woese has recently called for a philosophical discussion of the purpose of biology today and in the future (Woese 2004). Concerned that too much emphasis has been placed on genome mapping (often funded by pharmaceutical companies and their interests) Woese asks whether, generally, biology will be used to better understand the world of living things or to modify it, becoming ―an engineering discipline.‖(Woese 2004:185). While much basic research addresses how the evolutionary process occurs, genome engineering is proceeding at a fast pace; in 2010 Smith and Ruppell: What Anthropologists Should Know About the New Evolutionary Synthesis7 researchers at the J. Craig Venter Institute created the first self-replicating synthetic life, inserting chemically synthesized artificial genetic into natural living cells. So, both a new understandings of biology, and engineering it (for better or worse; see Brosius 2003 for a review), are well underway.An evolutionarily-informed anthropology cannot ignore these developments. 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Hokun Liera of Norway was a White family exchange student in Minneapolis circa 1960.