John M. Roberts

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EA35.468 Games of Strategy

from Rolando Alum - Roberts family in Trondheim 1979 - Garry Chick <gchick@psu.edu>, Judy Dach <jtdach@aol.com>, Allen Tan <tanallen@gmail.com>, Allen Tan <altan@info.com.ph>, Richard Scaglion <scaglion+@pitt.edu>, Jeannie Nutini <nutini+@pitt.edu>, Bob Morais <moreaces@optonline.net>, John Frechione <jfrech@pitt.edu>, Doren Slade <dslade1@nyc.rr.com>

John M. Roberts (Milton) 1990 Obit by Ward Goodenough. PNAS. Malcolm J. Arth, Robert R. Bush

  • G. Chick and H. G. Nutini. John Milton Roberts. Anthropology Newsletter 31(6):4-5. EA35.468 Games of Strategy

Screen Shot 2016-01-30 at 4.35.57 PM.png Dear Doug,

Thanks. I have completed revising the combative sport data set. I have added 20 cases (for a total of 130 of the 186) and corrected others. Preliminary analyses (not using the Dow-Eff software) support the findings in my 1997 replication of the old Sipes paper. I have to get up and running with the software. Downhill from there.

Regards, Garry Chick see also Richard G. Sipes, John P. Kennedy

Google Scholar

John M. Roberts, Malcolm J. Arth, Robert R. Bush. 1959. Games in Culture. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 597-605.

John M. Roberts. 1965. Oaths, Autonomic Ordeals, and Power. American Anthropologist. Volume 67, Issue 6, pages 186–212. Article first published online: 28 OCT 2009

John M. Roberts Jr. here are the yrs for jack: Thanks, Garry Chick. Google John M. Roberts and Herbert Barry III. "Inculcated traits and game-type combinations." “Inculcated Traits and Game-Type Combinations: A Cross -Cultural View.” Pp. 5–11 in The Humanistic and Mental Health Aspects of Sport, Exercise, and Recreation. Garry has a copy,

He left [Chicago] in 1939 for Yale University, where he studied principally under Clellan Ford, Cornelius Osgood and George Peter Murdock while working on the Cross-Cultural Survey, which evolved into the Human Relations Area Files. In 1941 Roberts married Marie Kotouc of Nebraska; they had two children.

   An ROTC reservist, Jack was mobilized in 1942 for World War II, receiving the Silver Star for gallantry in action and Bronze Star for meritorious service and achieving the rank of captain in Europe's battlefield.   Returning to Yale in late 1945, he conducted research for his dissertation among the Navajo of New Mexico in 1946, receiving a PhD in 1947.   That fall he joined the University of Minnesota's faculty. 

table(sccs$v1189,ineq,useNA="ifany")

 InEq
    5  6  7
 0 83 35  1
 1 26 37  4

evileye=sccs$v1189 ineq=(sccs$v158>2)*1)+((sccs$v155=5)*1)+((sccs$v208==1)*1)*(sccs$v858==6)*1

EduMod-67

 v1189        | y=Absent   Not Active  Active, not  Moral Gods  v238
 x=Evil Eye   |         1 |         2 |supportive3|         4 | Row Total | 
 -------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
 No         0 |        55 |        36 |         5 |         9 |       105 | 
 -------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
 Yes        1 |        13 |        11 |         8 |        31 |        63 | 
 -------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
 Column Total |        68 |        47 |        13 |        40 |       168 | 
 -------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
 Chi-sq = 44.30011     d.f. =  3     p =  0.0000000013 1/billion chance  table(SCCS$v1189,SCCS$v238,useNA="ifany")
v1189 Evil Eye
v238 Moral Gods
v237 State level societies

table(dx$v2007,dx$v1188)

   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8
1  1 21 24 11  3  4  3  2
2  0 17 12 10  3  3  0  6
3  0  5  5  2  1  2  6  2
4  0  2  5  4  1  4  7 20
cor 0.5126265 df = 184, p-value = .00000000000007

Biography

John M. Roberts (1916-1990) was an American anthropologist who developed the field of expressive culture in a series of studies on games in culture, and published over 50 articles on these subjects. His complete list of publications can be found in the biography by Goodenough (1995). His 1964 article marked the first anthropological view of distributed cognition through the social organization of a community, looking at how information moves through the people in the society.

Bio

John M. Roberts The National Academies Press

  • Roberts, John M., Malcolm J. Arth, Robert R. Bush. 1959. Games in Culture. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 597-605.
  • Roberts, John M., Brian Sutton-Smith. 1962. Child training and game involvement. Ethnology 1:166-85.
  • Roberts, John M.. B. Sutton-Smith and A. Kendon. 1963. Strategy in games and folk tales. J. Soc. Psychol. 61:185-99.
  • Roberts, John M., B. Sutton-Smith and R. M. Kozelka. 1963. Game involvement in adults. J. Soc. Psychol. 60:15-30.
  • Roberts, John M., B. Sutton-Smith. Rubrics of competitive behavior. 1964. J. Genet. Psychol. 105:13-37.
  • Roberts, John M., Oaths, autonomic ordeals, and power. 1965. The Ethnography of Law, ed. L. Nader, pp. 186-212. Am. Anthropol. 67(6): Part 2. ---
  • Roberts, John M., B. Sutton-Smith. Cross-cultural correlates of games of chance. 1966. Behav. Sci. Notes 1:131-44.


  • Roberts, John M. and H. C. Barry III. Inculcated traits and game-type combination. In The Humanistic and Mental Health Aspects of Sports, Exercise and Recreation, ed. T. T. Craig, pp. 5-11. Chicago: American Medical Association.
  • Sutton-Smith, B., John M. Roberts, and B. G. Rosenberg. 1964. Sibling associations and role involvement. Merrill-Palmer Q. 10:25-38.

Evil Eye

John M. Roberts. 1976. Belief in the evil eye in world perspective. In The Evil Eye, ed. C. Maloney, pp. 223-78. New York: Columbia University Press.

review by Hazel Weidman 1980. TRANSCULT PSYCHIATRY 17:68-72.
"Roberts’s chapter succeeds in putting the core belief in the evil eye into cross-cultural perspective and laying the foundation for later theoretical developments. He establishes the incontrovertible (or almost certain) presence or absence of evil eye beliefs in a world sample of 186 cultures and provides statistically significant correlations between certain cultural traits and the evil eye belief. The 29 [sets of] scales with the strongest associations were factor analysed to produce dimensions which may be considered to approximate the cultural context that supports the evil eye belief and behaviour. This provides a baseline from which the reader may assess and compare the material offered in other chapters. While such comparisons are not routinely made by the chapter authors, the Roberts material is essential to the Garrison and Arensberg concluding chapter.

SCCS Scales correlated with Evil eye

  • The 59 scales and their significance coefficients, two tailed, 57 significant
  • p<0.01 153 Technological specialization
  • p<0.01 158 Social stratification
  • p<0.01 149 Writing and records
  • p<0.01 155 Money
  • p<0.01 157 Level of political integration
  • p<0.01 154 Land transport
  • p<0.05 156 Density of population
  • p<0.05 151 Agriculture
  • p<0.01 152 Urbanization
  • p< n.s. 150 Fixity of residence
  • p<0.01 115 Milking
  • p<0.01 120 Dairy production
  • p<0.01 114 Tending large animals
  • p<0.01 122 Mining and/or quarrying
  • p<0.01 140 Metalworking
  • p<0.01 129 Smelting
  • p<0.01 143 Laundering
  • p<0.01 126 Preparation of skins
  • p<0.01 128 Loom weaving
  • p<0.01 134 Manuf. of leather products
  • p<0.05 135 Making of clothing
  • p<0.05 127 Spinning
  • p<0.01 110 D of L Crop planting
  • p<0.01 111 D of L Crop tending
  • p<0.01 112 D of L Harvesting
  • p<0.01 685 Larger domesticated animals
  • p<0.01 682 Cereal rather than root crops
  • p<0.01 221 Patrilineal descent v. matrilineal
  • p<0.01 215 Patrilocal residence v. Neolocal
  • p<0.01 208 Bride price v. service
  • p<0.01 272 Caste stratification
  • p<0.02 274 Slavery
  • p<0.01 81 Political autonomy
  • p<0.01 85 Executive
  • p<0.01 90 Police
  • p<0.01 89 Judiciary
  • p<0.01 238 High god
  • p<0.01 239 Games of strategy
  • p<0.05 74 (reordered) Prominent Cmnty. Cerem.
  • p<0.01 75 Cerem. elements
  • p<0.02 53 Role of father in infancy
  • p<0.05 47 Encouragement of motor skills
  • p<0.05 33 Pain infliction on child
  • p<0.01 50 Covering of genitals of child
  • p<0.01 241 Male genital mutilations
  • p<0.01 314 Child Trng: Industry
  • p<0.01 318 Child Trng: Responsibility
  • p<0.01 330 Child Trng: Sexual restraint
  • p<0.01 322 Child Trng: Obedience
  • p<0.02 298 Child Trng: Physical aggr.
  • p<0.01 335 Child Trng: Trust
  • p<0.05 322 CMPLX cultures: Obedience
  • p<0.01 318 CMPLX cultures: Sexual restraint
  • p<0.01 453 Socialization: Corp. Punishment
  • p<n.s. 449 Socialization: Threats of Punishment
  • p<0.01 000 Socialization: Atonement
  • p<0.01 000 Socialization: Pacification
  • p<0.01 000 4+ Children
  • p<0.01 000 Assessment of responsibility
  • Note: The last four codes from an unpublished ms. were never published

Commentary

(too NARROW:) "The hypothesis advanced by Roberts is similar to the conflict enculturation hypothesis dealt with in detail by Stein in the preceding chapter. Roberts sees stories and gossip about the evil eye as expressive forms related to conflict experienced during the process of enculturation. He assumes that there may be differences in the strength of belief in the evil eye within a given culture depending upon the strength of the antecedent conflicts at the individual level. The greater the conflict, the less representative of the "real" world the model needs to be to make it expressively satisfying. Roberts finds that, with few exceptions, the evil eye belief and its significant cluster of associated traits occur in such marked geographical patterns that he places its origin in the Mediterranean area with extensions into Europe, the Near East, and elsewhere."

Discussing Arensberg's thoery in the Garrison and Arensberg conclusion:

"Arensberg’s minimal sequence model, a structural approach which differs from the work of most structural anthropologists in that it abstracts the interrelationships between elements in a system rather than the properties of the elements. The argument is that the evil eye can be explained as an emergent from an underlying regularity of social action. They suggest that the sequence of interpersonal behaviour in the institution of personal patronage, amply reported in the Circum-Mediterranean lands, is the predecessor of evil eye beliefs. The processes of personal patronage are reflected in the drama of the evil eye which &dquo;involves as a minimal sequence of interpersonal action: a gaze or suspected gaze, gazee’s raising of a protection, and thereby the deflection of gazer (or his power ) from seizure, expropriation, or destruction.&dquo; The proper association of the evil eye is then with the drama of gaze which involves threat or fear of seizure, appeal to protection, and threat or patronal retaliation. They emphasize its triadic rather than dyadic nature."
"Garrison and Arensberg "test" their hypothesis by examining some of the cases reported in other chapters of the book. They discuss greeting behaviour in the context of evil eye beliefs, preventive behaviour on the part of a potential gazee, and the evil eye as an explanation of illness and cure, as witchcraft in an evolutionary framework, and as a psychodynamic process (envy), suggesting that envy must be viewed as one element in the system of evil eye beliefs rather than as the underlying linear cause."

The Evil eye: a casebook By Alan Dundes

Albania

Roberts, John M. 1976 is cited in: Kristin Peterson-Bidosh. VPN. 2006. The Dordolec: Albanian House Dolls and the Evil Eye. Journal of American Folklore 119.473 (2006) 337-355

Abstract: This study, based on forty taped interviews, considers the social and economic conditions that led to the sudden reemergence of evil eye beliefs and practices in Albania. It explores how the recent development of a highly stratified class system and the introduction of individual property ownership helped to increase the dependence of Albanians on the dordolec (scarecrow) for protection of their newfound wealth. A discussion of the kukull, the store-bought, stuffed animal version of the dordolec, offers insight into the post-post-Communist Albanian trend to appropriate Western commodities into the local tradition.

Hutterites

Roberts, John M. 1976 is cited in: Peter H. Stephenson. 2---. Hutterite belief in evil eye: Beyond paranoia and towards a general theory of invidia Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 3(3): 247-265.

Murdock and Winkelman codes

run crosstabs in SPSS

Murdock, George Peter. 1980. Theories of Illness: A World Survey.

p. 37: "I noted a number of disturbing discrepancies between a paper on the evil eye by John Roberts (1976) and the codes produced by this study.... [A] number of the differences were found to be clearly the result of the fact that Roberts was interested in the evil eye as an example of what he calls "expressive culture" whereas our concern related solely to its use by witches as a technique for causing illness."

Murdock and Wilson code:

656.  Theories of Witchcraft
    55    . = Missing data
    81    1 = Absence of such a cause
    24    2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause
    17    3 = An important auxiliary cause
     9    4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society

Discrepancies for evil eye:

21. Wolof -
25. Woodabe -
60. Gond -
53. Samoyed -
92. Orokaiva -
155. Quiche -
102. Mbau -
126. Micmac -

Roberts identified a case Murdock and Wilson missed:

45. Babylonians -

Murdock and Wilson identified a case Roberts missed:

13. Mbutu -
14. Mongo -
16. Tiv -
26. Hausa -
52. Lapps -
81. Tanala -
122. Ingalik -
133. Twana -
138. Klamath -
148. Chiricahua
162. Warrau -


Winkelman code:

883.  Sorcerer/Witch
   139    . = Not Coded or Insufficient Data
    29    0 = Absent
    17    1 = Present (Note: the Roman practitioner known as a sorcerer, witch, necromancer, etc. was clustered with the Shaman/Healers although the social role was much the same as the Sorcerer/Witch here)

Games in Culture

  • John M. Roberts, Malcolm J. Arth and Robert R. Bush. 1959. Games in Culture. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 61, No. 4 (Aug., 1959), pp. 597-605.
  • John M. Roberts and Brian Sutton-Smith. 1962. Child Training and Game Involvement. Ethnology, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Apr., 1962), pp. 166-185.
  • Herbert Barry III and John M. Roberts. 1972. Infant Socialization and Games of Chance. Ethnology, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Jul., 1972), pp. 296-308
  • John M. Roberts, Malcolm J. Arth, Robert R. Bush. 1959. Games in Culture. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 597-605.
  • John M. Roberts, Brian Sutton-Smith. 1962. Child training and game involvement. Ethnology 1:166-85.
  • John M. Roberts. With B. Sutton-Smith and A. Kendon. 1963 Strategy in games and folk tales. J. Soc. Psychol. 61:185-99.
  • John M. Roberts, B. Sutton-Smith and R. M. Kozelka. 1963. Game involvement in adults. J. Soc. Psychol. 60:15-30.
  • John M. Roberts, B. Sutton-Smith. Rubrics of competitive behavior. J. Genet. 1964. Psychol. 105:13-37.
  • John M. Roberts, B. Sutton-Smith and B. G. Rosenberg. 1964. Sibling associations and role involvement. Merrill-Palmer Q. 10:25-38. 1965
  • John M. Roberts, Oaths, autonomic ordeals, and power. In The Ethnography of Law, ed. L. Nader, pp. 186-212. Am. Anthropol. 67(6): Part 2.
  • John M. Roberts, B. Sutton-Smith. Cross-cultural correlates of games of chance. 1966.Behav. Sci. Notes 1:131-44.

References

Bolton, Ralph (1989). The Content of Culture: Constants and Variants. Studies in Honor of John M. Roberts. New Haven: HRAF Press.

Chick, Garry, and Liliana González (2005) Case Studies in Cultural Control: John M. Roberts’s Four Southwestern Men. Cross-Cultural Research 39(3):322-346.

Goodenough, Ward H. (1995) Biographical Memoirs V.67. National Academy of Sciences. http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/jroberts.pdf

Roberts, John. M. (1964). The Self-Management of Cultures. p. 433-454, in Explorations in Cultural Anthropology, edited by Ward H. Goodenough. New York: McGraw Hill.

--- (1987) Within Culture Variation: A Retrospective Personal View. American Behavioral Scientist 31(2): 266-279. (contains a complete bibliography).

--- and Michael L. Forman (1991) Riddles: Expressive Models of Interrogation. Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication, Eds., John Gumperz, Dell Hymes. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Brauner, Elisabeth and Wolfgang Scholl 2000 Editorial: The Information Processing Approach as a Perspective for Groups Research Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 3(2)115-124. http://gpi.sagepub.com

Doug White 13:13, 6 January 2008 (PST), this text was also contributed to Wikipedia

Crosstabs

1

table(SCCS$v1189,SCCS$v238,useNA="ifany")
    1  2  3  4 NaN
 0 55 36  5  9  14
 1 13 11  8 31   4
setwd("c:/My Documents/MI")
load("SCCS.Rdata",.GlobalEnv)
Evil_Eye=SCCS$v1189
Moral_Gods=SCCS$v238
library(gmodels)
tab=cbind(Evil_Eye,Moral_Gods)
tabl<-na.omit(tab)  #eliminate cases with missing data 
x=tabl[,1] #take variable for those cases
y=tabl[,2] #take variable for those cases
CrossTable(x,y,prop.r=FALSE, prop.c=FALSE, prop.t=FALSE, expected=TRUE)
 v1189        | y=Absent   Not Active  Active, not  Moral Gods  v238
 x=Evil Eye   |         1 |         2 |supportive3|         4 | Row Total | 
 -------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
 No         0 |        55 |        36 |         5 |         9 |       105 | 
 -------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
 Yes        1 |        13 |        11 |         8 |        31 |        63 | 
 -------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
 Column Total |        68 |        47 |        13 |        40 |       168 | 
 -------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
 Pearson's Chi-squared test 
 Chi-sq = 44.30011     d.f. =  3     p =  0.0000000013 1/billion chance

2

table(SCCS$v237,SCCS$v238,useNA="ifany")

      1  2  3  4 NaN
 1   43 17  8  6   8
 2   13 15  2 13   5
 3    4  6  3  7   3
 4    4  3  0 11   1
 5    4  6  0  2   0
 NaN  0  0  0  1   1
setwd("c:/My Documents/MI")
load("SCCS.Rdata",.GlobalEnv)
States31=SCCS$v237
Moral_Gods=SCCS$v238
library(gmodels)
tab=cbind(States31,Moral_Gods)
tabl<-na.omit(tab)  #eliminate cases with missing data 
x=tabl[,1] #take variable for those cases
y=tabl[,2] #take variable for those cases
CrossTable(x,y,prop.r=FALSE, prop.c=FALSE, prop.t=FALSE, expected=TRUE)
v1189        | y=Absent   Not Active  Active, not  Moral Gods  v238
x=States     |         1 |         2 |supportive3|         4 | Row Total | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           1 |        43 |        17 |         8 |         6 |        74 |  
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           2 |        13 |        15 |         2 |        13 |        43 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           3 |         4 |         6 |         3 |         7 |        20 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           4 |         4 |         3 |         0 |        11 |        18 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           5 |         4 |         6 |         0 |         2 |        12 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
Column Total |        68 |        47 |        13 |        39 |       167 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
Pearson's Chi-squared test CURVILINEAR
Chi^2 =  40.44097     d.f. =  12     p =  0.00006.074
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           1 |       *43 |        17*|        *8 |         6*|        74 | 
             |    30.132 |    20.826 |     5.760 |    17.281 |           | 
             |     5.496 |     0.703 |     0.871 |     7.365 |           | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           2 |        13 |       *15 |         2*|       *13 |        43 | 
             |    17.509 |    12.102 |     3.347 |    10.042 |           | 
             |     1.161 |     0.694 |     0.542 |     0.871 |           | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           3 |         4 |         6 |        *3 |        *7|        20 | 
             |     8.144 |     5.629 |     1.557 |     4.671 |           | 
             |     2.108 |     0.024 |     1.338 |     1.162 |           | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           4 |         4 |         3*|         0 |        11*|        18 | 
             |     7.329 |     5.066 |     1.401 |     4.204 |           | 
             |     1.512 |     0.842 |     1.401 |    10.988 |           | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           5 |        =4 |        *6 |         0 |         2 |        12 | 
             |     4.886 |     3.377 |     0.934 |     2.802 |           | 
             |     0.161 |     2.037 |     0.934 |     0.230 |           | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
Column Total |        68 |        47 |        13 |        39 |       167 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|

3

table(SCCS$v1189,SCCS$v237,useNA="ifany") 
    1  2  3  4  5 NaN
 0 63 28 10  9  7   2
 1 19 20 13 10  5   0
setwd("c:/My Documents/MI")
load("SCCS.Rdata",.GlobalEnv)
Evil_Eye=SCCS$v1189
States31=SCCS$v237
library(gmodels)
tab=cbind(Evil_Eye,States31)
tabl<-na.omit(tab)  #eliminate cases with missing data 
x=tabl[,1] #take variable for those cases
y=tabl[,2] #take variable for those cases
CrossTable(x,y,prop.r=FALSE, prop.c=FALSE, prop.t=FALSE, expected=TRUE)
v1189        | y=Absent  chiefdoms   chiefdoms   small states large states v237 Juris. Hier. beyond Community
x=Evil Eye   |         1 |small    2 |large     3|         4 |         5 | Row Total | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           0 |        63 |        28 |        10 |         9 |         7 |       117 |
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           1 |        19 |        20 |        13 |        10 |         5 |        67 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
Column Total |        82 |        48 |        23 |        19 |        12 |       184 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
Pearson's Chi-squared test 
Chi^2 =  13.10079     d.f. =  4     p =  0.01079366
237.  JURISDICTIONAL HIERARCHY BEYOND LOCAL COMMUNITY
     2    . = Missing data
    82    1 = No levels (no political authority beyond community)
    48    2 = One level (e.g., petty chiefdoms)
    23    3 = Two levels (e.g., larger chiefdoms)
    19    4 = Three levels (e.g., states)
    12    5 = Four levels (e.g., large states)

4

load("SCCS.Rdata",.GlobalEnv)
table(SCCS$v155,SCCS$v238,useNA="ifany")
    1  2  3  4 NaN
 1 36 18  5  9   9
 2  3  3  1  4   3
 3 11 10  4 14   4
 4 11 11  3  0   2
 5  7  5  0 13   0
setwd("c:/My Documents/MI")
load("SCCS.Rdata",.GlobalEnv)
Money=SCCS$v155
Moral_Gods=SCCS$v238
library(gmodels)
tab=cbind(Money,Moral_Gods)
tabl<-na.omit(tab)  #eliminate cases with missing data 
x=tabl[,1] #take variable for those cases
y=tabl[,2] #take variable for those cases
CrossTable(x,y,prop.r=FALSE, prop.c=FALSE, prop.t=FALSE, expected=TRUE)
v1189        | y=Absent   Not Active  Active, not  Moral Gods  v238
x=Money      |         1 |         2 |supportive3|         4 | Row Total |
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           1 |        36 |        18 |         5 |         9 |        68 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           2 |         3 |         3 |         1 |         4 |        11 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           3 |        11 |        10 |         4 |        14 |        39 |  
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           4 |        11 |        11 |         3 |         0 |        25 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
           5 |         7 |         5 |         0 |        13 |        25 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
Column Total |        68 |        47 |        13 |        40 |       168 | 
-------------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|-----------|
 Pearson's Chi-squared test 
Chi^2 =  32.06087     d.f. =  12     p =  0.001354169