John R. Snarey

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SFI2011 project

Snarey, John R. 1996. The natural environment's impact upon religious ethics: a cross-cultural study. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 35(2): 85-96.

Professor, Human Development & Ethics, Department: Candler School of Theology, Emory University. Work Phone : 404-727-4185

Amazon books

Google scholar


Rain HI to LO water - Rain.f <- factor(Rain, labels = c(">40in/year", "Moderate", "<10in/year"))

Terrain HI to LO water - Terrain.f <- factor(Terrain, labels = c("Surface Water", "Moderate","Surface H20 Scarce"))

Water LO to HI water -Water.f <- factor(Water, labels = c("Neither Rain nor Surface H20 high","Either Rain or Surface H20 high"))

Snarey's lab

Dr. Snarey's Lab at Emory University is devoted to the study of moral cognition, development, and education. Current projects make use of longitudinal, cross-cultural, and brain imaging research methods.


Snarey, John R. 1985. Cross-cultural universality of social-moral development: A critical review of Kohlbergian research. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 97(2), Mar , 202-232.

Erratta: [Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 97(3) of Psychological Bulletin (see record 2008-10967-001). The subheadings in Table 5 are incorrect and should be reversed. The first subheading should read "Countries for Which Studies Did Not Report Significant Differences," and the second subheading should read "Countries for Which Studies Did Report Statistically Significant Differences."] Reviews 45 cross-cultural studies of moral reasoning published from 1969 to 1984 to evaluate the empirical support for the primary empirical assumptions underlying the claim of L. Kohlberg (1971) that there is a cross-cultural universality of moral development. The assumptions underlying the claim are identified as culturally diverse samplings, universal and moral questions, invariant stage sequence, full range of stages, and general applicability of the stages. Findings support the underlying assumptions and identify some major caveats regarding the range and general applicability of the stages across cultures. Biases in favor of complex urban societies and middle-class populations are evident in the studies. It is suggested that sociocultural systems should be expected to vary in modal stage of usage and should also be understood as fully equal. A key to this position is to distinguish between society and culture and to bring a developmental perspective to both.

Publications with Student Colleagues

with Ashley Coleman

Coleman, A. & Snarey, J. (2011). James-Lange Theory of Emotions. In S. Goldstein & J. Naglieri (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development (Volume 2, 844-846). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Snarey, J. & Coleman, A. (2011). William James. In S. Goldstein & J. Naglieri (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development (Volume 2, 841-844). New York: Springer-Verlag.

with Sarah Poole

Poole, S. & Snarey, J. (2011). Generativity vs. stagnation. In S. Goldstein & J. Naglieri (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development (Volume 2, 695-696). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Poole, S. & Snarey, J. (2011). Erikson's stages of the life cycle. In S. Goldstein & J. Naglieri (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development (Volume 2, 599-603). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Snarey, J. & Poole, S. (2011). Erik H. Erikson. In S. Goldstein & J. Naglieri (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development (Volume 2, 593-598). New York: Springer-Verlag

with Andrea Green

Green, A., & Snarey, J. (2011). Postconventional morality. In S. Goldstein & J. Naglieri (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development (Volume 3, 1124-1127). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Snarey, J. & Green, A. (2011). Lawrence Kohlberg. In S. Goldstein & J. Naglieri (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development (Volume 2, 855-859). New York: Springer-Verlag.

with Adam Neal

Neal, A. & Snarey, J. (2010). Pragmatism. In C. Lippy & P. Williams (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Religion in America (pp. 1743-1748). Washington, DC: CQ Press. Also online edition:

with Peter Samuelson

Snarey, J. & Samuelson, P. (2008). Moral education in the cognitive developmental tradition. Handbook on Moral and Character Education (Ch. 4, pp. 53-79). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Samuelson, P. & Snarey, J. (2008). Stage theory. Encyclopedia of Moral Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

with Charles Hooker

Snarey, J. & Hooker, C. (2006). Lawrence Kohlberg. Encyclopedia of spiritual and religious development (pp. 251-255). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

with David Bell

Snarey, J., & Bell, D. (2003). Distinguishing structural and functional models of human development. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 3(3), 221-229.

Snarey, J. & Bell, D. (2006). Erik H. Erikson. Encyclopedia of spiritual and religious development (pp. 146-151). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

with Lynn Bridgers

Bridgers, L. & Snarey, J. (2003). From father to son: Generative care and gradual conversion in William James’s writing of The Varieties. Journal of Moral Education, 32(4), 329-340.

Snarey, J., & Bridgers, L. (2005). When the amygdala meets the unfamiliar [Review of The long shadow of temperament by J. Kagan and N. Snidman.] PsycCRITIQUES-Contemporary Psychology, 50(23), 2.

Snarey, J. & Bridgers, L. (2006). William James. Encyclopedia of spiritual and religious development (pp. 2276-231). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

with Philip Olson

Snarey, J., & Olson, P. (2003). Pragmatism's founding brothers. [Review of The Metaphysical Club: A story of ideas in America by L. Menand.] Journal of Moral Education, 32(1), 91-95.

with Carla Gober

Snarey, J., & Gober, C. (2000). Father-adolescent relationships. Parenthood in America: An encyclopedia (Vol. 1, pp. 218-222). Denver: ABC-CLIO.

Snarey, J., & Gober, C. (2000). Father-child relationships. Parenthood in America: An encyclopedia (Vol. 1, pp. 222-226). Denver: ABC-CLIO.

with Peter Yuichi Clark

Snarey, J., & Clark, P. Y. (1998). A generative drama: Scenes from a father-son relationship. In D. McAdams & E. de St. Aubin (Eds.), Generativity and adult development: How and why we care for the next generation (pp. 45-74). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.

Snarey, J., & Clark, P. (2000). Grandfatherhood. Entry in Parenthood in America: An encyclopedia (Vol. 1, pp. 288-292). Denver: ABC-CLIO.

with Tracy Nunley

Nunley, T., & Snarey, J. (1997). Erik Erikson's value orientation stages: A longitudinal study of ethical identity development. International Journal of Educational Research, 27(7), 629-641.

with Russ Hanford

DeHaan, R., Hanford, R., Kinlaw, K., Philler, D., & Snarey, J. (1997). Promoting ethical reasoning, affect, and behavior among high school students: An evaluation of three teaching strategies. Journal of Moral Education, 56(1), 5-20.

Snarey, J., & Hanford, R. (1997). The transition to fatherhood. [Review of the book Becoming a father by J. Shapiro, M. Diamond, & M. Greenberg.] Contemporary Psychology, 42(3), 251-252.

Hanford, R. & Snarey, J. (2001). Parenting Huckleberry Finn: ADHD. Journal of Moral Education, 30(3), 293-297.

with Elaine Nocks

Snarey, J., & Nocks, E. C. (1996). Review of the book The struggle for life: A companion to William James's "The Varieties of Religious Experience" by D. Capps & J. Jacobs (Eds.). Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 35(3), 331-332.

with Jennifer Kogos

Kogos, J. L., & Snarey, J. (1995). Parental divorce and the moral development of adolescents. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 23(3-4), 177-186.

with Anthony Maier

Snarey, J. & Maier, A. (1993). Early adulthood consequences of men’s parental generativity for their children. In J. Snarey, How fathers care for the next generation: A four-decade study (pp. 149-191). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

with Margaret Silberman

Silberman, M. A., & Snarey, J. (1993). Gender differences in moral development during early adolescence: The contribution of sex-related variations in maturation. Current Psychology, 12(2), 163-171.

with Phyllis Curtis-Tweed

Snarey, J., & Curtis, P. (1993). Review of Education for young adults: International perspectives by K. Evans & I. G. Haffenden. Comparative Education Review, 37(1), 77-80.

with Steve Thomas

Snarey, J. & Thomas, S. (1992). In a higher voice: Postformal operational thought and postconventional moral reasoning. [Review of the book Adult development, Vol. 2 by M. L. Commons, C. Armon, L. Kohlberg, F. Richards, T. Grotzer, A. Tina, & J. Sinnott.] Contemporary Psychology, 37(7), 695-696.

with Kurt Keljo

Snarey, J., & Keljo, K. (1991).The cross-cultural expansion of moral development theory. Handbook of moral behavior and development (Vol. 1, pp. 395-424). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Snarey, J., & Keljo, K. (1991). Moral education through democratic communities. [Review of Lawrence Kohlberg's approach to moral education by F. C. Power, A. Higgins, & L. Kohlberg.] Contemporary Psychology, 36(2), 108-110.

Snarey, J., & Keljo, K. (1994). Revitalizing the meaning and measurement of moral development. [Review of the book Moral maturity: Measuring the development of sociomoral reflection by J. Gibbs, K. Basinger, & D. Fuller.] Human Development, 37, 181-186.

Snarey, J., & Keljo, K. (1996). Commentary on a study of moral development in the South African context. Psychological Reports, 79, 1089-1090.

with Phyllis Kuziel-Perri

Kuziel-Perri, P., & Snarey, J. (1991). Adolescent repeat pregnancies: An evaluation study of a comprehensive service program for pregnant and parenting black adolescents. Family Relations, 40(4), 381-385.

with Regina Logan

Logan, R., Snarey, J., & Schrader, D. (1990). Autonomous versus heteronymous moral judgment types: A longitudinal cross-cultural study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 21(1), 71-89.

with Lois Lydens

Snarey, J., & Lydens, L. (1990). Worker equality and adult development: The kibbutz as a developmental model. Psychology and Aging, 5(1), 86-93.

with Victoria Lasser

Lasser, V., & Snarey, J. (1989). Ego development and perceptions of parent behavior in adolescent girls: A qualitative study of the transition from high school to college. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4(3), 319-355.

with Stephanie Ewing

Snarey, J., & Ewing, S. (1988). The dynamics of conventional morality in ordinary social life. [Review of the book, Moralities of everyday life by J. Sabini & M. Silver.] New Ideas in Psychology, 6(2), 261-265.

with Valerie Kuehne

Snarey, J., Son, L., Kuehne, V., Hauser, S., & Vaillant, G. (1987). The role of parenting in men's psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of early adulthood infertility and midlife generativity. Developmental Psychology, 23(4), 593-603

with Thomas Pavkov

Pavkov, T., & Snarey, J. (1986). Five perspectives on moral development [Review of the book Moral development by B. Clouse]. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 14(3), 240-241.

Snarey, J., & Pavkov, T. (1991). Beyond socialization versus development: Kohlberg's approach to moral education. Sociological Focus, 24(2), 105-115.

Reproduce his tables

p. 92 "a moderate positive association between missionization and conceptions of a High God (V = .28, X2 = 14.08, df = 3, p < .01). About three-quarters of the societies in which a High God was understood as active (78%) or ethical (79%) had been missionized, compared with about half of the societies in which a High God was either absent (52%) or inactive (49%). Postmissionized societies, that is, were more likely than premissionized societies to posit a Supreme Deity who was active in human affairs."

setwd('/Users/drwhite/Documents/') #3sls/projects/deity')")
Snarey<-read.csv("Snarey186HiGods.csv", header=TRUE)
ID Raininch Rain Terrain LORlow2 Missions HiGod4
BEWARE: If you have ID in the first cell csv becomes a SYLK *.slk file that can't be read

Add a variable in .csv format to the sccs.Rdata file

Splitting the sample various ways, i.e., USING CONTROL VARIABLES

split the sample based on the value of a dichotomized variable
z<-which(SCCS$v238==4)  ##missionization

Combine Snarey with sccs

     V1       V2        V3      V4            V5       V6         V7          V8              V9
  SCCS Raininch Rain Terrain Water Missions HiGod4 Snareycodes  ID
aux_data = read.table("AddSnarey.csv", sep = ",", header=TRUE)  #Snarey186.csv

Kohlberg, Gilligan, Rawls'71

Wikipedia: Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development

Gilligan, Carol (1982). In a Different Voice: Women's Conceptions of Self and Morality. Harvard Educational Review 47 (4)

Monika Keller,Wolfgang Edelstein, Tobias Krettenauer, Fang Fu-xi & Fang Ge. 2005. Reasoning about Moral Obligations and Interpersonal Responsibilities in Different Cultural Contexts. In W. Edelstein & G. Nunner-Winkler (Eds.), Morality in context (pp. 317-337). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Karl Sigmund, Karl. 2009. The Calculus of Selfishness. Princeton: Princeton University press.


How does cooperation emerge among selfish individuals? When do people share resources, punish those they consider unfair, and engage in joint enterprises? These questions fascinate philosophers, biologists, and economists alike, for the "invisible hand" that should turn selfish efforts into public benefit is not always at work. The Calculus of Selfishness looks at social dilemmas where cooperative motivations are subverted and self-interest becomes self-defeating. Karl Sigmund, a pioneer in evolutionary game theory, uses simple and well-known game theory models to examine the foundations of collective action and the effects of reciprocity and reputation.
Focusing on some of the best-known social and economic experiments, including games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma, Trust, Ultimatum, Snowdrift, and Public Good, Sigmund explores the conditions leading to cooperative strategies. His approach is based on evolutionary game dynamics, applied to deterministic and probabilistic models of economic interactions.
Exploring basic strategic interactions among individuals guided by self-interest and caught in social traps, The Calculus of Selfishness analyzes to what extent one key facet of human nature--selfishness--can lead to cooperation.
Karl Sigmund is professor of mathematics at the University of Vienna. He is the author of Games of Life (Penguin), coauthor of Evolutionary Games and Population Dynamics, and a contributor to Nature and Science.


"With collaborators from Vienna, Sigmund has pioneered the development of evolutionary game dynamics. This thought-provoking book is a distillation of his many influential contributions to the field. It is a showcase of clever models and elegant mathematics, replete with sometimes counterintuitive insights."--Nature

"In The Calculus of Selfishness, Karl Sigmund provides a comprehensive and accessible mathematical exposition of the evolutionary game theory of selfishness. The book should prove accessible to natural and social scientists as its mathematical arguments employ intuition, geometry, and simulation with a minimum of axiomatic formality. The demands on the reader typically involve little more than linear algebra and calculus."--David Krakauer, Science

"Sigmund's mathematical exposition is exemplary. He starts with the presumption that the reader has only rudimentary linear algebra and some notion of what a differential equation is, and he builds up from there, introducing more advanced concepts and results as needed. He avoids formal proofs and bookkeeping in favor of careful explanations of key points and illustrative calculations. As he teaches evolutionary game theory, Sigmund is also demonstrating how to write about applied mathematics."--Cosma Shalizi, American Scientist

"Sigmund's writing is admirably clear and historically grounded and he wisely restricts his coverage primarily to a subset of situations. . . . [Sigmund] makes fascinating reading for the interested general reader and provides a good background in game theory which should inoculate readers from being fooled by sloppy or completely incorrect references in the popular media."--Sarah Boslaugh, MAA Reviews