that's all I have, below, I haven't yet written about being merged or Norma's case for tenure junk...let me know what you write.
On Wed, 22 Nov 2017, karen leonard wrote:
see names below, Raul Fernandez, Dickran Tashjian, Sharlie Ushioda, Oliver Mbata,...and there was a guy who taught Caribbean, British as I recall..
Karen The Program in Comparative Culture had an interesting origin and a very high profile on campus. George Kent and another faculty member in Humanities (who had since moved from UCI) had not gotten tenure, but student support for them had been very, very strong. Given that, and given student agitation for faculty and courses in African American and Chicano-Latino studies, areas in which none of the existing departments were open to hiring, the UCI administration decided to start an interdisciplinary program that would accommodate these two popular teachers and these diverse interests. The Program brought western and non-western specialists into comparative engagement, and I found myself learning about my own country, particularly its minorities. Given its origin and mandate, it was a highly politicized program, with representatives of the undergraduates and graduate students voting in department meetings, even on merits and promotion cases, practices unheard of in more traditional departments. The whole program was considered decidedly controversial, and we did our best to live up to this reputation on the campus and in Orange County.
One of our graduate students, Sweet Ernie Smith who studied “Radical Black Linguistics” or Ebonics with Professor Joe White, had caused an early town/gown crisis just before my arrival. Sweet Ernie had been a pimp in Las Vegas, people said, and he came to UCI with two cars, a white Cadillac and a black Lincoln Continental. UCI had welcomed him and, he said, counted him as a black faculty member to boost its Affirmative Action statistics because he sometimes taught a course or two. When Ernie went to register one quarter, he felt he was not treated respectfully by the older Orange County white woman behind the counter and whatever he said to her offended her so much that she filed a court case against him. Or perhaps it was his public speech against the Vietnam war, when he used “profanity” in the presence of women and children, or perhaps both incidents. Friends told me that many UCI faculty members had faithfully attended court to show support for him and he was not convicted. In 2015 I heard Dr,.Ernie Smith speak about his career and this incident in a talk at UCI; he spoke about it with humor, although at the time it reflected the initial apprehension with which the Orange County folks greeted a University of California campus set down in their midst.
Ernie Smith’s mentor, Joe White, was a wonderful teacher and colleague, as were Dave Bruce and Dickran Tashjian, who worked on African American religion and American avante garde art history respectively. Sharlie Ushioda, hired as a lecturer (her husband was a faculty member in Physics), taught Japanese history and culture. Two women who were native speakers but without Ph.D.s (and therefore were lecturers) taught the Chinese and Japanese languages and taught them superbly. Their courses, Chinese taught by May Loh and Japanese taught by Kay Wilson, were our highest enrollment courses. Raul Fernandez, from Cuba, taught about Latin American economics and society, while Gilbert Gonzalez taught Chicano/Latino history. Oliver Mbata, an economist from Kenya, like George Roberts taught courses on Africa. Another colleague, Jim Flink, who worked on American automobile culture and jazz, welcomed me by telling me dirty jokes, apparently to show that he accepted me as one of the boys. The Program was fun, challenging, and fully engaging. Standing alone at first, campus reorganization plans tried to merge us into the School of Humanities, unsuccessfully, and then, successfully, into the School of Social Sciences in 1976.
Doug: maybe write your Memoirs about Comp Culture?
WOMEN AT UCI: for UCI Library Special Collections, by Karen Leonard
I was chosen in my junior year in high school in Madison, Wisconsin, for the summer AFS (American Field Service) program in Holland, initiating my interest in other countries and cultures. Then I attended the University of Wisconsin, Madison, for a major in Asian Studies (1962) and senior year in India at Miranda House, a women's college and part of the University of Delhi. I fell in love with India and decided on a career that would take me back again and again. I earned an MA in Indian Studies (1964) and a PhD in Comparative Tropical History (1969 - we called it Comp Swamp) and married John Leonard, who was in the same program at the University of Wisconsin. We did research in Hyderabad, India, and I've been going there ever since.
I hadn't realized that no women professors in History meant it would be hard to get an academic job, but I finally got one in 1972 in the Program in Comparative Culture at the University of California, Irvine, where I became a leading fighter for women faculty and Women's Studies. Comparative Culture was focused on race, class, and gender in the U.S. (the History department didn't want women and sent my vita on to this program), so my contributions to Hyderabadi and Indian history were put on hold while I wrote about South Asian Americans, Muslim Americans, and Asian Americans. After 41 years, switching finally to Anthropology after Comparative Culture self-destroyed (Chicano Marxists against Black Cultural Nationalists and Women's Studies), I retired in July of 2014 and am again writing about Hyderabadi history. And I am writing my account of women’s struggles at UC Irvine.
I was hired at UCI to start in the fall of 1972, and the Civil Rights movement had finally expanded to include women. That background of Executive Orders and federal and state legislation and my own history of fighting for women in higher education helps explain why I and others organized at UCI so quickly in 1972-73. Skim through this background if you don’t know it already.
UC Irvine: Comparative Culture
The Civil Rights Background: Federal and State Laws
In 1961 President Kennedy signed Executive Order 10925, requiring government contractors to “take affirmative action” to ensure that applicants were employed and employees were treated without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin. Under President Johnson, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 came into effect on July 2, 1965, establishing the Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC) charged with ending discrimination based on race, sex, color, religion, and national origin. Then President Johnson signed Executive Order 11246 on September 24, 1965, requiring contractors with 51 or more employees and federal contracts of $50,000 or more to implement affirmative action plans to increase the participation of minorities. Finally, as amended by Executive Order 11375 of October 13, 1967, Executive Order 11246 added women (the word sex was added to race, color, religion, and national origin). Affirmative Action plans had to analyze the existing work forces, and if minorities and women were under-represented, meaning that fewer minorities and women were employed than were available and qualified, reasonable and flexible goals and timetables needed to be established to reach those goals.
The National Organization for Women (NOW), founded in 1966, helped push for the 1967 amendment to include women. NOW and the Women’s Equity Action League (WEAL), the latter founded in 1968, then helped push for the Education Amendments of 1972 to Executive Order 11246. The Department of Labor had designated the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare as the compliance agency for institutions of higher education, and after HEW found disparities in men’s and women’s wages and patterns of promotion, it established the Office for Civil Rights to investigate complaints against colleges and universities. Congress addressed discrimination in higher education by passing the Education Guidelines of 1972 and Title IX. The Higher Education Guidelines for Executive Order 11246 published in October of 1972 explained the Order and suggested how Affirmative Action programs on campuses might be developed.
In California, we could appeal not only to the EEOC but to the state Fair Employment Practices Commission or FEPC. The federal FEPC had been set up during WWII but was disbanded in 1945, but California set up its own FEPC in 1959 under the governorship of Pat Brown. In 1970 the Fair Employment Practices Act was amended to include protection against gender-based discrimination in California.
My Activist Background
The socioeconomic landscape for women academics was completely different in the 1960s and 70s than it is today. When I got pregnant with our first child, in 1966, my husband’s and my dissertation supervisor, Robert Frykenberg, said “Oh good, I won’t have to help you get a job.” Nevertheless, with two very young children and still finishing up my dissertation, when John and I moved to Del Mar, California, in 1968 for John’s job with the UCSD History department, I began looking for jobs in southern California.
During these early years in California, I joined a Women’s History network. To my amazement, it was led by nuns, the only women historians with jobs in California higher educational institutions in the early 1970s it seemed. We held retreats in nunneries and monasteries along the California coast. There were many younger members who were not nuns, however, and a few of them were beginning to get jobs in the public universities and colleges in California. I did get a teaching job at the University of San Diego women’s college, a Catholic one, and they asked me to teach non-western religions. “Whatever you like,” they said, so I taught Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam in the spring of 1970. But then I got a grant for research in India for 1970-71 and we went to Hyderabad for more research. When I returned, the men and women’s colleges of the University of San Diego were merging, and the nuns with whom I had worked were being slotted in under their male counterparts in the larger institution.
Back in Del Mar in 1971 after that year of research in Hyderabad, I again looked for a job for myself. Since the UCSD History department where my husband John was an Assistant Professor still did not have anyone teaching Chinese or African history, it asked me to teach those subjects again (I had done so in 1969-70), along with one course on Indian history. However, I now had my Ph.D., and I requested a salary higher than what I had received previously as a “faculty wife,” a salary that would reflect my qualifications. That request was not granted, and I refused to teach for the lower pay. Students had given my courses high evaluations, and, in particular, black students had liked the African history course. Therefore, Angela Davis, the black Marxist scholar then a graduate student at UCSD with Herbert Marcuse, pressed my case on behalf of the black students to the Chancellor. I had never met her (I met and thanked her years later in a women’s restroom somewhere), but she resolutely demanded a higher salary for me, and after the fall quarter the University gave in and I taught for UCSD again in the spring of 1972.
The situation for women at UCSD claimed my attention and that of other academic women. John’s History department, along with other departments of the newly-founded campus, had accepted older women from the surrounding community as graduate students. These “returning women,” as they were termed, were smart and ambitious, but the faculty members had not thought they would want “regular” jobs, and as they finished their dissertations and tried to go on the market they found only lukewarm support from their teachers. Furthermore, history departments in nearby institutions of higher education were slow to hire women, disregarding merit and preferring male candidates. Yet Affirmative Action legislation at the federal level (see above) encouraged us to think that colleges and universities should be setting goals to hire women and other minorities, The federal Affirmative Action legislation required institutions of higher education to take stock of their faculties, using statistical patterns of graduate student enrollment and new Ph.D.s to set goals for hiring that would eventually reflect the proportions of male and female scholars in each discipline. For example, in the 1970s women were about (have to look this up) % of the new History Ph.D.s nationwide, while the UCI faculty was 0 % female, requiring the department to set hiring goals. Departments were supposed to prefer the female if a male and female candidate were equally qualified until the appropriate ratio of female to male was achieved.
Women historians at UCSD, some with the Ph.D. already and some about to get it, formed a group to take action in 1971-72. There were six community colleges in San Diego County and, modest in our initial goals, we targeted them. We set out in teams of two women each to interview high-level administrators in those community colleges about their faculty composition and Affirmative Action plans. Male administrator after male administrator told us confidently that yes, we had the correct all-male statistics for their History department and nearly all-male statistics for their other departments, but no, they did not believe that the federal Affirmative Action legislation applied to community colleges. We took notes, nodded, and encouraged them as they explained that a preference for male faculty was only natural, given that men supported their families and therefore men could legitimately be hired even if women applicants had better qualifications. Then we wrote up our investigation and submitted it to the Fair Employment Practices Commission as a class action case of sex discrimination in 1972. Telling us it was the most strongly-evidenced case it had ever received, the FEPC found in our favor and required the six community colleges to write Affirmative Action plans and set goals for hiring women and minorities, department by department. I received annual progress reports on the case from the FEPC for more than five years. Unsurprisingly, this effort did not help those of us who filed the case secure jobs in those colleges. These older women graduate students nonetheless became productive scholars and high achievers.
At the same time of our group FEPC case filing, I filed an individual complaint against Palomar Community College, where an insider had told me that my own application for a job, along with all other applications from women, had been thrown in the wastebasket by the History Department Chair. When this man was served with the complaint, I heard, he had a heart attack and had to take leave for a year. However, of course I was not hired there, and another “faculty wife” who did get an interview was chastised for trying to take a job away from a man who had a family to support!
UCSD also did not yet have an Affirmative Action plan, although its high-profile Vice-Chancellor, the physicist Paul Saltman, admitted that his office was supposed to be developing one. I was not the only “faculty wife” with excellent qualifications for an academic job, and we formed a campus group to help qualified women secure the jobs they deserved. I headed the campus women’s group and Dr. Allana Elovson (Psychology Ph.D from Columbia) was President of San Diego NOW, the National Organization for Women. One dramatic case focused our joint efforts, that of Dr. Dagmar Barnouw, whose Ph.D. was from Yale in Literature. When the Literature department at UCSD hired Dagmar’s husband, Jeffrey Barnouw (also a Yale Ph.D.), the next opening was verbally promised to Dagmar. But voting for the next appointment put Dagmar in second place, and when the first choice declined, rather than offer her the position, a revote was taken and again she placed second. Dagmar, a confident scholar, was also a personal friend; she and Allana Elovson and I had children in the same parent-run cooperative preschool in Del Mar. Our husbands were on the UCSD faculty, Jeff Barnouw in Literature, John Elovson in Biology, and my husband, John Leonard, in History. Our campus organization secured a meeting with Paul Saltman, a meeting attended by some 100 women. Jane Frazier, wife of a respected UCSD physicist and herself holding a good position at the nearby Scripps Institute of Oceanography, tape-recorded the meeting. We put forward Dagmar’s case and also made a case for other academic women, particularly the obviously available faculty wives. Saltman stated, “I think if you can give those vitae to me…I’ll hustle them for you. That’s a whole new role for me – pimping for female academics – but I’ll take it on!” These memorable words, captured on Jane’s tape, were duly printed in a local newspaper and served to rally people to our cause.
During that year of feminist activism at UCSD and in San Diego County, 1971-72, I applied for a job in the History department at UC Irvine, another very new University of California campus and one we drove past on our visits to John’s parents in Santa Monica. That History department forwarded my vita to the Program in Comparative Culture; I heard later that a senior man had stated that no women were wanted. After some time I got an unexpected phone call, around 8 or 9 pm, from a man and I liked what he said: his Program, Comparative Culture at UCI, was interested in hiring me and would I come for an interview? Of course! I was intrigued by the interdisciplinary program, whose faculty taught Chinese and Japanese languages, Chinese and Japanese history and culture, and African, African-American, and Hispanic-American history and culture. The position open was being vacated by Emily Martin (later Ahern), whose early anthropological work was on Chinese culture but who went on to do important work on medicine and the body in American culture as well. I spent a day at UCI meeting the faculty and giving a talk about my work on Indian and Hyderabadi history and culture. However, George Kent, the China specialist, was not there, and his voice was an important one. He was encouraged to take my file home with him (a breach of practice) where he consulted his wife about my hiring. With her approval and then his, an offer was made and I accepted an Assistant Professor step I position at UCI. Later I learned that the UCI people thought they were successfully hiring me away from a regular faculty position at UCSD! In any case, I had the job, and my one-hour commutes from Del Mar to Irvine and back started in the fall of 1972.
Women at UCI
Joining Comparative Culture in the fall of 1972, I immediately realized how few women were on the UCI faculty. As a new woman faculty member, I was invited to a welcome tea by Town and Gown, a group predominantly of faculty wives (faculty wives’ clubs were common on almost all campuses at the time). Held at the Chancellor’s home in Newport Beach in the fall of 1972, this seemed like a great opportunity to meet female colleagues from across the campus, and I milled around with some one or two hundred well-dressed women. When the time came to introduce the women faculty, only eight women stepped forward. They were Janet Williams from Math, Mei Bickner from the Graduate School of Management, Jean Carlin from the Medical School, Jacqueline Desbarats from Geography in the Social Sciences, three others, and I. Our hostesses were clearly shocked: they had been given a list of 83 women faculty, they said, and although few women had RSVPed, they had expected far more than eight! Intrigued, Jackie Desbarats and I asked for the invitation list, offering to find out why more had not attended, and we were given the list (it actually had 68, not 83, names). Compiled by George Roberts, my Chair and also a special Affirmative Action advisor to the Chancellor Daniel Aldrich, the list included many lecturers and part-time women, as well as several nurses from the Orange County Regional Medical Center, women newly-affiliated to UCI’s evolving Medical School. I later learned I was one of 20 women in a total faculty of 412 regular FTE-holders, or 4.6%, that fall (see the file of UCI Senate members over time).
Inviting all the women on that list, Jackie and I called an organizing meeting of women at UCI. Jackie, a French woman born in Algeria with a Ph.D. from UC Berkeley, was a visiting lecturer in Geography in the School of Social Sciences, and we met in her campus apartment. Our turnout was much better than Town and Gown’s had been. Some thirty or forty women attended that first meeting, and we heard stories of many difficulties, from hiring to attaining tenure. Some of the nurses came, saying they knew they should not have been on the list of faculty women, eager to tell us of their problems with the male doctors. For example, the bathrooms in their medical center were labeled “doctors” and “nurses.” Jean Lave, an anthropologist and one of the first women in the School of Social Sciences, told us that when she and her fiance, Charlie Lave, an economist, interviewed for School of Social Sciences jobs at UCI at a professional meeting, they had to pretend they did not know each other. When Charlie entered the hotel lobby in the company of UCI faculty, Jean hid behind a potted palm until they went past! Later, faced with “nepotism rules” that seemed to rule out man and wife being on the same faculty (but in what unit, department, school, or campus, was unclear), they asked Chancellor Daniel Aldrich for permission to get married, saying they could live in sin but would prefer to get married. He told them to go ahead. Chancellor Dan later also gave the go-ahead to Janet Williams and Paul Palmquist in the Math department. They phoned him at night, asking for permission to marry and pledging not to act on each others’ merit and promotion cases. He was reading in bed and turned to his wife; Janet and Paul could hear him ask her about it. Her answer was yes and that became his answer as well. The women at the organizing meeting wanted to form a group, and we decided to invite staff, graduate students, and community women to join too, convinced that we needed to get and give support wherever it was needed.
Thus Women at Irvine evolved, at first informally. We extended invitations and met regularly, once a month, at homes near the campus. At the first meeting, about seven of the forty or so women attending testified that they had been propositioned by the same high-ranking male administrator! The need seemed obvious, and this off-campus group provided very important consciousness-raising and support for many of us; the number of regular attendees settled at between fifteen and twenty. Other women - faculty wives relegated to minor positions, faculty women facing all-male departmental colleagues, staff women working under difficult male administrators, graduate students working with difficult male supervisors - divulged professional and then personal problems as we kept meeting. We had a strong ally in the Library, Judith Stanley, and she established a collection of Affirmative Action materials in Special Collections. This relatively small support group continued to meet for several years and I still remember vividly many of the personal stories told and wonder what has happened to the tellers in the ensuing years.
We immediately developed a broad and very public organization as well, Women at Irvine, that met on campus and acted on issues as they arose. Since we included faculty women on all kinds of appointments, graduate students, staff, and community women, our outreach brought us a very diverse membership. We had two very high-ranking women staff on campus, Eloise Kloke, executive secretary to the Chancellor, and Doris Frost, both ex-military career women. Eloise was a gracious soft-spoken woman whose closeness to the Chancellor gave her great power; she never came to our off-campus meetings but she was somewhat sympathetic to our goals and appointed me to the Chancellor’s Advisory Committee on the Status of Women, advising me to wear skirts instead of pants. Doris had a tough image, taking a hard line with her female as well as her male staff, but after joining our off-campus group, she proclaimed herself a feminist and softened her public stances as her isolation ceased. Women at Irvine, not satisfied with the administration’s half-hearted efforts at an Affirmative Action plan, collected statistics annually and set hiring goals accordingly which it publicized widely on campus, interviewing department chairs about their lack of progress in hiring women and minorities (see files). We also published a booklet, securing money from Student Affairs and the Office of Affirmative Action, setting out the case for Affirmative Action and assessing UCI’s status with respect to it. The booklet came out of a class I taught in my early years there on the status of women, taking UCI as an example (see file).
Given the success of Women at Irvine, some of us decided to organize women in all of the institutions of higher education in California and lobby in Sacramento for Affirmative Action on all campuses in the state. There were the nine UC campuses, the 18 state colleges, later termed state universities; 107 two-year community colleges; and some 46 private colleges and universities. Each institution of higher education was required to develop an Affirmative Action plan, taking stock of the sex ratios department by department, setting goals, and justifying the new hires department by department to an Affirmative Action officer. We did analyses of the proportions of women in the state colleges and community colleges and found that they had far higher proportions of women than did the UC campuses; this was obviously due to the nursing and teachers’ training programs on those other campuses. Working with Fannie Rinn, a Political Scientist at San Jose State, and others, we at UCI sent out invitations for an organizing conference on our campus in December of 1973. The meeting was a success and the organization was initiated, although not without revealing unanticipated fissures. The community college and state college women feared that we UC women were elitist and powerful and would dominate, while in reality we were far fewer in numbers and had less influence on our campuses than they. The second problem was with the name: we proposed California Women in Higher Education, CWHE, but many did not want to be termed “California Women!” They proposed Women in California Higher Education, or WCHE, instead, but when that acronym turned out to be taken they had to accept being California women. We had a constitution, a steering committee, co-chairs (Fannie and I), and we began to send letters and representatives to the appropriate legislative bodies and persons.
CWHE also wanted to help women with grievance cases on the various campuses, sending members from campus to campus to interview administrators and trying to achieve settlements in the cases brought to us. The Dagmar Barnouw case was still proceeding, as the investigation and mediation procedures initiated by San Diego Now and UCSD Women went on and on and the department and the higher administration failed to settle the case. Now, as a faculty member myself on a UC campus, I could see the protection afforded to those who would prevent qualified women and minorities by the practice of closed files – the person being discriminated against was not allowed to see the letters in the personnel file, the letters that contained prejudicial or inaccurate statements about the candidate. This proved all too true when Dagmar Barnouw’s files were finally opened and she found that her letters of recommendation contained many damaging statements. The worst came from a man she had thought of as a supporter, a Yale professor who wrote about her: “To break her in as a teamworker, the man in charge would have to be a combination of Humphrey Bogart, Hermann the Transylvanian, and Johnny Weismuller, or so. She would constantly have to be put in her place, or else she would run the show.”
We wanted to use grievance cases like Dagmar’s to secure legislation to open the files so that candidates for hiring, merits, and promotions could see and respond to the statements being made about them. (I am listing UCI women’s cases as an appendix and donating my files about many of them.) Over the years I was a member of or chair of the following Academic Senate committees all of which involved grievance cases by women: Academic Freedom, Affirmative Action (including chairing the systemwide committee), and Privilege and Tenure (see files).
Another organization important to our Affirmative Action efforts was the UC-AFT, the union newly organized on the campus as an affiliate of the AFL-CIO. Most of the faculty at the new UCI campus were assistant professors, without tenure, and most joined the union. I was the Affirmative Action Coordinator and tried to coordinate union activities at all the UC campuses. As UC-AFT Affirmative Action Coordinator, I testified about the situation for women on UC campuses at March Fong’s Legislative Committee on Public Employees hearing in November of 1973 (see file). I also sent a statement to the California Fair Employment Practices Commission about the proposed guidelines for discrimination based on sex in April of 1974, and I sent a critique of the UC Salary Inequity Review to key members of the California Legislature in June of 1974 (see files). We drafted a master plan on Affirmative Action for the UC system, compiled statistics on faculty terminations and negative personnel actions, and criticized the UC system’s appeals procedures and their application to minority and women faculty members. We in the AFT also set up a Grievance Committee and adopted in 1977 the procedure developed by California Women in Higher Education for pursuing grievances (see the AFT files, general meeting of Local 2226 at UCI, April 22, 1977).
Women’s Studies, or rather the effort to found such a program, also engaged many of UCI’s faculty women. Shortly after my arrival in the Program in Comparative Culture, we hired another woman in a regular faculty position, Norma Chinchilla, who did sociological research on Latin America. Norma, Rosalinda Gonzalez and Linda Apodaca (graduate students in our Program), and I were four of the six women who formed a collective and began designing a Women’s Studies program for UCI in the summer of 1975 (see file for Women’s Studies development). The others were Jody Hoy, wife of the Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs (she had been verbally promised a job in the French department when Jack Hoy was hired but “somehow it never materialized”), and Leslie Rabine, in the French department. We worked together, trying to find agreement on a program that combined Marxist feminist, cultural feminist, and moderate feminist principles and courses. Meetings were often difficult, and we had to work out compromises. I remember an uncomfortable luncheon at Jody Hoy’s lovely home when she served artichokes and some of us were unsure how to eat them. Rosalinda had picked them in the fields as a youngster, but she had never eaten them, and I had never eaten them either. We managed to put together a plan for Women’s Studies at UCI, and Leslie Rabine, Janet Williams, I, and Francesca Cancian served as consecutive Chairs in its early years.
My Tenure Case
I had achieved a high profile on campus and was UCI’s representative to the systemwide Divisional Assembly. Despite being an Assistant Professor, I was proposed for election to Vice Chair of the Academic Senate, which would have put me in line to be Chair. However, our new Director of Comparative Culture, the anthropologist Joe Jorgenson, advised me not to do that because I had yet to get tenure and should be concentrating on research and writing. I felt I had to take his advice, so I stepped aside from that leadership position but continued to be an active feminist and union organizer. I came up for tenure in the fall of 1977, and it proved to be stressful. 1977-78 was also the year that Comparative Culture was being merged into the School of Social Sciences (another exciting political saga but one not included here). First, I was approached by the Dean of the School of Humanities, William Lillyman, with whom I had a cordial relationship. He approached me confidentially and asked if I would like to be switched to the History department in his School, saying he had heard that Jorgenson and I did not really get along. This sounded worrying, but....to be put suddenly into a department that had not wanted me six years earlier? I hesitated and would have refused, but Lillyman's inquiries of History apparently were not encouraging, and he apologized profusely for wanting me in his School and for upsetting me. Then the Dean of my School of Social Sciences, Christian Werner, a geographer whom I barely knew, sent a confidential envoy to me, his Associate Dean Jim Danzinger, a Political Science person, who asked if I would like to be transferred to Political Science, as the Dean and he had heard that Jorgenson and I did not get along. Again, very worrying, but....a totally new department and one into which my work, on the history of Hyderabad State in India, did not really fit? I turned this down and said I knew I had strong supporters in my own Program. So I went up for tenure in Comparative Culture and the department members supported me with a unanimous positive vote. I accepted a sabbatical replacement semester at the University of Virginia for the winter and spring of 1978 (my only stint in a History department, replacing Walter Hauser), expecting tension at UCI as my case went forward. Later I learned the details of its progress from more than one member of the secret Ad Hoc committee convened to decide on my tenure. I had a book with UC Press (Social History of an Indian Caste: the Kayasths of Hyderabad) and several articles in good journals. Apparently Jorgenson had asked for outside letters from a Marxist sociologist at the University of Calcutta, (X, need to find this name), and from the “Black Widow of Anthropology,” another Marxist, Kathleen Gough at Simon Fraser. I was told later that both scholars had liked my book and strongly recommended tenure, but Jorgenson wrote a negative letter not recommending tenure; the Social Science Dean Christian Werner also wrote a negative letter. Perhaps they argued "departmental focus" rather than merit, since Jorgensen said he hadn’t thought the Program focused on the Third World but only on Race and Class in the U.S., (and therefore he soon discontinued the two women native-speaker lecturers teaching Japanese and Chinese, see case files for May Loh and Kay Wilson). Luckily, UCLA's India historian, Stanley Wolpert, was on that Ad Hoc committee and strongly recommended tenure, as did the other members, including one member of my department. So I did get tenure and only later learned how lucky I had been.
Further Developments at UCI
CWHE continued for about a decade (see file), lobbying in Sacramento and pursuing grievance cases across the state systems of higher education, but then it was taken over by women from the private campuses and focused on job networking. At UCI, we fought grievance cases, often losing good women, and we had to concentrate on achieving tenure ourselves. The AFT tried to help but the union was no match for the UC system, its lawyers and administrators, its credibility with the judicial system. Finally a particularly high-profile and outrageous case of discrimination, against opthamalogist Dr. Marjorie Mosier in the Medical School, spurred the founding of a new organization focused only on faculty women. In June of 1987 we convened a group of women to meet with the Chancellor on Marjorie’s behalf, and in October of 1988, 18 women met and founded the UCI Faculty Women’s Association; by the end of November we had 37 members. Pauline Yahr took over the mailing list and the organization has persisted into the 21st century.
I am contributing my annual charts of the women members of the Academic Senate over the years (see file). In the 1990s I also charted minority members, and those charts are included in that file.
�Faculty Womens' Cases, UCI (this will be an APPENDIX, still working on it) 1974: Dr. Mei Bickner (BA, MBA, PhD from UCLA), Denied tenure by the Graduate School of Administration. Mei then joined Management at the California State University of Fullerton in 1978; she served with distinction and died in 2016. 1974: Dr. Janet Williams Palmquist, Mathematics Department, denied tenure; appeal succeeded, backed by Women at Irvine. 1975-82: Dr. Alice Laborde, founding member of French and Italian Studies department, denied promotion to Full Professor in 1977. Filed lawsuit and in 1980 decision that prima facie case for discrimination against women existed at UCI but ‘inadequate scholarship” was basis for decision not gender. Affirmed in 1982 by 9th Circuit Court of Appeals. Library has file of materials (including materials for Dr. Therese Lynn’s case, below). 1976: Dr. Therese Lynn, denied promotion to tenure by the French department. Filed lawsuit, District court found for UCI, Superior Court found prima facie case for discrimination against women at UCI and found in Lynn’s favor; UCI appealed it to the US Supreme Court but it declined to hear the case; UCI settled with her in 1987. Lynn became an Associate Professor at Chapman University in Orange. Died 2017.
1977: Dr. Phyllis Culham-Ertman, Lecturer, Classics Department, terminated, 2 year contract. 1977: Dr. Alice Amsden, Lecturer in Economics, terminated, 2 year contract, and not hired for open FTE in Economics. 1979: Dr. Jill Buroker, Philosophy, denied tenure. Joined CSU San Bernardino where she chaired the Philosophy department.
1979: Dr. Marian Goldsmith, Biology, denied tenure. Moved to….
1982: Dr. Norma Chinchilla, denied tenure by the Program in Comparative Culture. Joined Sociology and Women’s Studies at California State University Long Beach in 1983, many books and achievements.
1988: Dr. Jane Newman, denied tenure by the German Department; appeal succeeded but put her in Dept. of Comp. Lit.. 1988: Dr. Marjorie Mosier, Ophthalmology, Medical School Denied tenure, 1988, filed case. Was offered money and a further preparation period for tenure in 1989, again tenure review 1992-93, again denied. She filed a lawsuit. 1988: Dr. Pamela Prete, Rheumatology, Medicine, denied promotion.
Founding of California Women in Higher Education, 1972 or 1973, UC Irvine 1976-77: took up case of Dr. Dagmar Barnouw, vs. UCSD, hiring discrimination. 1971 vote of Literature Department to award tenure position was changed to Lecturer one.
Karen Mémoires, Grievance
thought you might like to see this draft, the Library will now accept my memoirs and grievance case files...Special Collections.
Francesca might like to skim this. Comments welcome.
contact - Robert Simpkins
Thank you so much for your books – with Karen and Norma’s help, I was able to go through them and fill four boxes to take back to the library at Porterville College. The Anthropology Special Collections room is in the midst of a reorganization, and these books will become a valuable addition to them for students and local researcher to enjoy. I will provide for you a formal letter acknowledging your donation to the library after I have counted them, which I will try to do soon. Let me know if you need anything else.
Bob -- Dr. Robert Simpkins Professor of Anthropology Chair, Social Science Division Coordinator, Cultural and Historical Awareness Program Porterville College 100 E. College Ave. Porterville, CA 93257 (559) 791-2464
From: Doug White <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Sunday, July 23, 2017 at 9:51 AM To: Robert Simpkins <email@example.com>, "Karen B. LEONARD" <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Norma Miranda <email@example.com> Subject: Fwd: Re: too many books!
Dear Bob, please help yourself to my books in Karen and my office, Norma can open it for you Best, Doug White (my cancer is over, fortunately)
no sign of you today, there is one box and two framed prints next to that box that Doug will certainly want...and...look through his stuff, take what you can for yourself, I'm not certain Bob Simpkins can fit it all in his car.
Norma knows to let you in, whenever, or ask Tami firstname.lastname@example.org or Mel email@example.com, also copied above.
best, Karen Leonard
On Tue, 25 Jul 2017, itsjust fitz wrote:
> Hi Doug, > Car all set. I can load stuff up and bring down to you. We can go from there with respect to what books I keep. I'm > sure Ben Jester would also be interested in some, as might Dao.
Karen to Doug
Norma asked me to clear one bookcase for your books - today when I came in (I come every week or two) I see many many more books, in not only that case but in five more boxes. And there is a box of personal souvenirs, eg. Indonesian puppets. I am sure you will want to get that last box home, but what about the books? I am slowly taking home my research books, two bags at a visit, but....have you worked out a donation to a local community college or whatever?
Please let me and/or Norma know what you want done with all your books. Let me know if you are coming to campus and we can meet and decide what to do.
I can bring down as soon as I get my car fixed
On Sat, Jul 15, 2017 at 12:58 PM, Doug White <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
Dear Norma, Karen, Fitz
could you put out a sign (and access) at anthro that doug's books are freely available (including all that Karen, Fitz etc want), and books etc are also for anyone who wants souvenirs or for the next time anyone comes to visit at La Jolla; for Fitz or others - take the books and souvenirs you want, Norma and Karen will know where they are... the Indonesian puppets etc might go down to La Jolla if anyone should want to drive down...
Please let me and/or Norma know what you want done with all your books. Let me know if you are coming to campus and we can meet and decide what to do.
Robert Simpkins Professor in the Anthropology department at San Jose State University, San Jose, CA