Kinship and Complexity

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Fall 2008 Anthro 129 (60230) Douglas R. White instructor - Kinship and Complexity talk page Blurb: This is not your typical class on kinship. We live in network societies now extended by computers and the internet and here we will study how networks and genealogies of all sorts provide the structure and dynamics of social, political, and economic interactions: currently, historically and in the foci of ethnography. Computers and the internet have also transformed anthropology, the network sciences (SNA) and the social sciences generally. Networks and genealogical “kinships,” operating at fast and slow time scales, and large and small spatial scales, are the object of study, using new models, techniques, and discoveries. The course proceeds through exercises that can provide approaches to a short term paper.

  • Item 1 and 6.2 revised Sept 26; 4.2 (notes for ept 25) added too - and now (Saturday) more explanation for Exercises #1 and #2
  • PLEASE DONT CHANGE THE HEADERS 1-6 and subheads in 6 -- they are used for cross-indexing.

Contents

Enrollment

Fall 2008 Anthro 129 (60230) Kinship and Complexity T,Th 3:30-4:50 Rm ELH 110 (holds 50). Sep 25 to Dec 5. Veterans Day Tues Nov 11, Thurs Nov 27 is Thanksgiving. Office hours Tu-Th 2-2:40. Reader _________ (Tues 2:00-3:00 SST 627, ___@uci.edu) & a reader will assist in writing projects and research.

At home use <http://www.oac.uci.edu/help/proxy/> to install the VPN campus tunnel if you are unable to connect to the uci license for internet data and articles worldwide

Feedback questions and Wiki use - check-in - revised

Feedback questions for the final two to four minutes of each lecture (as suggested by Fred Mosteller) please write brief responses to three questions (turn in on paper): 1) What was the most important point in the lecture? 2) What was the muddiest point? 3) What would you like to hear more about?

Use the Mozilla Firefox browser (makes spellcheck available for edits) to login under your real name not a webname, then enter your name here: 129 wiki-users (see Fall 2008 129 Users when done)

2008:About the class

Kinship and Complexity: This is not your typical class on kinship. We now live in a network society made possible by computers and the internet. You are probably by now on Facebook, LinkedIn, and a dating site, using Skype video, iPod, iPhone or Samsung’s unlocked Instinct, and you are viewing this syllabus on a MediaWiki site that allows you to use it and freely edit and create pages just link Wikipedia. Computers and the internet have also transformed anthropology, network sciences and social network analysis (SNA) and the social sciences. There are between 10 and 100 million “nodes” in the world’s computerized GED (genealogical) files so the world’s kinship networks are now a new object of study. Although information on living persons has Human Subjects protection, vast amounts of historical data and data on public figures are available in the public domain. While government and finance institutions have confidential data on you, you have data on corporate and government officials, and regulations governing financial institutions are open book to the FBI and regulatory agencies – 50 of the firms that potential offenders in the current financial catastrophe are under investigation as of this week (see the end of Wall Street underwriting firms and Tom Friedman NYT: What we need after the meltdown - Republicans vote 133 against the bailout and 65 for "sacrificing prosperity to keep their 'freedom'". But see Pelosi speech - inappropriately partisan? - Republicans want to [Wikipedia:Mark to market] and Earn out not "bail out"). Data to study the “genealogy” of the present crisis (like players in the Wikipedia:Keating Five scandal that carry over to the current one) is now available. “Genealogies” cover both descent (“same” players, “parents”, and “ancestors”) and lateral alliances (from sharing board of director memberships to business partnerships, to sponsorships, to political and business “alliances” and actual marriages).

Background readings

Groups on the www

Top young hackers who try to "use data-mining to make the Internet a better and more interesting and better place," like undergraduate Virgil Griffith, now a grad student at Cal Tech, are often found today in the complexity sciences, studying both hidden and emergent phenomena. He used his Wikiscanner to identify Surreptitious wiki edits, valid reports of negligent behavior that are surrepetitiously erased, like those about Blackwater or Parsons Corp in Iraq and 10s of thousands of other "erasures" of editing that is questionable at best (NY Times Aug 27, 2007. The internet itself is a huge source of information for the social and policy sciences. Other online sources show us the 1000s of edits compromising scientific documents about global warming authorized by the White house. Can you find them? (Of course, we may also find structural cohesion groups that are cooperative, collaborative, collectively more creative, diverse and synergetic, or homogeneous.)

Public information, and Private

Hence, taking a more global perspective on social networks, including family ties, we begin the first two meetings of this class [your Exercise 1] - (Alternatives:)Freebase applications looking at what pro-bono “public good” information specialists have provided in terms of NNDB graphics to display your network analyses of chosen public figures and organizations, from all domains of world culture, and including family linkages. Try in class, for example, using NNDB to build the connections between the banks and people involved in the Keating 5 scandal, and the links between these and the firms and people in the current financial meltdown. Perfect your graph, save it, and describe its construction and your findings, qualitatively. This requires no expertise but allows you to see that “family” and cohesive connections are everywhere, both literally and figuratively, and our “society” is embedded in the network, national and international, of these linkages.

Network ethnography

“Networks”, of course, were here long before computers and the internet, and by means of modern network analysis anthropology is now involved in discovering how societies, institutions, organizations, communities and whole economies operate in terms of networks, at many different scales. Our subject is no longer “simple societies”, if ever there were such (White and Denham 2008 show the evidence for marriage networks and “communication telegraphs” on a continental scale in Indigenous Australia dating back thousands of years), but complex.

Why kin-ties are so strong

“Kinship”, which includes marriage networks, continues as a crucial nexus of large as well as small social groups, organizations, institutions, social classes, lobbyist groups, migration streams, economic exchange, i.e., at all levels. Kinship groups and networks are the major source of social security, often overshadowing government and employer programs. Wikipedia:Lévi-Strauss in <[Elementary Structures of Kinship] (1949, English edition 1969: 124-5) questioned whether there might be "a way to approach the study of kinship systems which avoids their apparent and impossible complexity" but in those days where was no means of studying networks in their full complexity. Today we have SNA (social network analysis), means of studying how networks -- and kinship networks -- through time, and the sciences of complexity which have made many discoveries as to the links between networks, in all fields, and complex phenomena.

Kinship cognition

Social Sciences, however, operate under the regulations of Human Subjects. When we make kinship networks (e.g., genealogies collected in fieldwork studies), we typically exclude living people. For the data you collect in Week 2 [|your Exercise 2] you should keep personal identities private and use pseudonyms. The object is to learn from micro- or small-scale analysis of kinship networks why it is that kinship is so important. Think of the ramification of ties and the conceptual or cognitive framing of “relational names for kin” which create potentially lifelong ties and expectations (or obligations, often loose and optative, sometimes normative, and sometimes prescribed) that create social cohesion far beyond those of purely dyadic ties like friendship. Week 2 highlights a quick experiment in collecting and analyzing how we talk about our “kin” – short ethnographic interviews with data collection – and what kind of cognitive maps of kin terms we carry in our heads. We then look in Week 3 at Dwight Read and Michael Fischer’s demonstration of just how powerful and consistent these models are in forming different cultural paradigms. We are wired for kinship in that a (kin) term x of a term y relative is intrinsically defined in our linguistic compositions, while the same cannot be said even for friend of friend in most languages (although in some languages an enemy of an enemy is a friend). Then there is the role of kinship as metaphor, a theme explored by George Lakoff. Finally, we look at 'More Kin, see articles: Palmer, Steadman amd Coe.


Computer drawing of kinship networks (Genealogy)

in Week 4 -- see Textbook -- we will begin to learn how to make a genealogical network the conventional way, each making and saving a GEDcom file, and opening, drawing the network in Pajek, ordering by time of marriage, etc. You can do your own family genealogy for example. In [Week 5] -- see Textbook -- we will begin to learn how to analyze other networks using Pajek... and study their structure. Here we begin to get into ethnographic examples.

  1. Download V2Net.zip:Pajek kinship data zip file --- biblio sources of these data: Genealogical data to copy and paste if *.net file
  2. Download P2Net.zip:Pajek kinship data zip file ---- biblio sources of these data: Genealogical data to copy and paste if *.net file
  3. AlywarraOmahaTurks.zip:Pajek kinship data zip file
  4. Kinsource - genealogy in Pajek format
Tuareg Udalen 722 people / 328 marriages / 9 generations
Togo (Watchi speakers) 29665 people / 10563 marriages/ (too big for class)
Ragusa Ged 5999 people / 2002 marriages 3+ centuries

DON’T USE (WITHOUT CONVERSION)

  1. P_txt zip - needs conversion from txt
  2. kinship txt data ... for conversion
  3. P_txt zip - need conversion from txt
  4. RIGHT CLICK for all the vec files in the student directory, CONVERTED TO *.net for pajek and zipped

Structural endogamy and structural cohesion in networks generally

in Week 6 we learn more about the all important topics of Structural endogamy and Structural cohesion and learn how to map the cohesive boundaries of kinship networks that might demarcate a community or social clsss. (More later)

… to be continued on Thurs the 25th --- Under construction for 1st class! (as you might guess, this is the first time this class has been taught, anywhere.

Textbook and class notes

Texts

  • Stone, Linda. 2000. Kinship and Gender: an introduction (2nd edition). Bolder; Colorado: Westview Press.
  • de Nooy, Wooter, Andrej Mrvar, and Vladimir Batagelj 2004 paperback Exploratory Social Network Analysis With Pajek. ISBN: 0-521-60262-9 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. See: Large networks In bookstore; if out of stock, try Amazon. WHY THIS TEXT? Because to study kinship networks we need NETWORK SOFTART and this is the best available, is also FREE, Chapter 11 is about kinship and genealogical networks, and you can download the network datasets for each chapter. We use the Pajek software in Week 4.

Recommended: probably the best current introduction to Anthropology, Theory, Kinship, and some relevant network concepts: Eriksen, Thomas Hylland 2004. What is Anthropology? University of Michigan Press $11 used at Amazon.

Class Notes and <DW: Responses>

Sept 25 feedback

Compiled from the end-of class Feedback questions (next time we'll have a student do this). And we (anyone) can always edit this further.

ANTH129.day1*1 Main point(s) September 25 08

  • Intro and Overview, exercises, due dates, new tools: What constitutes kinship (family just a subtopic): connections (6-degree style), like a novel, through time, working in various ways; class formation, societal cohesion, and internationally <DW: see *2.1>.
  • <DW: Recursively exponential> doubling of ties through marriage, kinship not just dyadic relation but extended cohesion; cohesive political groups that may belie “pluralism”; how kinship links to current events via networking; everything is connected to a network; but exactly how this works through time can be traced (way beyond, for example, what we see with NNDB) <DW: Think about how genealogy with MARRIAGE more than doubles the two sides of the family but each ancestral branch. This is taken up in the reading by Palmer et al.>
  • Similarly in the virtual world ties are extended <DW: yes, especially if you can follow them recursively>
  • Kinship networks are not simple but complex (and not just due to technology); in this sense going beyond traditional anthro classes on kinship and social organization; computers/technology have made information about and study of kinship systems both easier and also more complex; can use the internet to uncover and to show information and connectedness (association, family ties, organizations, corporations, activities)
  • Examples of working through network patterns with the computer <DW: see NNDB url for an example in #1>; How to use InterSciWiki class website, NNDB mapper <DW: see NNDB]>

ANTH129.day1*2.1 Explain/Most in need of Clarification (was Muddy)

  • Goals and Focus of the course
  • Assignments and Grading – how to do the assignments - examples of the homework - 1 pg. On what do we write about, what exactly do you want, how to do them? <DW: instructions expanded for #2>
Assignment #1 especially unclear, where to post the url of your NNDB graph? <DW: post to <click here: <NNDB url>, instructions for NNDB are at that site>
  • How will we use the technology to analyze/map/study the kinship groups and networks?
  • Using things on the wiki
  • Explain Virgil Griffith's work <DW: thanks for the question, which led me to post more on his public wiki page>
  • Interesting! Nothing confusing <DW: not unanimous, but 6-7 said so!> Current political situation interesting topic
  • How kinship works internationally; how does this contribute to understanding international problems? <DW: migration, remittances, diaspora, networks cross boundaries; it is structural endogamy (see two readings below) that creates ethnicity, not territorial boundaries; this leads us to reconsider all the basic concepts of identity, nation, etc.>
  • How are all these different (everyone's) kinship related <DW: glad you asked, because again structural endogamy is a new (1997) anthropological concept and method (see two readings below) that actually addresses that question and leads to new theory, observations, and insights, as does the new concept of structural cohesion in network sociology generally (see 2003 Moody and White reference below). <DW: see my comments above on Recursive exponential doubling, following network links recursively, and structural endogamy as creating cohesive boundaries independent of territorial ones, and also creating new bases for identities like ethnicity, diaspora, remittance groups. Later we will see that this applies also to resistive groups, and the struggle between empires and their colonies.>

ANTH129.day1*2.2 Further clarifications (DW)

  • Ours is a Mediawiki site, which is software provided free from Wikipedia
  • We are focusing on different types of cultures, not one

ANTH129.day1*3 Improve: Suggestions and what you would like to hear about or see

  • More on anthropological theory and the course of study thru the quarter (otherwise hard to connect all this)
Importance and significance of kinship and of mapping/studing kinship networks
How the class works in terms of the assignments
  • Louder – you speak softly at times; more enthusiam; more interaction
  • More concise, do an outline; lecture jumps around a bit; give an intro to each lecture in a few main points to cover
  • More on how people are connected beyond kinship, e.g., politics, business and entertainment
  • Information on kinship in different cultural groups
  • Would be interested in the Cherokee Indian culture <DR: ok, I added http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Cherokee-Kinship.html to the main pages>

Class notes for Sept 25

Download Pajek 1.23 for Assignment 3

Lecture:

  • On Wiki

More case studies! Religions and kinship ties <DW: We will look more at the work of Andrey Korotayev, and this might make a good subject for term paper topics. Can discuss in class ways to do this>

Osage kinship <DW: added to the bibliography. I also have kinship network data on Omaha kinship that is quite fascinating. Ask me in class about these kinds of kinship>

More about the complexity of specific cultures

  • <DW: complexity takes different forms in different cultures, social organizations, languages, so this is a question asks HOW? You could do a paper here, and a good start might be the contrast between "The Strength of Weak Ties" (Granovetter) and "The Navigability of Strong Ties" (White and Houseman) articles, both widely cited>

Banking in Afghanistan <DW: ties in with the above, also see our eJrnl contents above, article by Berkowitz>

More on the conquering empires' histories <DW: this is a good paper total and reading topic too and I will add some references>

Outline ideas for these projects> worried about us having the time to research

  • What could I write an interesting paper on the last for weeks of class

Marriage payments- optional project

Mark Granovetter: his paper is the most widely read paper in social networks

  • Called the strength of weak ties
  • A view of how we tend to use our ties- use occational or casual ties on a regular basis
  • http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/Mark_Granovetter
  • Kinship based societies- you and your families only have access to similar resourses
  • People want to change there jib, they have to move outside the family
  • Did research on how people in Chicago got jobs- usually though weak ties
  • In this case a lot of information from a diverse group
  • Vs. limited information with trust
  • Def> The more generic definition of strong versus weak ties is that they are more intense, more intimate and more frequently engaged, including long distance communication.

Story: Still ahs continuity in the line of the vinical families – most don’t marry close cousin- but in the middle east they do- in the linage of the great gods- “have a right to marry your closest cousin inside the linage.” 3rd generation intermarriage- it is unusual- most societies try to marry our- avoid the consiquenses of insect

Sarah and Abram- made a covenant- people kept marring into the family- you would marry your 1st cousin

  • Now happens in the nomad population in Turkey
  • Also do this: http://www.isteve.com/cousin_marriage_conundrum.htm
  • Commentator Randall Parker wrote, "Consanguinity [cousin marriage] is the biggest underappreciated factor in Western analyses of Middle Eastern politics. Most Western political theorists seem blind to the importance of pre-ideological kinship-based political bonds in large part because those bonds are not derived from abstract Western ideological models of how societies and political systems should be organized. ? Extended families that are incredibly tightly bound are really the enemy of civil society because the alliances of family override any consideration of fairness to people in the larger society. Yet, this obvious fact is missing from 99% of the discussions about what is wrong with the Middle East. How can we transform Iraq into a modern liberal democracy if every government worker sees a government job as a route to helping out his clan at the expense of other clans?"?
  • Steve Sailer
  • It is about connecting liniages-- flows in the economy, keeping of weath
  • It is how they know people and keep a society together- though Kinship
  • Unification of two linages
  • This allows for the creation of strong ties of trust
  • The point being we are continually forming relationships and networks

-KAty Carew

Sept 30 Lecture Outline

  1. How to finish assignment #1 (see NNDB url for examples), and how to do #2 (do in class?) and #3
  2. Review the answers to questions
  3. Network ethnography and kinship visuals
  4. Why kin-ties are so strong
  5. Kinship cognition

Sept 30 feedback

We need two volunteers here who can also take home the 3 class end questions...

  • ANTH129.day2*1 Main point(s)
  • See class notes; also ethnicities created in networks not bounded by national territories
  • The kinship exercise #1 is a way to actually examine diversity in cultures
  • Units of kinship are couples
  • In the Austrian town study, for example, it was scores of overlapping circles of marriages that created the "social class" of heirs of property as opposed to their siblings, how did not inherit town property, and did not relink in their marriages.
  • Kin networks also extended and available for study in reconstituted families; created by divorces and remarriages
  • Idea of the viral quality of recursive networks (where transmission is node to node) reinforces other aspects of the importance of kinship <DW: yes, more comments on this below>
  • Sociologists used to think it was cliques (100% connected) that were important as cohesive groups, but (1) they are costly to expand and so their scale in sizes is limited, and (2) network analysis has shown that the "stronger" groups are those with much lower density (compensated by redundancies in connections that span longer distances and group sizes) and that these are more easily scaled-up in size.
  • useful to get a writing book

ANTH129.day2*2.1 (What was murky?)

  • Assignments are due the week after they are assigned? <DW: right> For exercise #2 turn in your writeup in class. We can post some examples after that.
  • Nothing! <DW: hooray>
  • What's the purpose of the class <DW: Deepen your understanding of how networks create and structure our world; how to use network methods to understand how societies are constructed and how they change, and show the evidence for the need to study networks, and complex dynamics in case studies> and can you answer the "So What?" question? <DW: As an example, the concepts of structural endogamy and structural cohesion offer a radically new way to understand how groups, societies, resistive movements, ethnicities, and social classes form, for example, and lacking methods to study how networks create these and other phenomena we are totally lacking a way of understanding them.>
  • Whats the exact definition and application of kinship cognition? <DW: Dwight Read's 2008 paper (in Structure and Dynamics) shows evidence for very exact logical structures of composition (like the composition of kin ties socially) that we explore in exercise #3, you can write your term paper of this if you like. Note during class how kin terms (language), kin cognition, kin networks, kin expectations, obligations, temporal succession in roles and cultures, and bequeaths and inheritance act together as some of the most powerful sources for shaping societies and social behavior>.
  • When do we get to the computer drawings of kinship networks and what do they do for us? <DW: see comment just above>

ANTH129.day2*3 Improve: Suggestions - What would you like to see more of?

  • More case studies!
  • Religions and kinship ties <DW: We will look more at the work of Andrey Korotayev, and this might make a good subject for term paper topics. Can discuss in class ways to do this>
  • Osage kinship <DW: added to the bibliography. I also have kinship network data on Omaha kinship that is quite fascinating. Ask me in class about these kinds of kinship>
  • More about the complexity of specific cultures <DW: complexity takes different forms in different cultures, social organizations, languages, so this is a question asks HOW? You could do a paper here, and a good start might be the contrast between "The Strength of Weak Ties" (Granovetter) and "The Navigability of Strong Ties" (White and Houseman) articles, both widely cited>
  • Banking in Afghanistan <DW: ties in with the above, also see our eJrnl contents above, article by Berkowitz>
  • More on the conquering empires' histories <DW: this is a good paper total and reading topic too and I will add some references>

Sept 30 Notes

<DW: P.S. Colin suggested we invent a name for friend of friend and spread it virally. My suggestion is "sofriend" for second order friend. What do you think? Any better suggestions? I thought we might be able to use "Foaf" Friend Of A Friend- Katy- Don't know?> Week two: by User:Katy Carew <DW: Thanks, Katy> • Why is kinship one of the most powerful kinds of networking & often forgotten Find somebody who speaks a different language:

  • Three different interviews in a different language
  • Using Spanish vocab-
  • What would be the equivalent of the brother of a father
  • *in any language we have another way of learning the composition of terms
  • there are words for everything
  • all languages have words for compound relationships
  • how they express that is different in every language
  • The terms stop at some limit- in other societies they don’t
  • #3 compounding kinship not only create a universe of kinship but a society on how they act and organize themselves

Week 2: How we talk about our "kin" and map their networks? - a small piece of ethnography • *When we make kinship networks (e.g., genealogies collected in fieldwork studies), we typically exclude living people. For the data you collect in Week 2 [|your Exercise 2] you should keep personal identities private and use pseudonyms.

  • Assignment overview: Week 2 highlights a quick experiment in collecting and analyzing how we talk about our “kin” – short ethnographic interviews with data collection – and what kind of cognitive maps of kin terms we carry in our heads. We then look in Week 3 at Dwight Read and Michael Fischer’s demonstration of just how powerful and consistent these models are in forming different cultural paradigms. We are wired for kinship in that a (kin) term x of a term y relative is intrinsically defined in our linguistic compositions, while the same cannot be said even for friend of friend in most languages (although in some languages an enemy of an enemy is a friend). Then there is the role of kinship as metaphor, a theme explored by George Lakoff. Finally, we look at 'More Kin', see articles: Palmer, Steadman amd Coe.
  • Interview three people who come from different backgrounds and who speak another language
  • (this could be all the same other language, or different languages).

The early developer of this method was W. H. R. Rivers (1900) (Here is one of his articles and his obituary.)

In Week 3 we will test current theories of social cognition discussed in the next assignment ... Formal Behavioral Modeling (of kinship terms - Dwight Read's KAES).

  • Background: Relative product kinship terms can be elicited, without reference to specific people. For example, start an interview asking for ego's terms for the primary kin types, Br/Si/Hu/Wi/Fa/Mo/So/Da.
  • You can ask ego "What do you call your Father's Brother? (using the appropriate term in the language).
  • Read the second paragraph in this parable to get the idea of how this might be done in a fieldwork situation in another language.
  • (In English to start to get differences in relative product terms you have to get to the distant cousins, their children, etc.). Example: In English the Fa kin type is labeled "Father".
  • This is key to the assignment Ex: Typically, "Father"'s "Brother" (for another language you would substitute the corresponding primary terms) is "Uncle". Asking "What is an Uncle's Wife?" (in English) the typical response is "Aunt". "What is an Aunt's Daughter?" "Cousin" and so forth (but in the other language). The terms elicited are called intensive product kin terms because you can elicit them (the relative product kin terms) without ever referring any specific person..
  • Use each interview to get as many intensive product kin terms as you reasonably can, including variant terms that take elder/younger distinctions into account. The whole point of this assignment is to gather data on how terms are generated from other terms so don't refer ever to a real father, real brother, etc., just how terms are defined by products of other terms (this is a bit different from Rivers' method). At the end of questioning you have a list of relative products terms, like "brother of father=uncle" "child of uncle=cousin" etcetera but in the other language. You will use the relative products in assignment 3.

The extensive product questions can be asked after you are done with the first part. You can then ask for each term ____: Who are the people to whom you are related by this term?

  • Make the genealogical diagram that includes each person named (ego at center, up to parents and grandparents, down to uncles and aunts, cousins, etc etc). You don’t need to do this but imagine if you started by showing photos of a person's relatives and asked "How are you related to this person? to get the kin term, e.g., "Father" as opposed to "What do you call this person?" e.g., "Dad", which you also don’t need to do.
  • You DONT NEED TO COLLECT the address terms (like "Dad") however, but that's also something you could ask for each person or photo: "What do you actually call this person?" Terms like "Dad" are the terms of address.
  • As you compile your results for each interview, before you end, make up
  • (1) the list of relative products, like "brother of father=uncle", "child of uncle", etcetera, but using the terms of the other language,
  • (2) the genealogical diagram for the person's relatives, uniquely numbered from 1(ego) to n(the last person in the genealogy), and
  • (3) under each actual relative, ASK which term in your relative product list would apply to this type of relative. You may have a hypothesis about this but sometimes the younger or older relative in a given category makes a difference, or the age or sex of a linking relative.
  • Turn in the assignment, with each of the three interviews having (1) the list of relative products (now extended), (2) the genealogical diagram that includes each person named (ego at center, up to parents and grandparents, down to uncles and aunts, cousins, etc etc), with just each persons initials under them in the diagram, and (3) the relative product term under each person.
  • You have now completed three pieces of ethnography. We will use these data the next week to see how
  • (1) kinship is "extended" through kinship terms (this is the universal feature that makes kinship so powerful in networking),
  • (2) different languages and individuals have different ways of "generating" a meaningful array of kinship terms and,
  • (3) the "relative product rules" for each language can be derived and compared.

You will use your genealogical diagrams from these interviews in a later exercise where

  • (1) each person's number is in column 1 of a spreadsheet,
  • (2) their father's and mother's number are in columns 2 and 3, and
  • (3) their spouses are in the remaining columns. These are converted to kinship graphs.

Lecture: In Afganistan you eniemies eniemy is your friend • Not like in America where you can go back and forth between Demorate and Republican

Nations build Ethnicities

  • Cohesive groups form cohesive groups and idenities in the first place
  • Entities of nations, boundries
  • Nations are not solid entities, there boundries are always changing
  • This is because the different networks are causeing this to happen

On the wiki you can fins visualizations of cohesion on the wiki:

Logic of Kinship-

"Kinship system" as quest for pattern The concept of “system of kinship” tended to dominate anthropological studies of kinship in the early part of the 20th century.

  • Def: Kinship systems as defined in anthropological texts and ethnographers were seen as constituted by patterns of behavior and attitudes and terminology for referring to relationships as well as for addressing others.
  • Many anthropologists went so far as to see, in these patterns of kinship, strong relations between kinship categories and patterns of marriage, including forms of marriage, restrictions on marriage, and cultural concepts of the boundaries of wikipedia:incest.
  • A great deal of inference was necessarily involved in such constructions as to “systems” of kinship.

Why kin-ties are so strong “Kinship”, which includes marriage networks, continues as a crucial nexus of large as well as small social groups, organizations, institutions, social classes, lobbyist groups, migration streams, economic exchange, i.e., at all levels.

  • Kinship groups and networks are the major source of social security, often overshadowing government and employer programs.
  • Claude Lévi-Strauss in <[Elementary Structures of Kinship] (1949, English edition 1969: 124-5) questioned whether there might be "a way to approach the study of kinship systems which avoids their apparent and impossible complexity" but in those days where was no means of studying networks in their full complexity.
  • Today we have SNA (social network analysis), means of studying how networks -- and kinship networks -- through time, and the sciences of complexity which have made many discoveries as to the links between networks, in all fields, and complex phenomena.

Kinship cognition Social Sciences, however, operate under the regulations of Human Subjects. When we make kinship networks (e.g., genealogies collected in fieldwork studies), we typically exclude living people. For the data you collect in Week 2 [|your Exercise 2] you should keep personal identities private and use pseudonyms.

  • The object is to learn from micro- or small-scale analysis of kinship networks why it is that kinship is so important?
  • Think of the ramification of ties and the conceptual or cognitive framing of “relational names for kin” which create potentially lifelong ties and expectations (or obligations, often loose and optative, sometimes normative, and sometimes prescribed) that create social cohesion far beyond those of purely dyadic ties like friendship.

Assignment: Week 2 highlights a quick experiment in collecting and analyzing how we talk about our “kin” – short ethnographic interviews with data collection – and what kind of cognitive maps of kin terms we carry in our heads. We then look in Week 3 at Dwight Read and Michael Fischer’s demonstration of just how powerful and consistent these models are in forming different cultural paradigms. We are wired for kinship in that a (kin) term x of a term y relative is intrinsically defined in our linguistic compositions, while the same cannot be said even for friend of friend in most languages (although in some languages an enemy of an enemy is a friend). Then there is the role of kinship as metaphor, a theme explored by George Lakoff. Finally, we look at 'More Kin, see articles: Palmer, Steadman amd Coe.

PAPER-

  • Since we will be writing a paper, the book
  • 10 lessons in clarity and grace
  • helps to write well

Oct 2 Lecture Outline

  1. Network software - pajek
  2. Case studies
  3. Assignments - esp last

October 2 Feedback page

  • Main points
  1. Discussion of research paper and ideas for topics. Start thinking about possible interests in choosing topics for the paper. What would make a good paper? <DW: lots of topics below>
  2. Kinship - how it expands from first order relatives (F,M,S,D) to second order (B,Z,etc.) and beyond (noting that B=Brother and Z=Sister are 2nd order, linked thru parent(s).
  3. Prepping for what we will do later, programs to download (Pajek), and possible paper topics (e.g., mention of the Duran Bell marriage exchange project possibility.
  4. Pajek's software was demonstrated with an example ... the Monastery data that comes with the software download (along with other informative files). GED kinship files can be downloaded too...
  5. How to connect kinship lineages, corporation, ownership by families, and different types of exchange: marriage exchange and the transfer of productive property, market exchange.
  6. How networks and kinship structure and create the world. How different societies create intermarriage.
  7. Expanding learning on networking and network analysis. Introduction to Mark Granovetter's strength of weak ties and strong ties, illustrated by Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems - the Turkish nomads example with and Navigability of Strong Ties. How marriage patterns connect to this in forming stronger/weaker networks. Different social networks use these in different ways.
  8. Finding the norms of kinship and networks.
  9. How structural cohesion and structural endogamy create ethnicities, communities, social groups
  10. Similarities between the Arabic-type kinship of the "Turkish Nomads" case and that of the biblical Patriarchs (Abraham and Sarah) as a deep historical type of "kinship corporation"
  11. Turkish nomads cool, and the historical background of this type of kinship system. <DW: we will so more of this and similar cases with the Pajek network software>
  12. Contrast above with the U.S., where extended networks are NOT established through trust (First lesson of business).
  13. How to download (Google: Pajek) and install program, download GED files for data) software for mapping kinship graphs, different countries/societies; How will we be using Pajek?
  14. How complexity is formed in kinship <DW: New material put on site for the Omaha case to show this Omaha system - moiety division among chiefly lineages, inequality, evolutionary simulation; good topics there for papers>
  • Murky/or questions
  1. where on the website are the reading assignments for the book on Pajek <DW: As soon as we get into Pajek and network analysis, week 4 in preparation for week 5 -- good question>
  2. Exact guidelines for A129 research paper - what does it cover? More about the paer
  3. The software: Pajek (also what about KAES>
  4. What causes kinship ties to be weak?
  5. Less murky today tho we are not used to classes such as yours. You took a rambling approach today (without announcing the main points) and that has its costs, but you got your points across fine.
  6. One again: "Nothing murky" <DW: glad it came thru for some>
  7. Jumped a bit from topic to topic, sorry <DW: Its me that's sorry - didnt post my main point outline>
  8. How were the cases used with Pajek constructed?
  9. How do you NOT develop a resistive movement? E.g., in the example of Iraq?
  10. What cases are we going to discuss - this jumps around in the discussion. <DW: a section of the syllabus contains a growing bibliography on cases that might support work on kinship networks rather than the conventional approaches.>
  • Want more
  1. More structure in the lecture <DW: alot of good advice received here>
  2. Direction and real-life examples, specific cultures and their kin ties
  3. esp. for Asian cultures: How marriage practices will connect to kinship <DW: am developing bibliography for Chinese kinship, e.g., how "clan surnames" develop in the 11th C with the rise of credit, markets, Silk road trade, banking, and commercial families>
  4. More on the Middle East - like more on historical and even ancient culture
Topic of marriage within the family very interesting and easy to understand.
More on women's role in the Middle East and how lineages included males and females instead of just males. More on the religion and marriage topic discussed today. How hard would it be to switch lineages? <DW: in the Middle East, heavy intermarriage gives a perception of lineage "merging" so the lineages are sometimes related, but lineage membership also depends on what ancestor you start from, so lots of flexibility, but its a matter of groups and networks not simply individual choice. You said it correctly: everyone may become so closely related through marriage that the kinship "structure" changes>
  1. Online networking (DW: network analysis? they are very different> -- More clear on the slides <Exercise 1? DW: will have more>
  2. More on what is happening today with the financial collapse ... very interesting

Oct 2 Class notes

user:Achhor (Aileen Chhor)

  • Mark Granovetter
  • People have the rights to marry those in your lineage
  • In the Old Testament, people marry inside the lineage of men
  • Most people in society don’t marry people inside their lineage, but in the Middle East, it is very common
  • Most societies try to marry out in order to build connections with outside families and to avoid incest
  • Our society has a lot of prohibitions about marrying close, particularly within mother’s and father’s family
  • Old Testament story: Sarah and Abraham both made a covenant with God. In the family, the family members married within their family. In successive generations, they had a direct relationship with the matriarch and the patriarch of the family.
  • Society in Turkey – the Nomads
  • Able to analyze the genealogical relationship in this society
  • As a result of being able to study people’s memories of all their ancestors
  • Pattern of trust between these lineages
  • We are continually changing society and relationships
  • Whether we can build social networks on trust or selfishness
  • The Lords of the Universe: the men who went to university and did not believe that they had to contribute to society – main goal was to make money off of money in Wall Street

Oct 7 Lecture Outline

1. [|Exercise of Week 2]  
2. Goals and Objectives of the Research paper
3. Precise concepts, Starting with: what is structural endogamy? (also some examples below)
4. Case studies - one way to think about projects
 .1 Middle East - Old Testament
 .2 Omaha 
 .3 American presidents
 .4 Austrian farmers
5. Network software - pajek - downloading data for chapter 11 (and other chapters)
6. The other way to think about projects is by TOPICS
 .1 Themes
 .2 Comparative studies
 .3 or NNDB based network detective story investigations and web information -- e.g., it appears that the main culprit was Henry Paulson, Secretary of the Treasury, a day trader with conflicts of interest pushing deregulation of the financial industry through his role Goldman Sachs, lack of oversights by Congress, and mistakes by Alan Greenspan allowing and encouraging derivatives -- See NY Times Business section October 9, 2008 about "Agency '04 Rule let banks pile up new debt" firms saying they had nore $ than they did with no checks and balances, "About that Henry Paulson Memo", look elsewhere on the web (its a detective story), Paul Krugman, Freddie Mae and Freddie Mac - very interesting problem in complexity, who caused the meltdown and need for bailout and why did Paulson want total immunity from responsibility in taking over the 700,000,000 dollar bailout.
7. Exercise of Week 3 - download the KAES software and data, and run at home to discuss next class (will demonstrate today)
8. Exercise of Week 4 - download the pajek ZIP data, and run at home

Oct 7 Class notes

user:Kelmeri (karen Elmeri)

Pajek program:

  • History of program, manual of program (use book chapter 11).
  • At home: download files (case studies)
  • Looked at generations of the Omaha community.
  • Real data with real people (know where they live and a great deal about them through an ethnography). NOW looking at a slide of the people and observing kinship ‡ every event has preceding parent ‡ Genealogical exchange data (GED). Enables you to visualize an entire society and enables to see at a glance that the generations are thinning out.
  • Yellow dots on slide: organically re linking and remarrying to keep Omaha society alive…. It is thinning out until we get just one in the last generation.

Turkish Nomads:

  • A lot of competition in this society, very complex society.
  • There were two sides that were supposed to alternate in leadership although one held all the power all the way through colonial and post-colonial leadership.
  • There is a great deal of disconnection going on
  • The purples (leaders) are pulling apart instead of pulling together. Leaders are not marrying leaders.

Evolution of Cooperation Study: Santa Fe institute

  • Societies like this are so divided that finding coalitions is very difficult.
  • If all the people you married are of one side, then there is no cohesion. All the extremes are on one side and there is nothing in between.

Omaha:

  • Very organized, very wealthy, very powerful ‡ complex dynamic.
  • Secret society meet: no rule of hereditary succession but they appointed members of their own group. The American experience and the messed up economics today is reflected through this.

Comparative or thematic materials for research paper

Samuel Bowles et al 2008 Inequality and Network Structure:

  • Clique forming and reforming … create bipartite network weakens ability to give power to other networks ‡ form a whole new set of alliances. Live in a polarized dynamic world where by stabilizing they are mixing. Instead of using categories to describe society and social groups use networks that are shifting and forming new configurations ‡ gives you insight as to why things change and how things become stable within a dynamic network.

Anthropology is a huge field of complexity studies that has changed the face of many other fields.

Social exchange bound people together (dual exchange systems) seemed to be unequal.

Can find a lot of examples on the class wiki site for research paper.

The story of Lot from the Bible: two wives one turns into salt, daughters get drunk and pregnant by the father. In this family there is a line of succession that is contested but it is all about who inherits… prevents monogamy. IN THE DIAGRAM: The line for Lot divides into three which in this case means the same person is marrying his wife and his daughter ‡ structural cohesion is the cohesion created by having two independent paths to another couple. He has a path to his daughter back to himself then to his father ‡ Very closed figure is structurally endogamous... they are never taken back into the family…c an tell that Lot is being cut out by simply the division of people. White, Douglas R., and Paul Jorion 1992 Representing and Computing Kinship: A New Approach. Current Anthropology 33(4): 454-463. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pw/White-Jorion1992.pdf

Turkish Nomads can be mapped right on top of this: both Arab systems. Every woman in this structurally endogamous cohesive core argues that the youngest son should receive privileges over the younger son ‡ turning point of classical patriarchal heritage system.

Austria: each house represents an estate owner. They deiced to organize a modern democratic society. Owners assign land around that (all the farmers) belongs to you. If you run the estate down, it is taken away from them. Want to keep the, not destroy it. Big farmers own little farmers, a right given to them by government. Government abolished system and gave rights to everyone although farmers kept the system ‡ cohesion.

If look back at Arabic linkages, find that many of the families are linked. Most of the household owners are intermarried. Anyone not intermarried is outside the system.

Structural endogamy: a network concept that provides a means of finding the boundaries of endogamy in a community, using simply the genealogical and marriage linkages.

Don’t know much about human beings and their history and how to solve economic problems ‡ can’t think outside the box.

We have some very powerful theories about social organization now but it hasn’t really caught up with us.

Kinship systems have an exact match to a formal model embedded in all of us.

Most of the presidents are related some how, mainly through marriage. Has to do more with being in the same social class ‡ cohesion. http://www3.dcs.hull.ac.uk/public/genealogy/presidents/gedx.html

download: Download Pajek kinship data zip file for week 4 assignment

October 7 Feedback page

  • Main points
  1. Learning to understand the human sciences and their fundamental concepts.
  2. Showed complexity and differences of various kinship systems and networks (linked thru marriage, succession, and inheritance) – in the context of how to use Pajek, and thinking about options for papers (Network study, Case study, Themes study, Comparative study). Look through the databases and articles under these categories.
  3. Showed how Pajek can visualize/analyze whole communities and societies, compute generations, identify boundaries of structural endogams (group cohesion), show political facts about lines of succession, matrilines, patrilines, intermarriage, distribution of secret societies, etc.
  4. Murky: how to use Pajek. Confused about what the program is an what it does. I downloaded, installed and played with it but how to construct a full genealogical diagram?
  5. Omaha example: society fragmented, tremendous power, only leaders married close within a few families, closed secret societies of dominant leaders elected their kin (like W's “election”) even tho a “principle” of father-son succession was lacking. Like Republicans and Democrats who are very internally cohesive with few crossover ties, the Omaha social strata and smaller clusters of intermarried lineages of leaders were divided into factions that no linkages. Altho the society had idealized “moieties” one “side” was completely dominant during the 19th century and “sidedness” was practiced only in very local divisions.
  6. In the U.S. Relinking marriage connects communities, classes, cohorts in the same university, or geographical locations.
  • Murky
  1. Nothing; was pretty clear :)
  2. Nothing; was Clear as to the usefulness of Pajek's visual representations
  3. Concepts are being clarified but --- how do you construct the paper? Please make clear
  4. Perhaps how to enter data into Pajek
  5. What are the different kinds of projects we can do? How long the paper? WHAT IS the final project?
  6. Still confused on the week 2 assignment.
  7. 'Go over key terms and definitions
  8. Getting interesting and more clear but confused about assignment #3
  • Want more
  1. Got all I wanted from last time
  2. Is structural endogamy ( ) a network developed through genealogy and marriage <DW: yes, if you put cohesive relinking inside the ( ) parentheses>
  3. Heard a lot about case studies, would like to hear more about “the human sciences”
How structural cohesion helps understand human society?
What is the bipartite discussed in “Inequality and network structure”
Sam Bowles studies “cooperation” but what kind of cooperation such as within the society or how the society works within the modern world
  1. About the format of the paper.
  2. Given differences in marriage, succession, and inheritance would vary in terms of data entry in pajek <DW: these are mapped by the networks, i.e., seen as a result of analysis, but additional knowledge can also be mapped on the network and principles evaluated from statements about norms, etc.>
  3. Show us more about how to use the computer programs to help visualize networks. Thanks!
  4. Assignment can get confusing at times, unfamiliar with this part of anthro.
  5. More biblical examples? And other cultures.
  6. Secret societies of the Omaha. <DW: Read the White, Tortorice, Thompson paper. Reo Fortune did the book on the subject>.
  7. More about Austrian farmers and marriage practices.

Oct 9 Lecture Outline

  1. Exercise 3: KAES: Kinship Algebra Expert System is due next Thursday, Oct 16, and we will go thru it today. This is a fascinating exercise, and involves readings authored by Dwight Read at UCLA (Anthro). It is at a stage where I could work through the simplification of a kinship terminology LIKE THOSE YOU DID IN EXERCISE 2 but I could not do the "recomposition" of the logic of a terminology from first principles (generating relations like Father, Mother, Spouse) and their reciprocals (Children, Siblings, etc.) So Dwight sent instructions that I posted on the KAES page. Whats happening here is that we are turning up bugs from changes is Java.... so I can illustrate up to a point, then the "pressure of having a class using the program" will produce changes. There is no guarentee of our getting a "construction" of kin term logic at this point, so the exercise now is just to GET TO WHERE I GOT: deconstructing the AKT or other 1 of 5 cases, exporting the deconstructed graph to PDF and printing to show where you got, put with a couple of pages that explains what the goal is here after reading Dwight Read's article and his "critical point" in explaining what the software is supposed to achieve.
  2. We will go over how this works with respect to what students have turned in for Exercise 3. And discuss why this is an fundamental achievement for anthropology, doing for human cognition what kinship analysis has done for understanding human social organization.
  3. Today's class then will be much more about anthropological theory and social network theory. And I hope to post more here to the lecture outline as time allows. We get from KAES some feel of the tempo of development in scientific anthropology where models can be replicated and tested, and theory and method is developed collaboratively. But for today we can summarize some of the major accomplishments
Two major concepts developed and tested in network formalization for sociology/anthropology, ability to measure and gauge the causal impact of core concepts in those disciplines:
The concept of group, cohesive group, through structural cohesion, of which structural endogamy is a special case
predictive consequences: who will stay, who will leave
predictive consequences: where and how ethnicities, social classes, etc., will develop
predictive consequences: which firms (e.g., in biotech) will want to link with with other organizations or firms
The concept of role, regular equivalence, of which structural equivalence is a special case
predictive consequences: in scaling nations in the world economy on the major world system hierarchy variable, which nations will rise, which will fall in a time of economic expansion;
which nations will rise, which will fall in a time of economic contraction
And then, the questions of dynamics, stability, instability, oscillatory cycles, and knowing where we are in these cycles and what to do about them, i.e., social, economic and historical dynamics.

October 9 Class notes

(posted by User:Kelmeri -- Karen Elmeri), thanks again, Karen -- DW

Week 2 Day 2 (Ignoring first friday week 0)

KAES- kinship algebra expert system

  • Kinship vocabulary is one of the most fundamental ways human society is constructed today and shows transition from history. It’s comparison of how our heads work to generate kinship terminologies.
  • AKT – American kinship terminology
  • Products of generators generate a hew system.
  • Punjabi – analysis of logic of kinship and how it fits in biological principles.

Scandal: funds that have been embezzled and stolen. Government agencies NNDB… use to establish network of linked people and organizations then use google and the Internet to investigate articles on the scandal ‡ Henry Paulson

  • Melt down of our economy
  • Look at Virgil Griffith uncovering data on the web about financial problems.
  • Use headings of news paper for ideas
  • Can take any story with 30 characters and build a “toy network”

Theoretical principles for paper:

  • A huge amount of our behavior has no selective value. There is no need for everything to be adaptive in our behavior.

Dwight Read: (read for Week 3 exercise) says biology is one thing and if you have a system like the terminological one that operates everywhere, it is an indicator of a cultural construct. The ability to conceptualize and make a set of conceptualized operations that allows us to operate in different ways. SHOULD READ THIS ARTICLE:

  • Read, Dwight W. 2008b. KAES: Kinship Algebra Expert System - Java program KAES: Kinship Algebra Expert System. Once you download the program, right click the *.jar file and Open with/Java.

In the 1960’s anthropologists tried to group kinship terminologies because it allowed for organization. Kin terms are a governed set of rules that can be applied to imaginary things.

Do not concern yourself with partial debates – one-sided views.

Can define groups by having one common ancestor. A lot of groups are defined by people’s conceptions about what is important about the networks rather than the network itself.

Patriarchs and Turkish nomad example: people are reacting in network based on corporate groups within the network. Inheritance would follow the lines of property that would go inside the group rather than outside the group.

British thought they had a fundamental principle: they thought, as scientists want to find some basic principles. Would rather study society based on its characteristics that endure, want societies to consist of things rather than relations (compared to social network which is concerned with continual change going on). The blow that struck this theory in the throat: fieldwork that showed that there were societies that showed that there were no permanent groups at all in fact the relationship that made up these societies were based on groups trying to claim bodies of water by claiming they were descendants and it was their right. (descent theories).

Lévi-Strauss: The human family is real but for its persistence requires linkage to the outside (marriage). Without marriage you don’t have offspring for perpetuation. It was the evolutionary transition from mating to culture – having a conception of a relationship. (alliance theories).

Network theories: can represent anything as long as it’s meaningful. Read texts and observe as well as participate. Not biological bases of kinship but mere observations of kinship. May come up with results using network approach.

Two fundamental ideas important to anthropology and sociology:

  • A group is an identification of society. In Aristotelian theory they have defined themselves – simple idea.
  • Groups may come and go as well as the relations that make them up.
  • Want to know what is relationship between the claims and the ties within the society.
  • What is stated as an idea and what is essentially observable on the ground.
  • Cohesive group allows us to identify boundaries of a group, which can change on the bases of patterns of ties. What are the network characteristics based on the network, neutrally. If a certain group is cohesive on a network sense then the links that define it are real. The more cohesive a group is the more it can focus its activity to bring about another set of results.
  • To test hypothesis of a cohesive group in a network sense would be analogous to doing things with scientific concepts in the real world. Have two independent phenomena, which are tied in a mathematical sense, which have criteria that do exist.
  • Cohesion: an entity that has a certain level of resistance to being turned into something else. It has internal connections. It is resistant to external shock up to a certain level. Internal traversal properties are what go on within this structural cohesion.
  • Theorem in graph theory: at theory that comes out of graphs as objects that describe relations in which you can prove theorems independent of the world.
  • In networks there are cycles in traversal terms can get somewhere in two different ways. If put them together they will connect by having a node in common. There is a deep theorem which took its generator about 17 pages of proof that said if you have a graph and its connected and you take a certain number of points out it becomes disconnected. The multiplier of the strength is the independent path of connection. Any structure composed of ties, the number of disconnections needed and the number of traversal are exactly formal identical. The internal and external cohesion are identical for anything interconnected by ties.
  • Can go into a network and find cohesive groups (a very small number of them).
  • Can have a clique of 3 people and another clique of 3 people, which can intersect at one or two nodes. A clique is defined as a group, which are connected at all nodes. In contrast, cohesive blocks form a single cohesive block – they could be connected at two different ways, which you put together to form a single cohesive group. Therefore there are fewer of them because when combine into something that is still cohesive. They are still cohesive individually but as one group also.

October 9 Feedback page

  • Maybe the feedback notes were left in the back?
  • Main points
  • Concept of group and of structural cohesion; Cohesion not just "having organization" but having multiple internal linkages, which as a formal definition of k-cohesion means a group that cant be disconnected except by taking out k of its members, which is equivalent to every pair of members having at least k separate paths to reach every other member.
  • Murky
  • many things going on in this lecture
  • Want more

Oct 14 Lecture Outline

Run Pajek and check /Options/Read - Write/GEDCOM - Pgraph[x]/Save vertex labels[x]/Save coordinates[x]/Save vertex descro[topm
Under RED LABEL /Networks open your *.GED or *.net file (its name will appear in the upper networks window)
When open /Net/Partitions/Depth/Generations (its name will appear in the upper Partitions window)
In Draw window /Layers/In y direction /Layers/Optimize layers in x direction/Forward
To change to 3D /Layers/In z direction /Layout/Energy/Starting Positions [x]Given z /Layout/Energy/Fruchterman/2D
/Draw/Draw-Partition

October 14 Feedback page

  • Main points
  • Endogamy, marriage payments, and work on a codebook for comparing ethnographic cases using analytic categories for social exchange (gifts, negotiated payments, etc).
  • Austria - those who relink in the bicomponent (of structural endogamy) become the heirs - become cohesion, form the community, and acquire its property in land and farm machines (productive wealth)
  • Caanan patriarchs - structural endogamy and marrying here within the lineage that transmits the religion precludes the problem out outsiders marrying in who don't share history, knowledge, beliefs
  • See the issue of marriage links in how BEHAVIORS and customs like dowry, bridewealth, knit together the groups
  • Analytic definitions needed to study the customs and BEHAVIORS (like the Marriage Payments Codebook - you can also use this for your case study) and for the NETWORKS of links (like the analytical concept of structural endogamy)
  • Common ideology in our culture (U.S., European) traps us in a world of ancestral trees recorded as if each extended family was disconnected and separate, when in fact that are cohesively interconnected, forming social classes, communities, clans, religious groups, etc.
  • GET YOUR GED FILES FOR THE NEXT ASSIGNMENT - WEEK 4
  • Review of the software for the week and the assignments
  • Murky
  • Stay focused on one point <DW: main point was structural endogamy and marriage as creating cohesion as opposed to genealogical trees where only those in the tree are seen as connected> Simpler examples?
  • What to do if KAES doesnt work for me?
  • Difference between KAES and Pajek? <DW: first is kinship TERMS, i.e., language; other is kinship NETWORKS, the actual ties
  • Everything clearer for me if I bring my computer - can see the wiki pages, run the programs, etc. Can use it or a class members if the podium computer fails perhaps.
  • Want more
  • More on the final project, show us an example; what to do, how to go about it
  • Open KAES by extracting the .jar file then you can "Open with ... java"

Oct 14 Class notes

User: Chrystal Kim

-Went over how to use Pajek -Went over how to use KAES -new option for term paper: Marriage Payments

-Assignment #3 -Kaes -click step-by-step -structural approach -2 different approaches for this assignment

1. might not work 2. may work, follow instructions, print and turn in 3. all done but maybe want to use other kinship terms

-Assignment #4 -use geneological software

Oct 16 Lecture Outline

October 16 Feedback page

Main points:

  • Introduction to ideas and resources for the term project
  • Kinship and business alliance -- inheritance of property, position, son-in-law phenomena (boss's daughter), exchanges of services
  • Data sources for Pajek
  • Members of a society may be unknowingly linked and relinked by marriage or other ties

Murky:

  • No
  • How do the programs run? What should KAES look like?
  • When is week 4 due?

Want More:

  • Programs: Pajek (will the Mac instructions Anton Sisante work?), KAES

Projects:

  • Track kinship terms and see of the economy and social values cause them to change or, when cultures meet, do kin terms change. <DW: Alexander Spoehr Changing Kinship Systems; a Study in the Acculturation of the Creeks, Cherokee, and Choctaw. Alexander Spoehr, Chicago Museum of Natural History - 1947 - Kraus Reprint, 1968. Perfect for this topic>
  • Topic: China
  • Books for topic: by Francis L. K Hsu (Author) <DW: The Effect of Dominant Kinship Relationships on Kin and Non-Kin Behavior: A Hypothesis. 1965. Francis L. K. Hsu. American Anthropologist 67(3): 638-661 -- book: Kinship and Culture 1971 (Has China and other cultures) -- Under the ancestors' shadow: Chinese culture and personality: Kinship, Personality, and Social Mobility in China. a Reissue with a New Chapter (1967).>
  • Darwin/Wedgewood type of study: <DW: see Darwins and Wedgewoods and Extended families in history and use Wikipedia links> <Another idea is to use the book genograms (Google it and look form Monica McGoldrick) and some of the case studies and symbols they use in drawing family networks as the basis for a paper> Genogram software: http://www.smartdraw.com/specials/genogram.htm?id=45439&gclid=CImmq6fouJYCFRxNagodzFgQLg
  • Might read studies from the codebook project SCCS ethnographic bibliography
  • Royal Kinship in the Middle East (Egypt?) <DW: Try a Google Scholar search: Egyptian Royal genealogy; or Saudi Arabia: Hashemite genealogy>
  • I'd Like to write about Thailand, or my mother's lineage. <DW: Try a Google Scholar search: Thai kinship; and use as the background some references that are pertinent>

October 16 Notes

posted by:User:mayumiterada

  • Explanation of the Kaes system- open file and click Map Operations -> simplify structure (similar)
    • Follow the directions on wiki site of KAES to plug in the terminology that we collected
  • Although we don’t want to think that there was a lot of intermarriage, we have to consider the fact that when we go up our ancestral tree instead of having more ppl, there are less
  • Kinship is organized by analytic systems like the algebra by Read
  • We want to step outside of the concepts of kinship that limits us in our analysis
  • Marriage payments project with Bell and White
    • The availability of a new codebook
  • Network structure of Chinese kinship system
  • Discussion of books with links available online as topics and support for research paper/ pajek
    • Malinowski’s report on the Trobriand islands
    • Christian kinship
    • Presidents of US
    • Darwin and the wedgewoods
    • From anthropological field data
      • Human science and complexity
        • (Bloomsbury group) Kinships to various artists, etc
  • Regional kinships
    • Diagram showed the density of kinship ties
      • Males tend to be more vertically connected
    • European royalties diagram (hanover)
      • Intermarriage of continental Europe
    • Indian north America
    • Presidential elites of US
      • Can show structural competence with the use of color nodes
    • Mesoamerica
    • Mexico and central america
      • Database files available
      • Interesting info can be found. Ex- all of the members of Costa Rican parliament could be traced back to 3 conquistadores
    • Australia
      • Can trace the generations
  • Comparative studies

Oct 21 Lecture Outline

I was wondering if you could do a tutorial or something for the KAES and Pajek during class. I'm not very tech savvy and I JUST figured out how to use KAES after a few days tinkering around with it, that's why I didn't have the assignment ready last wk. I know Pajek is what we'll be working with this week and I didn't know if it was too much to ask to kind of run thru what we need to do. Or I think you just got a TA? Maybe he'd be willing to show us outside class or something. Just an idea. Thanks, Joanna <DW: Yes, we will do this>

October 21 Feedback page

Main points:

  • To show how to use the software

Murky:

  • Where do I look for the groups that tie the research project together?
  • And how to make it look like a family tree in Pajek? (Week 4)
  • How many possible points on the Week 1-6 exercises <DW: ten each>
  • Partition graphing options explanations too fast
  • How to same the graphs in PDF?
  • What to do to simplify the kinterms for Trobriands?
  • I save a file with the .GED extension option but then it wont open
  • Which clusters to input?

Want more:

  • KAES would be easier to follow if there were an UNDO option to retrace what we did <DR: email Mike Fischer>
  • More graphs using Pajek!
  • a lot of the GED files in the Genealogy Data Files page get a 404 file missing or error link

Oct 23 Lecture Outline

For more help with Pajek, read:

*Vertices       4
      1 "Michiel Mence "           triangle
      2 "Anucla Gondola "          ellipse
      3 "Raduo Mence "             triangle
      4 "daughter"                 ellipse 
*Arcs :1 "Fa:Parent"
      2        3 1 c Black
      2        4 1 c Black
*Arcs :2 "Mo:Parent"
      1        3 2 c Red p Dots 
      1        4 2 c Red p Dots 
*Edges :3 "Spouse"
      1        2 3 k1 -4

We will also open the Gondola.ged and the Isle_of_(Man).ged from Chapter11. Immediately after opening one of these calculate Net/Analyze/Partitions/Genealogy to get generations. /Generations does not work here as yet for GED files. For a .net file of these data you can use

*Vertices       3
      1 "Michiel Mence + Anucla Gondola"       box   
      2 "Raduo Mence "                         triangle
      3 "daughter"                             ellipse 
*Arcs :1 "Son's Parent"
     2        1 1 c Black
*Arcs :2 "Daughter's Parent"
     3        1 2 c Red p Dots

Here Black lines are to parents of a male, Red dotted lines are to parents of a female. The square box is a couple, the triangle an unmarried male, the circle an unmarried female. Those shapes can be altered to suit your objective.

  • This is an expansion we did in class of the p-graph format
*Vertices       6 
     1 "James + Janinea"       box   
     2 "Colin M"               triangle
     3 "Hannah"                ellipse 
     4 "Richard + Winifred"    box 
     5 "Vicky"
     6 "Orville + Bonnie"      box 
*Arcs :1 "Son's Parent"
    2        1 1 c Black
    1        4 1 c Black
*Arcs :2 "Daughter's Parent"
    3        1 2 c Red p Dots
    1        6 2 c Red p Dots
    5        6 2 c Red p Dots

By the way, at the end of class today, some students were wondering how to print out genealogical diagrams via Pajek. After using the Draw function, click on Export > 2D > SVG > General and it will be saved as an HTML file under a .SVG extension with whatever name you choose. Just open that file by clicking and dragging it into your internet browser and print it out the way you would any internet page

- Chris

October 23 Feedback page

Main points

  • Today's lesson was awesome! We circumvented a problem of the computer in class, and tho I was able to learn alot, like how to set up a genealogical file using a basic textpad/notepad editor, and how to draw it with Pajek. Pajek is becoming alot less difficult now. Am getting better at it.
  • You also showed a place for a on-line tutorial, which is cool
  • Am starting to understand how to use Pajek thanks to the in-class tutorial.

Murky

  • Crystal clear - flawless lecture today!
  • Everything cam across really well.
  • Pajek format a bit confusing. How would I denote a divorce? Remarriage? <DW: good question>

Want more

  • Maybe focus more on the ASCII format "arcs" and the intricacies of these numbers.
  • Can we somehow use the genealogy we build of our family in Pajek for the final project? How to go about doing this? <DW: good question>

Oct 28 Lecture Outline

Answer: To denote a divorce, instead of box for a couple in p-graph format, use cross (or widen the x_fact size in the vertex line). Then for a remarriage use diamond.

  • Its fine to do your extended family, going out as far as possible, to all the relatives linked by marriage and their kin, also to all the divorces, remarriages: then read the article by Eric Widmer in Reconstituted families and do your analysis.
  • Here's a program txt2pajek (see: pajek wiki. It takes data like this"
Colin;James&Janinea;triangle;1;c Blue
Hanna;James&Janinea;ellipse;2,c Red;p Dots

And makes a *.net file but doesn't put in the triangle for Colin, ellipse for Hanna or the line numbes 1 c Blue etcetera. I wrote the author to see if he can instruct us.

Here's an example made from family.ged and saved to family.net in p-graph (couples and individuals) format with a divorce of the son and his remarriage

*Vertices      11
      1 "sister"                                 0.6865    0.3742    0.5000 ellipse
      2 "grandson"                               0.5000    0.9231    0.5000 box
      3 "I & wife"                               0.5000    0.5000    0.5000 box
      4 "father & mother"                        0.4985    0.2296    0.5000 box
      5 "f-grandfather & f-grandmother"          0.3727    0.0431    0.5000 box
      6 "m-grandfather & m-grandmother"          0.6191    0.0470    0.5000 box
      7 "father & stepmother"                    0.2715    0.2308    0.5000 box
      8 "son-in-law & daughter"                  0.7051    0.7678    0.5000 box
      9 "son & daughter-in-law"                  0.5015    0.7704    0.5000 cross x_fact 3
     10 "son & new wife"                         0.2015    0.7704    0.5000 diamond
     11 "brother & sister-in-law"                0.3770    0.5000    0.5000 box
*Arcs :1 "Son"
      3        4 1 p Solid 
      7        5 1 p Solid 
      4        5 1 p Solid 
     11        4 1 p Solid 
      9        3 1 p Solid 
     10        3 1 p Solid 
      2        9 1 p Solid 
*Arcs :2 "Daughter"
      4        6 2 p Dots 
      1        4 2 p Dots 
      8        3 2 p Dots 

http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/pajek/howto/Kinship.htm

Oct 28 Feedback

Main points

  • Use of Pajek and how to show divorce and remarriage.
  • Good demonstration, doing more with Pajek
  • Will do different visual options next time. In draw menu, /Export/SVG/2D/General --> saves as .hml you can open on your directory with Firefox or IE.
cross (x) doesnt work. We used as size factor operator x_fact 3 to increase the width of the node.
  • Copy and paste the class examples into an ASCII file, save with *.net ending.
  • More Examples
  • Opened me up to really consider my project - I have an idea, but how to carry it out?

Murky

  • Nothing
  • Research paper, more info on what to do for it.
  • What options to use in pajek and how to use them.
  • How can I save an ASCII file as we did in class and then read in Pajek? <DW: just save with the *.net added or right click on the file, then use "Rename" option and add .net. If correctly formatted it can be read by Pajek>
  • Having trouble with KAES - can we go over it again briefly in class?

More

  • Please post guidelines for A129 research paper (project on a network, case, region, ...), to facilitate the process of our writing it.
  • On other kinds of networks: Cities, Communities.
  • I made my own genealogy from a program on the "My Heritage" webside (Family Tree Builder) but Pajek cant open their *.zed file. <DW: see below: /File/Export to GED>
  • Building my Pajek file I get an error on the edges: <DW: put asterisks before *Vertices and *Arcs
  • Please mail (Ngoc) dont@uci.edu the article about "What fatherhood does for kinship networks" <DW: More Kin: An Effect of the Tradition of Marriage by Palmer, Craig T. Lyle B. Steadman, and Kathryn Coe (2006)
  • Post the book references for the Chinese society with minimal fatherhood <DW: Mosuo kinship>
  • Project: Chinese marriage (Ryan)
  • Can I use my genealogy for my final project? Will email <DR: yes, just make it as extensive as possible, including divorces, remarriages, many generations, many collaterals>
  • What if I do a project on a network, what do I do with it, analyze it?
  • I was wondering how I'd go about filling in an Adoption in Pajek. <DR: two sets of parents, and a different number for the son-to-parent link, not the usual "1" but "3" and a new c Green color for example>

Oct 30 Lecture Outline

Oct 30 Feedback

Main points

  1. Learned alot about case studies - interesting!
  2. Went over more possibilities for term projects.
  3. Went over the questions from the course feedback.

Murky

  1. None
  2. I went over the textbook and have a few questions about the vocabulary. I wasn't to clear on the definitions of semipath and semiwalk,I realize in order to understand one I have to understand the other. I believe that the term semicycle is connected to these terms as well. I also wanted clarification on the term bi-component, I know you used this in lecture last class and I wanted to be sure I knew what it referred to. Thank you.
  3. DRW: Also distinguish kinship Ore graph versus P-graph versus Bipartite p-graph
  4. Is there a way to draw a link in an Ore-graph for a remarriage? Is a link needed between her old marriage and her new marriage? <DR: No, this is clear in an Ore-Graph, she is the link; (2) in a p-graph she has two marriage nodes, each linking her back to her parents, and its her name that distinguishes these two marriages among those of her siblings.

More

  1. I'm not very good using Pajek software and dont know exactly what to turn in for Assignment #4.
  2. You wanted an e-mail stating what we were interested in for the research paper. I was considering writing my paper on a comparison of various royal families of the past. Possibly comparing the frequencies of intermarriage and when they occur. Are there overlaps when structural relinking occurs for the various families or are they all circumstantial to what is going on in each of their societies (socially, economically, and politically)?
  3. Could you list the project topics you were talking about (e.g., China)? Thanks for going over so much of these possibilities!
  4. I have 5 generations on my genealogy (term project). Will look for patterns. What else should I do?
  5. If we want to look at a complex genealogy closely how do we do it in Pajek? (TOO MANY OVERLAPPING CIRCLES). <DW: in a pgraph with m arcs and n nodes one cycle with m=n arcs is enough to define a bicomponent. Then m-n is the number of SURPLUS cycles within the bicomponent!. Thats the first clue as to whether there are enough surplus cycles to justify an analysis of distinct cycles, as relinkings or blood marriages. There is a way to do this, but start with the rules for "reading" cycles as relinkings or blood marriages. We'll go thru this in class, using my powerpoint talk for Paris.
  6. Where can I find good sources about Royal Families? Is Google Scholar the best bet?
  7. Mosuo kinship sounds interesting <DW: for more references try Mosuo: Try Google Scholar. Also first two entries in Amazon books -- the main source is in German.>, as I am 'also researching fatherless children <DW: lots of cases for fatherless children occur in the Caribbean where the men emigrate for wage labor and visit home only occasionally>.
  8. How to paste a Pajek diagram to word? <DW: /Draw... then /Export/2D/bitmap (or SVG)>.
  9. Thinking about Turkish nomads ... <DW: you can now download the *.net file>

Nov 4 Lecture outline

Read and discuss Chapter 11 -- go over terms/vocabulary

Nov 4 Feedback

Main points

  • Pajek options, how to compute generations and structural endogamy better understood.
  • Again, going over projects makes everything much more understandable.

Murky

  • Nothing!
  • Explain Assignment # 5 a little bit more, please.
  • What do we turn in for Assignment # 5? What do we show for the visualization and what should we analyze? Not sure what or how much I should talk about. <DW: Will show you how to do this Thursday the 6th>

More

  • Keep doing examples in Pajek - very informative!
  • How to analyze networks and what to write about using *.NET visualization
  • How to turn a project about the Mosuo in China into a theme project appropriate for this class?
  • Is the kinship or genealogy of most Asian people (in contrast to the matrilineal Mosuo) based on the Y chromosome?
  • Musuo: Any good books?
  • I'm also interested in kinships of earlier Chinese civilizations
  • Anything on kinship of twins (twin studies) or multiple births (Is this possible?) <DW: I would not know where to look for this>

Nov 6 Lecture outline

Hatfields and McCoys: Five independent cycles here, 2 FBD, 3 independent relinkings, 1 nonindependent. No McCoy sons in last generation, their daughters marry Hatfields.
  1. Download V2Net.zip:Pajek kinship data zip file --- biblio sources of these data: Genealogical data to copy and paste if *.net file
  2. Download P2Net.zip:Pajek kinship data zip file ---- biblio sources of these data: Genealogical data to copy and paste if *.net file
  • No class Tues - Veterans' Day
  • Terms/vocabulary from Pajek book, chapter 11: e.g. semicycle
  • Vocabulary from Pajek menus
  • Pajek vocabulary and analyses - see the video lecture by Nataša Kejžar
  • Kinship powerpoints (run in lecture) -- how Structural cohesion (surplus marriage cycles) are linked 1-to-1 with individual relinkings (marital relinking like two brothers with two sisters) of blood marriages)
  • Using kinship network case-study data and references - from last lecture: These have to be matched with the *.net files in *.zip and then with the bibliography.

Nov 6 Feedback

How to show generations, read the structural endogamy graphs, Assiganments

  • Murky
  • nothing
  • How to download and edit a GED file.-Laura
DW: Directions: Just download, check it its in ASCII (does it open in Pajek?) Save as *.net file from Pajek.
  • How to do assignment #6
  • More
  • I was wondering if you are going to explain the final paper next class or sometime soon so we can have a good idea in the coming wks.

Nov 13 Lecture outline

The Garo example was picked randomly from the new data files. See how to draw lineages in Pajek kinship data to learn a new sequence of Pajek commands. Then /Draw/Draw-Partition. /Layers/in y direction. There you have the lineages. To just draw generations: /Net/Partitions/Depth/Partitions then /Draw/Draw-Partition. /Layers/in y direction. Press the z key to rotate the graph 180 degrees and get the ancestors and "unconnected" at the top. Now the generations will be correctly ordered. Then use /Layers/optimize in x direction/forward. This will minimize crossing of lines, but close relatives close the the graph. To get your node labels /Options/Mark vertices using/Labels.

Founding Matriarchs and Patriarchs endogamous to Canaan patrilineage
  • Wikipedia:Abraham
  • use Adobe acrobat (installed?) to convert pdf to jpg for upload file to graphic viewer
  • Explanation of Exercise 5 and how to turn it into a term project
use one of the new Pajek datasets below
should be pgraph format, couples as nodes.

The first of these files has abundant and partly documented Pajek *.net files for exercise 5.

  1. Download V2Net.zip:Pajek kinship data zip file --- biblio sources of these data: Genealogical data to copy and paste if *.net file
  2. Download P2Net.zip:Pajek kinship data zip file ---- biblio sources of these data: Genealogical data to copy and paste if *.net file The P-CAN.net - patriarchs/matriarchs file is not complete in V2Net.zip
  3. Download Vec2Net.zip:Pajek kinship data zip file ---- biblio sources of these data: Genealogical data to copy and paste if *.net file has some larger kinship *.net files

Nov 13 Feedback

Murky

  • I tried to download the zipped files you put up for exercise 5, but don't know how to use it (them).
  • While you're doing the examples, can you slow down and make sure we're following along? I always miss how you download examples and then have trouble following along. <DW: Ok, will work thru the Garo in steps next time>

Nov 18 Lecture outline

Garo women's moieties, a uxori-sided marriage organization
  1. Here's the Garo example from last time, but now I'll show click:<how to draw lineages in Pajek kinship data> to learn a new sequence of Pajek commands. Download - P-GaroMatriiSided.net and open in Pajek to see - Matri-moieties. This illustrates the kind of materials that exist for a term project: draw the graph with generations, try matrilineal and patrilineal drawings, check for moieties or flow of marriages in a single direction, get the ethnography, and even build a wiki site like this one, with url links to data on the society.
  2. See Nov 6 for the Hatfield and McCoys example, studied by Jee Yon Shin. Number m-n+1=20-16+1=5 independent cycles, 2 FBD marriages, 4 relinkings, 3 independent.
  3. DESCRIBE YOUR PROJECT - feedback session
  4. SVG (Draw/Partition Export/2D/SVG) - revisit

Nov 18 Feedback

Main

  • How to draw generations on our kinship graphs
  • Stories behind networks that are useful to writing about societies for term projects, e.g., look up on our bibliographies (ethnographies), in wikipedia, in google scholar
  • Assignment #5 overview; very helpful to go over it in class

Murky

  • Nothing
  • Wiki still a little scattered - hard to find links <DW: put all (Search for:) Tutorials on one page
  • I'm still not sure what we should be doing for the project nor of my topic. <DW: Maybe next class's discussion will give you some ideas. But also Google: Chinese kinship networks>

More

  • The Washo project idea (Kathryn) - kin terms becoming generalized = <DW: Good idea!! and good hypothesis>
  • Comparison of Lowland and Highland tribes in Amazonia. <DW: a number of the kinship networks for those societies are in the zipped files. <DW: Put a list of those here and I will check to see if there are more you can use.>
  • Where on the wiki is a general outline of what you expect for our final paper, not just links to info on topics for the paper?
  • Still trying to use my genealogy for project - Maybe I'll try to look into MULTICULTURALISM as my theme, my family genealogy is very diverse with ethnicities <DW: that works!>
  • I plan to take one of the zipped files, working within in Pajek, then search for an ethnography thru Antpac for the author and read about the study. Then try to find patterns in the genealogy like structural endogamy and see how marriages have to do with how the society is integrated. Not sure which group: Would welcome suggestions. - Renée E. <DW: Ok, just working thru the list, with *.NET files and references (Genealogical data to copy and paste if *.net file):
Canaan
French KNG Kings
Garo
Hatfield and McCoys
KAR Kodiak Islands
!KUNg
MAKuna
MORsyiyysn
MYSore
NATchez
PUL Eliya
Saint GABriel
YANomamo

These are examples - If you cant find references, email me or ask in class!

  • Two people (Jimmy Li and Carmen): Thinking of a project on the Musuo. Carmen: Matrilineal societies are super interesting. How to go about comparing them? <DW: try the book by Alice Schlegel: Male Dominance and Female Autonomy; Domestic Authority in Matrilineal Societies. It gives three types of authority in ML societies: The wife, here brother, and a balance between the two. If you take two matrilineal societies as examples, you could compare them in terms of her ideas of what these different systems of authority do in each pattern or society>
  • Jimmy: Musuo on China-Tibet border. Sources?: <DW: http://www.hawaii.edu/phil/gradconf/file/Bradshaw.pdf has an interesting paper that mentions the Musuo in the context of environmental sustainability (mentioned right under the map on p. 22). http://www.popline.org/docs/0948/071997.html has a Musuo survey of family characteristics and fertility. Also found a http://people.tribe.net/9a7a8cf3-010c-4f3e-80a5-dfd8cfbd37e3/blog/f3cdb339-08bf-4e66-bc80-602fe975fbd0. The main sources are not in English, you have to search using different keywords. There are also critiques such as http://www.time.com/time/asia/features/china_cul_rev/minorities.html and http://satan4u.8m.com/history/whenit.html)
  • Ramy - your draft starts from INSIDE the philosophical positions of the cult which you begin commenting on on page 5, but the first source, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0SOR/is_n1_v55/ai_15383493/print?tag=artBody;col1, takes a sociological view and analyzes surveys of members. Your text reads like literal copy of text written somewhere in this literature, and you need to put in quotes anything actually quoted. Start with more of an overview, a sociological or anthropological view, and then get to your quotes of the philosophy (such as those in your http://www.oshoworld.com/sannyas/sannyas_quotes.asp source) in the context of what questions or problems you are posing. I.e., you are taking the literature OF the cult as YOUR writing, which is not a position you want to be in.
  • Íf you are still short of an idea for the paper and you bought the Pajek book' you could use the case study for the San Juan community, which has kinship and other network ties in the community.

Nov 20 Lecture outline

  • Grades and Exercises:
Check your MISSING exercises and get them in - the NOW AFFECT YOUR GRADE
All the instructions for 4-5-6 are now complete
If you do 5 and 6 together that is ok, just include each part
5: the bicomponent as shown in the graph, yellow nodes, with generations (remember the low numbered generations are more recent, high numbers the ancestors)
6: the correlation between the bicomponent and the generations (excluding the last 2 or 3, depending on how incomplete they are) and how to interpret the result.
  • DESCRIBE YOUR PROJECT - feedback session - THIS WILL BE MOST OF THE CLASS. The short descriptions handed in last time are discussed above under FEEDBACK for last class.
  • Guidelines for A129 research paper -- we can discuss together editing these Guidelines
  • Mayumi Terada did an analysis of the types of marriage (e.g., MBD) for the Garo. This is another possible paper topic for a case study -- we can go back to the POWERPOINT of a few weeks ago to see how this work.s

Nov 20 Feedback

  • Main Pts
  • Project proposals, assignments 5 & 6.
  • Murky
  • (For 5: add generations, show endogamy?) So, for assignment 5, we just read one of those files with Pajek? Then do the same thing? Comment and describe?
DW: For 5 its
Compute generations, optimize layout for clarity
Then compute the bicomponent, and show the distribution of bicomponent nodes on the graph
For 6 there is are other steps as well so you can do the both at once.
Final step there is to extract the largest weak component, then remove the lower generations (removing those who arent old enough to have married), recompute the generation, optimize layout for clarity, then compute bicomponents, show the distribution of bicomponent nodes on the graph, and finally, compute the correlation between generations and the bicomponent (cohesive) nodes.

More

  • Will do the San Juan community from the book, mentioned on pages: 66, 81 116, 188-189.-Ryan
DW: You can try out different methods for finding cohesion: bicomponents, k-cores
  • I'll do Mexican power networks from the Jorge Gil reference.-Bonnie
DW: There is also a thesis in the library by Narda Alcantara on this subject
  • Topic: What focus should I use (continent, country, Royal family) if I want to consider the endogamy that occurs in Royal families? Do they occur because of: political reasons or sociocultural? Some families more than others? More during times of turmoil or peace?
DW: Great questions, and taking 1-2 families its very interesting to ask about time lag: Do you see any patterns in the graphs of marriages -- after annotating major periods, events, conflicts, treaties, alliances and so forth as to when they occur -- where the marriages follow these events in time, or where they lead these events. Do the marriages seal or mark out past events, or do they represent strategies to shape events, successfully or not. If you take two families, or several within a genealogy, how do their "marriage policies" differ (probably Wikipedia pages on these questions will also be informative when tied in to the data on the kinship graphs.-Mayumi.
  • For Arranged marriage in Asia I want to answer: Why? (Wealthier families? Business arrangements? Decreasing or increasing? To join the two families?)
DW: For http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arranged_marriage the wiki site is useful -- what references will you use? You need a few good case studies.
  • I also have been looking into my paper topic and I believe I want to work with Egyptian royalty and kinship. Do you think this is a good idea?-Karen Elmeri (absent Nov 25)
DW: Yes: only a few societies like the Egyptian royalty, Calusa horticulturalists, a Kingdom in Turkey recently reviewed on the History channel, and Swedish legal allowance allowed Br/Si marriage. I think we may have had the Egyptian royalty in a Pajek file somewhere also Google: "Brother-sister marriage"
  • Project: Alternating gender dominance in Ancient Greek mythology - Greek Gods: What kinship relations set up to further their legacy? They rule themselves, gender equality; How does each Gender dominate? And express themselves. Objective: Figure out relationships, statuses, liberties. Contribution of networks to "Get their way" <DW: Centrality>-Lucy
DW: Maybe consider the "Strength of Weak ties" paper (me and Houseman) which is about Arabic/Mediterranean type of trust between male lineages. Some gods WAY more central, e.g., Zeus, Hera?
  • Research on Osage tribe, clan organization, moieties.-Karli Kephardt
  • Habsburgs - we discussed this in class.-Joanna Clay

Nov 25 Lecture outline

  • Review of topics for term papers
  • POWERPOINT - skipped last time

Dec 2 and Dec 4 Lectures outline

Doug is giving a workshop and the Iberall memorial lecture in Complexity Sciences at the University of Connecticut. The powerpoint for a kinship networks and cohesion workshop is in part 2 - from page 86 - at http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/ppt/SocialPhysics1e.ppt - and the first 85 slides deal with the general concept of the causality of structural cohesion as it applies to Kinship - Education - Social Groups - Political Parties - Science - Industry - Cities & Trade - Warfare/Empire - World Economy. If you are interested you can view these slides as materials for the Dec 4 lecture on the wiki.

In short, no classes this week. You can continue to email me with exercises or term papers and I will have access to email at the University of Connecticut. Final papers due by the end of final exam week. I have enjoyed having you all in the class and your struggles with the exercises paid off handsomely for most; email me if you still have problems. There is no final exam, so best wishes on your completion of the quarter and enjoy the holiday.

On-line books, articles and software

Good guides for your writing

Books

  1. (Google books) Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems: Process Models of a Turkish Nomad Clan By Douglas R. White and Ulla Johansen. Table of contents - G book (open MORE) Chapters 1-4, 6, 8, ... (see synopsis in Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems) - color figure supplements
  2. Kinship and Capitalism: Marriage, Family, and Business in the English-Speaking world, 1580-1740 By Richard Grasby
  3. Practicing Kinship: Lineage and Descent in Late Imperial China By Michael Szanyi
  4. Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia By William Robertson Smith
  5. Kinship, Capitalism, Change: The Informal Economy of the Navajo, 1868-1995 By Mic Francisconi
  6. Claude Lévi-Strauss and the Making of Structural Anthropology By Marcel Henaff
  7. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life By Robert N. Bellah, Richard Madsen, William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. Tipton
  8. Kinship, Networks, and Exchange Eds. Thomas Schweizer and Douglas R. White
  9. Christianizing Kinship: Ritual Sponsorship in Anglo-Saxon England By Joseph H. Lynch
  10. The Ethnography of Malinowski: The Trobriand Islands 1915-18 By Bronislaw Malinowski
  11. Kinship and Marriage: An Anthropological Perspective By Robin Fox
  12. American Kinship: A Cultural Account By David Murray Schneider
  13. Evolution and Human Kinship By Austin L. Hughes
  14. continue search at google book search : Limited preview and full view : kinship : Books 131 - 140 of 2038 on Kinship.

Articles

  1. http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/Structure_and_Dynamics_contents
  2. Kinship, Class, and Communities Doug White (wiki)
  3. More Kin: An Effect of the Tradition of Marriage by Palmer, Craig T. Lyle B. Steadman, and Kathryn Coe (2006) eJrnl contents for Structure and Dynamics: eJournal of Anthropological and Related Sciences 1(2): Article 4.
  4. The politics of early kinship Chris Knight (University of East London)

On-line data and software

  1. Data - Franklin.ged. (2000, November). Retrieved February 26, 2007, from http://www.roperld.com/gedcom/.
  2. Tompsett, B. (2004): American presidents GEDCOM file. Retrieved February 26, 2007, from http://www3.dcs.hull.ac.uk/public/genealogy/presidents/gedx.html.
  3. On American presidents see also Fig. 4 in 1996 Kinship networks and discrete structure theory: Applications and implications. Douglas R. White, and Paul Jorion. Special Issue on Social Network and Discrete Structure Analysis. Social Networks 18(3): 267-314. doi:10.1016/0378-8733(95)00277-4 http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pub/KinNetsDiscStr1996.pdf
  4. Kinship computing Doug White
  5. KAES - Kinship Algebra Expert System. Once you download the program, right click the *.jar file and Open with/Java.

Pajek

  1. Douglas R. White, Vladimir Batagelj and Andrej Mrvar. 1999. Analyzing Large Kinship and Marriage Networks with Pgraph and Pajek, Social Science Computer Review 17(3):245-274. http://ssc.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/17/3/245
  2. Batagelj, Vladimir and Andrej Mrvar. 2008. Analysis of Kinship Relations With Pajek Social Science Computer Review 26(2): 224-246. http://ssc.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/26/2/224
  3. Johnson, D. S., & Parberry, I. (1993). Theoretical computer science genealogy. Retrieved February 26, 2007, http://sigact.acm.org/genealogy/.
  4. Mrvar, Andrej and Vladimir Batagelj. 2004. Relinking marriages in genealogies. Metodološki zvezki: Advances in Methodology and Statistics 1:407-418. http://mrvar.fdv.uni-lj.si/pub/mz/mz1.1/mrvar.pdf
  5. Puck: Programme for the Use and Computation of Kinship data

Assignments

Week 1: Mapping people, positions, politics, families and networks

Use NNDB to map out people and their overlap networks. The NNDB Mapper is a visual tool for exploring the connections between people (those in NNDB for "a "Who's Who" where a noted person's curriculum vitae is available (the usual information such as date of birth, a biography, and other essential facts)", linking them together through family relations, corporate boards, movies and TV, political alliances, etc. "A person's otherwise inexplicable behavior is often understood by examining the crowd that person has been associating with." Maps can be saved and shared for others to explore. Login, save and explain what you have found in the description box, then copy the URL of your map and put the <click here: NNDB url> here along with your name and for credit. You cannot analyze the structure of your network or save to another format so this is mostly a trial exercise with networks (of elites) but you can move vertices of the graph, expand, prune, click nodes, and organize to discover properties of the graph. Hand in your graph and your writeup on what you found as well as posting to the NNDB url page.

having trouble adding your name? I figured it out how to add your name, you have to post your url for the NNBD and your brief discription- http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/NNDB_url click edit at the top of the page and then copy the other students format and put in your name with your URL from NNDB. I'm sure its the same for all the assignments -Katy Carew

Week 2: How we talk about our "kin" and map their networks? - a small piece of ethnography

Interview three people who come from different backgrounds and who speak another language (this could be all the same other language, or different languages). The early developer of this method was W. H. R. Rivers (1900) (Here is one of his articles and his obituary.) In Week 3 we will test current theories of social cognition discussed in the next assignment ... Formal Behavioral Modeling.

  1. Background: Relative product kinship terms can be elicited, without reference to specific people. For example, start an interview asking for ego's terms for the primary kin types, Br/Si/Hu/Wi/Fa/Mo/So/Da. You can ask ego "What do you call your Father's Brother? (using the appropriate term in the language). Read the second paragraph in this parable to get the idea of how this might be done in a fieldwork situation in another language. (In English to start to get differences in relative product terms you have to get to the distant cousins, their children, etc.). Example: In English the Fa kin type is labeled "Father". Typically, What is a "Father's" "Brother" (substitute in another language the corresponding primary terms) gives the answer "Uncle". Asking "What is an Uncle's Wife?" (in English) the typical response is "Aunt". "What is an Aunt's Daughter?" "Cousin" and so forth (but in the other language). The terms elicited are called intensive product kin terms because you can elicit them (the relative product kin terms) without ever referring any specific person.. That is key to the assignment. Use each interview to get as many intensive product kin terms as you reasonably can, including variant terms that take elder/younger distinctions into account. The whole point of this assignment is to gather data on how terms are generated from other terms so don't refer ever to a real father, real brother, etc., just how terms are defined by products of other terms (this is a bit different from Rivers' method). At the end of questioning you have a list of relative products terms, like "brother of father=uncle" "child of uncle=cousin" etcetera but in the other language. You will use the relative products in assignment 3.
  2. The extensive product questions can be asked after you are done with the first part. You can then ask for each term "Who are ____s?" (of this ego, e.g., for "Uncle"). Then make a genealogical diagram to include each person named. You don't need to ask "What do you (or ego) call this person?" e.g., "Dad".
  3. You DONT NEED TO COLLECT the address terms (like "Dad") however, but that's also something you could ask for each person or photo: "What do you actually call this person?" Terms like "Dad" are the terms of address.
  4. As you compile your results for each interview, before you end, make up (1) the list of relative products, like "brother of father=uncle", "child of uncle", etcetera, but using the terms of the other language, (2) the genealogical diagram for the person's relatives, uniquely numbered from 1(ego) to n(the last person in the genealogy), and (3) under each actual relative, ASK which term in your relative product list would apply to this type of relative. You may have a hypothesis about this but sometimes the younger or older relative in a given category makes a difference, or the age or sex of a linking relative.
  5. Turn in the assignment, with each of the three interviews having (1) the list of relative products (now extended), (2) the genealogical diagram, copied over perhaps, just with each persons initials, and (3) the relative product term under each person.
  6. You have now completed three pieces of ethnography. We will use these data the next week to see how (1) kinship is "extended" through kinship terms (this is the universal feature that makes kinship so powerful in networking), (2) different languages and individuals have different ways of "generating" a meaningful array of kinship terms and, (3) the "relative product rules" for each language can be derived and compared.
  7. You will use your genealogical diagrams from these interviews in a later exercise where (1) each person's number is in column 1 of a spreadsheet, (2) their father's and mother's number are in columns 2 and 3, and (3) their spouses are in the remaining columns. These are converted to kinship graphs.

Week 3: How humans construct "kinship terms"

Moving past the blockage discussed Oct 9 Lecture Dwight Read has been teaching me here: We are ready to go here with this - follow instructions below and in KAES: Kinship Algebra Expert System which has links to articles and a program that allows you to construct any one of the thousands of possible systems of naming kin, including AKT = American Kinship Terms. Every language and dialect studied to date has an immensely simple and logical set of principles. All are relative product systems, a universal logic of cultural construction, but which can generate fundamentally different ways of defining ones place in the world of social ties.

  1. At home, install Java (link provided at KAES above)
  2. Download the program archive file and the examples archive file to the same directory. Copy the five *.xml files in the examples file from the archive to the directory. Read all the pages at the KAES web page.
  3. Run the program by right clicking the program archive and use "Open with" and choose JAVA.
  4. Load one of the examples with /File/Open. Best to start with AKT (American Kin Terms)
  5. Read Dwight Read's article about KAES, A Formal Explanation of Formal Explanation in Structure and Dynamics: eJournal of Anthropological and Related Sciences 3(2), Article 4.
  6. Write about one of these examples AND analyze the "relative products" data you collected in week 1. Diagram its structure, following one or more of the examples such as AKT.
  7. Supplementary Reading for a possible project: Robbins Burling. 1970. American Kinship Terms Once More. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 26(1): 15-24.

Week 4: What do larger kinship networks look like and how do we analyze them?

This week and additional exercises will involve Pajek, the program for large networks and network visualization. (For a Mac installation of Pajek see Anton Sisante) --->Tutorials in Pajek p-graph kinship network analysis<--- For GEDcom instructions see: --->Genealogical software <--- (The menu of these instructions has)

   * 1 Build a Genealogical GED file
   * 2 GED data  (OR: you can start from Kinship_and_Complexity#Oct_28_Lecture_Outline 
       to build a pajek *.net file in an ASCII editor). 
   * 3 Pajek: Read graph, use Kinship_and_Complexity#Nov_13_Lecture_outline instructions 
       to add generations to the graph.
   * 4 (Optional: You can compare GEDs and add them together to make relinking files)
   * 5 (Optional: Create web pages from GED)

Genealogical software#Build a Genealogical GED file (you can also Genealogical software#Create web pages from GED --- using My Heritage software for example

This is experimental: Quik Instructions from GED to TIP graph via Pajek

Little Tip: The square box is a couple, the triangle an unmarried male, the circle an unmarried female.

Week 5: How do we discover the structure of kinship networks, and structural endogamy?

Main exercise in tutorial items 1 and 3 at Tutorials in Pajek p-graph kinship network analysis - For a large network, compute generations, draw, optimize to minimize crossing lines, then return to main menu and compute bicomponents (structural endogamy), compute a partition for bicomponents and draw the result.

(Now Optional: Install Genealogical software#Pajek download Genealogical software#GED data and create network visualizations.)

  • There are now new instructions for getting datasets (each gets better) at
Kinship_and_Complexity#Nov_4_Lecture_outline
Kinship_and_Complexity#Nov_6_Lecture_outline
Kinship_and_Complexity#Nov_13_Lecture_outline
  • The last outline has instructions for getting generations on the graph. Also for computing structural endogamy as p-graph bicomponents which show up as the yellow nodes in your graph, if any (your families might not have bicomponents, neither do the Kaingang (Anthon Sisante).

Week 6: How to we map social class, kinship boundaries by structural endogamy?

Read Structural endogamy and Structural cohesion - Your graph from Week 5 is the starting point. Trim the graph of the last 3 generations where children are still unmarried. Redo bicoomponents and generations for the new graph. Then use these two partitions in the two partition windows to compute the temporal correlation between generation and cohesion. You need to follow the tutorial given at the third item in How to compute whether bicomponent cohesion increases or decreases with generation in Pajek kinship data‎. A much harder alternate exercise is to use the Cohesive blocking algorithm to find cohesive groups, print and turn in the graphic with appropriate interpretive labeling, http://web.bentley.edu/empl/c/ncarter/MA267/pajek-intro.html.

  • In the case of Kinship networks, p-graph format, the computation of Structural Endogamy is done by computing bicomponents, and the instructions here are in Kinship_and_Complexity#Nov_13_Lecture_outline. The instructions now take you through computing bicomponents to correlate bicomponents with generation level, like we did for the Omaha.

Week 7-9: Themes (see below) for short research papers

We will explore these in class, and they provide material for you do pick a theme or topic, organize and analyze approprite data, and write a short (6-8) page research paper.

Grading by "Week"

  1. 10% (assignment above, turned in or posted)
  2. 10% (assignment above, turned in or posted)
  3. 10% (assignment above, turned in or posted)
  4. 10% (assignment above, turned in or posted)
  5. 10% (assignment above, turned in or posted)
  6. 10% (assignment above, turned in or posted)
  7. -9 30% (the short research paper)
  8. 10% Wiki postings (on your page), class notes for A129 2008: post here, and class participation
  9. Special opportunity for extra credit Podcast how-to: Students can receive special instruction from UCI podcast expert Stephen Franklin to create audio podcasts with shortened ppt slides for our best videos. That would constitute not only a great opportunity for students but fulfill the class assignment for a full year.
  10. Option for 1.33 addl '''course credits''': Social Complexity Videoconference participation (four 1.5 hour sessions fall quarter)

Themes

Kinship and Complexity: Anthropological and sociological studies of kinship networks in the full range of human societies are considered. along with how networks, and those of kinship and marriage, relate to other socioeconomic and political institutions.Doug White 16:41, 8 February 2008 (PST)

Kinship, Class, and Communities

UC Videoconference talk: Kinship Computing, Communities, Class, and Complexity October 10, 2008, 1:30-3PM UCI Teleconference center. Paris Branly Museum of Anthropology Videoconference talk: October 24, 2008, 3-5PM (UCSD time: 6-9AM).

Reconstituted families

Family structure

Extended families in history

Darwins and Wedgewoods

Genealogies and networks from anthropological field data

Adam Kuper talk

Royal Families

Here is the url for the most complete set of European royalty genealogies -- Ben Jester

Basics of kinship

Wikipedia:Kinship (originally drafted by the instructor, D.R.White)

My Wikipedia:Kinship and complexity

Linda Stone: Google eBook: Kinship and Gender

Matrilineality

Alice Schlegel review: Male Dominance and Female Autonomy; Domestic Authority in Matrilineal Societies. It gives three types of authority in ML societies: The wife, here brother, and a balance between the two. If you take two matrilineal societies as examples, you can compare them in terms of her ideas of what these different systems of authority do in each pattern or society

Regional Kinships

Encyclopedia of World Cultures

Thailand

Marianne Bertrand, Simon Johnson, Krislert Samphantharak, Antoinette Schoar Mixing Family With Business: A Study of Thai Business Groups and the Groups and the Families Behind Them NBER Working Paper No. 13738. Issued in January 2008 NBER Program(s): CF

China

  • Mote, Frederick W. 1971. The Intellectual Foundations of China. Introduction to the basic ideas that underlie traditional Chinese culture focuses on the "Golden Age" (600 B.C.-150 B.C.) of Chinese philosophy.
  • Kynge, James. 2006. China Shakes the World: A Titan's Rise and Troubled Future -- and the Challenge for America.

Coordinating centers and peripheral rebellions (The Mandate of Heavan - not Empires in the expansionist sense)

Korea

Monarchs of Korea, e.g., find: Joseon to begin in 1392 with family compositions.

Middle East, Islam, and Judaism

Europe and Christianity

Indian North America


Indian South America

  • Yanomamo
  • Alf Hornborg, 1988. Dualism and Hierarchy in Lowland South America - 304 pages - lots of cases.

U.S.A.

and then Rick Grannis 1998 The importance of trivial streets: residential streets and residential segregation American Journal of Sociology, 103(6): 1530-64.

Mesoamerica

A Comparative Social Class Analysis of San Juan Sur, and Atirro, Costa Rica Reed M. Powell. 1951. Sociometry 14(2/3):182-202.

Carribean

Mexican and Central American Elites

The Marriage Core of the Elite Network of Colonial Guatemala

Subsaharan Africa

Micronesia

Skyhorse, Pat. 1998 Adoption as a strategy on a Chuukese atoll The History of the Family 3(4): 429-439. Special issue on Adoption and Family Recomposition: Inventing Family Continuity.

Polynesia

"Wikipedia:Cathy Small’s TongaSim shows how such models can represent the application of multiple algorithms in a single population. This is a multi-agent model of Tongan society intended to simulate the relationship between warfare and traditional rules for marriage. It is described in “Finding an Invisible History: A Computer Simulation Experiment (in Virtual Polynesia)” (1999). One algorithm describes marriage choice based on ideas of hypergamy and gift exchange called fahu. The other algorithm is for increasing territorial control by warfare. The warfare model is a switch, so the model can be run with only the marriage rules or with the two sets of rules running side by side, and the different outcomes can be compared." -- Murray Leaf (2008)

Australia

  1. Denham, Woodrow W., and Douglas R. White. 2005 Multiple Measures of Alyawarra Kinship. Field Methods 17: 70-101. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pw/MultiMeas03a.pdf http://fmx.sagepub.com/content/vol17/issue1/
  2. White, Douglas R., and Woodrow W. Denham. 2007 The Indigenous Australian Marriage Paradox: Small-World Dynamics on a Continental Scale, (drw and Woodrow W. Denham) Mathematical Anthropology and Cultural Theory. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pub/Paradox07b.pdf
  3. White, Douglas R. 2006 The Classificatory Kinship Page http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pw/Classificatory.htm -- http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/Denham/Alyawarra.htm
  4. White, Douglas R., and Woodrow W. Denham. 2003. Sided with a Twist: Alyawarra Networks, Kinterm and Lifecycle Decision Models http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/Denham/Alyawarra.htm
  5. Williams, B. J. 1975 "Age differentials between spouses and Australian marriage systems" American Antiquity 40(2):38-45.
  6. Denham, Woodrow W. 2008 Alyawarra marital age differences‎

Case Studies from every continent

http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/cases/table2.htm

http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/linkages/sites.html

Comparative Studies

Kinship and Religion

Wikipedia:Andrey Korotayev

  1. Korotayev, Andrey, and Alexander Kazankov. 2002. Regions Based on Social Structure: A Reconsideration. Current Anthropology 41:668–90.
  2. Korotayev, Andrey V. 2003. Unilineal Descent Organization and Deep Christianization: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. Cross-Cultural Research 37(3): 133-157.
  3. Korotayev, Andrey V. 2004. World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective. Edwin Mellen Press.

Marriage Payments

  1. Marriage payments project with Bell and White
  2. Bell, Duran. 2008. Marriage Payments: a fundamental reconsideration. Structure and Dynamics: eJournal of Anthropological and Related Sciences 3:2: 20pp.
  3. Bell, Duran. 2008. Marriage payments commentary

Dominant Dyads

  1. Francis L. K. Hsu. 1965. The Effect of Dominant Kinship Relationships on Kin and Non-Kin Behavior: A Hypothesis. American Anthropologist 67(3): 638-661.
  2. Andrew Strathern and Marilyn Strathern. 1966. Dominant Kin Relationships and Dominant Ideas American Anthropologist 68(4):997-999

Social Class

  1. Brudner, Lilyan A., and Douglas R. White. 1997 Class, Property and Structural Endogamy: Visualizing Networked Histories. Theory and Society 25(2):161-208. http://repositories.cdlib.org/postprints/3/
  2. Fitzgerald.
  3. Casasola.
  4. Alcantara.

Cohesive resistance

  1. Boehm, Christoper. 1993 Egalitarian Behavior and Reverse Dominance Hierarchy. Current Anthropology 34:227-254. [This paper won the Stirling Prize in Psychologica Anthropology]

Networks

Weak ties

  1. Strength of weak ties

Navigable strong ties

  1. Navigability of Strong Ties

Structural endogamy and Structural k-cohesion

  1. Leaderless jihad
  2. Structural endogamy see
  1. Structural cohesion see 2003 Structural Cohesion and Embeddedness: A Hierarchical Conception of Social Groups. (J. Moody, DW) American Sociological Review 68(1):1-25. http://www2.asanet.org/journals/ASRFeb03MoodyWhite.pdf 2004 Outstanding Article Award in Mathematical Sociology. American Sociological Association.
  2. Historical dynamics

Links