Marcus J. Hamilton

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Departments of Anthropology; Biology, University of New Mexico; Santa Fe Institute

SynthesisofEcologyBiologyandEthnographicDataCS-DC_final invitation.pdf
CS-DCSynthesis_ofEcological_Biological_and_Ethnographic_Data_session.pdf


SOC_SCI_289_NTWK_THRY&SOC_COMPL_fall_2010_sem_B_(72710)

Proc. Royal Academy B Searches

CV - SFI - CV home page - pubs - SFI - [SFI&ASU Center for Biosocial Research]

Burnside, W. R., Brown, J. H., Burger, O., Hamilton, M. J., Moses, M., Bettencourt, L. M. A. 2012. Human macroecology: linking pattern and process in big-picture human ecology. Biological Reviews, 87:1, 194-208. Keywords: macro ecology;human;scale;metabolism;society;energy;diversity;network;industrial;hunter-gatherer pdf

  • Humans have a dual nature. We are subject to the same natural laws and forces as other species yet dominate global ecology and exhibit enormous variation in energy use, cultural diversity, and apparent social organization. We suggest scientists tackle these challenges with a macroecological approach—using comparative statistical techniques to identify deep patterns of variation in large datasets and to test for causal mechanisms. We show the power of a metabolic perspective for interpreting these patterns and suggesting possible underlying mechanisms, one that focuses on the exchange of energy and materials within and among human societies and with the biophysical environment. Examples on human foraging ecology, life history, space use, population structure, disease ecology, cultural and linguistic diversity patterns, and industrial and urban systems showcase the power and promise of this approach.
  • Key words: macro ecology, human, scale, metabolism, society, energy, diversity, network, industrial, hunter-gatherer.
  • CONTENTSI. Introduction ................................................................................................ 194
  • II. Foraging: acquiring energy ................................................................................. 195
  • III. Life history: allocating energy .............................................................................. 196
  • IV. Social networks: distributing energy and using space ....................................................... 197
  • V. Human disease: encountering, distributing, and promoting infection ...................................... 198
  • VI. Cultural and linguistic diversity: echoing biodiversity ...................................................... 200
  • VII. Industrial metabolism: using energy in modern times ...................................................... 203
  • VIII. Urban systems: concentrating people, energy, and innovation ............................................. 205
  • IX. Conclusions ................................................................................................ 206
  • X. Acknowledgements ......................................................................................... 206
  • XI. References .................................................................................................. 207I.
  • INTRODUCTION Human ecology has an interesting duality. On the one hand,Homo sapiens is just another species, subject to the same physical, chemical, and biological laws as any animal, plant, ormicrobe. On the other hand, Homo sapiens is unique, the mostpowerful species ever to inhabit the Earth. Indeed, in just a few thousand years, this highly social mammal has spread out of Africa to colonize the globe and use technologies of hunting, fishing, agriculture, and industry to transform theecosystems and biodiversity of the planet. One might think that ecologists would study human ecology. Many ecologists do study impacts of humans on the environment, focusing on climate change, biodiversity loss ...
  • Address for correspondence (E-mail: burnsidewr@gmail.com, bburnsid@unm.edu; Tel: +1 505-908-4387).

2008

Marcus J. Hamilton. Ph.D. 2008, Anthropology, U New Mexico, Split postdoc between SFI and the Department of Biology, University of New Mexico. Human Complex Systems & Anthropology; Language and Cultural Evolution; Macroecology; Prehistoric migrations; Small Scale Societies; Universal Scaling Laws in Biology; Urban Organization and Dynamics; Population and Economic Growth; Sustainability. Has published on the Binford forager base. Interested in the energetics of human systems across scales, from hunter-gatherers to industrialized economies, and their ecological interactions with ecosystems, environments, and global scale Earth systems. Particularly interested in how flows of energy and information create structure, and drive dynamics in human systems, and biological systems in general. At SFI works primarily with Geoffrey West, Luis Bettencourt, and HyeJin Youn on using scaling theory to understand general principles of the structure and dynamics of cities and corporations. Other major research areas include hunter-gatherer ecology, the colonization of the Americas, the biogeography of human biocultural diversity, macro ecology, and the metabolic theory ecology.

  1. Bruce T. Milne
  2. Hamilton, M. J., Milne, B. T., Walker, R. S., Burger, O., & Brown, J. H. 2007. The complex structure of hunter-gatherer social networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274(1622), 2195-2203.
  3. Hamilton, Markus J., José Lobo, Eric Rupley, Hyejin Youn, Geoffrey B. West. 2014 The Ecology and Energetics of Hunter-Gatherer Residential Mobility Santa Fe Working Paper 2014-09-034.
  4. Bailey, D.H., M.J. Hamilton, and R.S. Walker. 2012. Latitude, population size, and the language-farming dispersal hypothesis. Evolutionary Ecology Research 14: 1057-1067.
  5. James H Brown, Vijay K Gupta, Bai-Lian Li, Bruce T Milne, Carla Restrepo, and Geoffrey B West. 2002. The fractal nature of nature: power laws, ecological complexity and biodiversity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sciv.357(1421).
    1. Unpublished
  6. Hamilton, M.J., J. Lobo, H. Youn, E. Rupley, and G.B. West. 2007. The origin of economies of scale in hunter-gatherer social networks.
  7. Hamilton, M.J., J. and L.M.A. Bettencourt. Hunter-gatherer economies of scale.
  8. Hamilton, M.J., B. Buchanan, and R.S. Walker. Scaling the size and structure of hunter-gatherer camps.

camps.

Subject: Re: complex structure ofhunter*gatherer social networks & Binford data From: "James Brown" <jhbrown@unm.edu> Date: Thu, October 14, 2010 9:08 am To: Douglas.White@uci.edu (more) Options: View Full Header | View Printable Version | Download this as a file | View Message Details

Hi Doug:

  • I am forwarding this to Marcus Hamilton, along with Oskar Burger, one of two Anthro Ph.D. students who has worked with "my group". Marcus is the one who has worked with me extensively and on projects using the Binford database. He is still here as a postdoc (and half-time at SFI), and I think he can help you out. He can tell you about any projects in the works that involve his use of the dataset.
  Cheers,
  Jim (Brown)

Foragers and Fractalities

Hamilton, Marcus J., Bruce T. Milne, Robert S. Walker, Oskar Burger, and James H. Brown. 2007. The complex structure of hunter–gatherer social networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B (UK). Data supplement. James H. Brown is known for The fractal nature of nature: power laws, ecological complexity and biodiversity with Vijay K. Gupta, Bai-Lian Li, Bruce T. Milne, Carla Restrepo and Geoffrey B. West.

Hunter-gatherer group sizes, g, can be assigned to hierarchical organizational levels (Johnson 1982; Kelly 1995; Binford 2001). In Horton analysis, these levels are termed Horton orders, u, from the first-order terminal units to the highest order, U. We followed Binford (2001) in recognizing six levels defined as follows: g1, single individuals; g2, families estimated by dividing total population size by the number of married males, a common technique for estimating family size in the absence of specific demographic data; g3, dispersed extended family groups defined as the average size of residential groups during the most dispersed phases of the mobility cycle; g4, aggregated groups defined as the average size of residential groups during the most aggregated phases of the mobility cycle; g5, periodic aggregations defined as multi-group socio-economic aggregations occurring at periods usually greater than every year; and gU, regional populations defined as the total size of regional ethnic units (definitions taken from Binford (2001)).
Dear Doug: Here is a spreadsheet of the branching ratios. Column N is the regression estimate of the average branching ratio across the levels of a single society. Columns O-S are the individual branching ratios between each level of the society, and column T is the average across these branching ratios. So, columns N and T are different estimates of the same quantity. Best, Marcus
These will be added to LRB.Rdata

Doug: I now understand the data part of the Hamilton et al spreadsheet:

g1<-LRB$tlpop
g2<-LRB$tlpop/LRB$famsz
g3<-LRB$tlpop/LRB$grp1
g4<-LRB$tlpop/LRB$grp2
g5<-LRB$tlpop/LRB$grp3
g6<-LRB$tlpop/LRB$tlpop ==1
Abstract: Use of space by both humans and other mammals should reflect underlying physiological, ecological, and behavioral processes. In particular, the space used by an individual for its normal activities should reflect the interplay of three constraints: (i) metabolic resource demand, (ii) environmental resource supply, and (iii) social behaviors that determine the extent to which space is used exclusively or shared with other individuals. In wild mammals, there is an allometric scaling relation between the home range of an individual and its body size: Larger mammals require more space per individual, but this relation is additionally modified by productivity of the environment, trophic niche, sociality, and ability to defend a territory (see: Kelt DA, Van Vuren D (1999) Ecology 80: 337–340; Kelt DA, Van Vuren D (2001) Am Nat 157:637–645; Haskell JP, Ritchie ME, Olff H (2002) Nature 418:527–530; Damuth J (1987) Biol J Linn Soc 31:193–246; Damuth J (1981) Nature 290:699–700; and other previously published work). In this paper we show how similar factors affect use of space by human hunter–gatherers, resulting in a nonlinear scaling relation between area used per individual and population size. The scaling exponent is less than one, so the area required by an average individual decreases with increasing population size, because social networks of material and information exchange introduce an economy of scale.

Other Anthropological

Hamilton, Marcus J., Oskar Burger, John P. DeLong, Robert S. Walker, Melanie E. Moses and James H. Brown. 2009. Population stability, cooperation, and the invasibility of the human species PNAS vol. 106 no. 30 12255-12260.

Walker, R.S. and M.J. Hamilton. 2011. Social complexity and linguistic diversity in the Bantu and Austronesian population expansions. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (Proc. R. Soc. B) 7 May 2011 vol. 278 no. 1710 1399-1404. online early pdf

Note from Duran: I had the reference to your Hamilton et al 2007 PNAS; Hamilton et al 2009 PNAS; didnt know the Hamilton et al 2007 PRSL-B; Walker and Hamilton 2008, Curr Anth) below.

Walker, R.S. and M.J. Hamilton. 2008. Life history consequences of density-dependence and the evolution of human body sizes. Current Anthropology 49(1): 115-122. [pdf]

Other Articles

Horton–Strahler branching

Wikipedia:Strahler number "To calculate the average branching ratio, B, between the six orders across all populations, we first calculate the number of groups of size g at order ω within a population. Let g be the number of groups of order ω within the ith population. The Horton–Strahler branching ratio is then defined as

B = \frac{N(g_i^{(w-1)})}{N(g_i^{(w-2)})}

The network structure is self-similar if the branching ratio, B, is constant between all levels."

\omega; omega

SFI Profile

MARCUS J HAMILTON GROUPS Postdoctoral Fellow INTEREST AREAS Human Complex Systems & Anthropology Language and Cultural Evolution Macroecology Prehistoric migrations Small Scale Societies Universal Scaling Laws in Biology Urban Organization and Dynamics, Population and Economic Growth, Sustainability

MARCUS J HAMILTON Postdoctoral Fellow

Curriculum Vitae

BIO

I have a split postdoc position between SFI and the Department of Biology, University of New Mexico. I am interested in the energetics of human systems across scales, from hunter-gatherers to industrialized economies, and their ecological interactions with ecosystems, environments, and global scale Earth systems. I am particularly interested in how flows of energy and information create structure, and drive dynamics in human systems, and biological systems in general. At SFI I work primarily with Geoffrey West, Luis Bettencourt, and HyeJin Youn on using scaling theory to understand general principles of the structure and dynamics of cities and corporations. Other major research areas include hunter-gatherer ecology, the colonization of the Americas, the biogeography of human biocultural diversity, macroecology, and the metabolic theory ecology.