Sources for codes and articles on the SCCS

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Sources for codes on the SCCS and additional sources using SCCS codes

  • Datafile/Source 1 SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY AND SUPPORTIVE PRACTICES. Codes 1-21

George P. Murdock and Diana O. Morrow. 1970. Subsistence Economy and Supportive Practices: Cross-Cultural Codes 1. ETHNOLOGY 9:302-330. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773028

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  • Datafile/Source 2 INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD. Codes 23- 60

Barry, Herbert, III, and Leonora M. Paxson. 1971. Infancy and Early Childhood: Cross-Cultural Codes 2. ETHNOLOGY 10: 466-508. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773177

Nerlove, Sara B. 1974. Women's workload and infant feeding practices: A relationship with demographic implications. Ethnology Vol. 13, No. 2 (Apr., 1974), pp. 207-214.
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  • Datafile/Source 3 SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION. Codes 61- 80

George P. Murdock and Suzanne F. Wilson. 1972. Settlement Patterns and Community Organization: Cross-Cultural Codes 3. ETHNOLOGY 11: 254-295. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773219

Gaulin, Steven J. C., and Alice Schlegel. 1980. Paternal Confidence and Paternal Investment: A Cross Cultural Test of a Sociobiological Hypothesis. Ethology and Sociobiology Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 301-309.
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  • Datafile/Source 4. POLITICAL ORGANIZATION. Codes 81- 98

Tuden, Arthur, and Catherine Marshall. 1972. Political Organization: Cross-Cultural Codes 4. ETHNOLOGY 11:436-464. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773074

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  • Datafile/Source 5 DIVISION OF LABOR. Codes 99-148

Murdock, George P., and Caterina Provost. 1973. Factors in the Division of Labor by Sex: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. ETHNOLOGY 12:203-225. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773347

White, Douglas R., Michael Burton, Lilyan Brudner. 1977 Entailment Theory and Method: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Sexual Division of Labor. Cross-Cultural Research 12:1-24. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pub/Entail77.pdf
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  • Datafile/Source 6 CULTURAL COMPLEXITY (aka MODERNIZATION). Codes 149-158

Murdock, George P., and Caterina Provost. 1971. Measurement of Cultural Complexity. ETHNOLOGY 12:379-392. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773367

William Tulio Divale. 1976. Female Status and Cultural Evolution: A Study in Ethnographer Bias. Cross-Cultural Research, Vol. 11, No. 3, 169-211. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/11/3/169
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  • Datafile/Source 7 SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES. Codes 159-178

Broude, Gwen, and Sarah J. Greene. 1976. Cross-Cultural Codes on Twenty Sexual Attitudes and Practices. ETHNOLOGY 15:409-429. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773308

Broude, Gwen. 1983. Male-female relationships in cross-cultural perspective: A study of sex and intimacy. Cross-Cultural Research Vol. 18, No. 2, 154-181
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  • Datafile/Source 8 CLIMATE DATA FROM WEATHER STATIONS. Codes 179-199

Whiting, John W. M. Referenced in "Winter temperature as a constraint to the migration of preindustrial peoples" Whiting et al. American Anthropologist 84:279-298 (1982). http://www.jstor.org/stable/676403 The weather data is cited as coming from Walter, H., and H. Leith (1964) Klimadiagramm-Weltatlas, Jena: Gustav Fischer.

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  • Datafile/Source 9-12 ETHNOGRAPHIC ATLAS. Codes 200-292

Ethnographic Atlas codes 200-291 were changed in the World Cultures revision by J. Patrick Gray, 1998. PDF Ethnographic Atlas Codebook]. World Cultures] 10(1):86-136. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3772751 Changes in this part of the codebook need to be checked and aligned with ATLAS CODES and frequencies recomputed. They. were partly corrected starting with v.208 on May 8, 2009). These still need extensive work to integrate the new codebook into this document. Murdock, George P. 1962-1971. Installments in ETHNOLOGY. Korotayev and Khaltourina have also provided corrected codes. Daria Khaltourina, and Andrey Korotayev. 2002. A Corrected Version of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample Database. World Cultures 13(1): 62-98. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/worldcul/13-1khaltourinak-korotayev-divale.pdf

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  • Datafile/Source 13 TRAITS INCULCATED IN CHILDHOOD. Codes 293-336

Barry, Herbert, III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall. 1976. Traits Inculcated in Childhood: Cross-Cultural Codes 5. ETHNOLOGY 15:83-114. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773082

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  • Datafile/Source 14 AGENTS AND TECHNIQUES OF CHILD TRAINING. Codes 337-480

Barry, Herbert, III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall 1977. Traits Inculcated in Childhood: Cross-Cultural Codes 5. ETHNOLOGY 16:191-230. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773082

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  • Datafile/Source 15-18 AGENTS AND TECHNIQUES OF CHILD TRAINING. Codes 377-480

Barry, Herbert, III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall 1977. ETHNOLOGY 16:191-230.

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  • Datafile/Source 19-20 PARENTAL ACCEPTANCE-REJECTION AND PARENTAL CONTROL. Codes 481-528

Rohner, Ronald P., and Evelyn C. Rohner. 1982. Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Parental Control: Cross-Cultural Codes. ETHNOLOGY 20:245-260. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773230

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  • Datafile/Source 21 ADOLESCENT INITIATION CEREMONIES. Codes 529-560

Schlegel, Alice, and Herbert Barry, III. 1979. Adolescent Initiation Ceremonies. ETHNOLOGY 18:199-210.

Whiting, John W. M., Richard Kluckhohn, and Albert S. Anthony. 1958. The Function of Male Initiation Ceremonies at Puberty, Readings in Social Psychology (third ed.). (Eleanor E. Maccoby, Theodore M. Newcomb, and Eugene L. Hartley, eds.), pp. 359-370. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. (Inspiration for the codes, not SCCS codes)
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  • Datafile/Source 22 POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE RITUALS. Codes 561-575 (nonindustrial societies only)

Paige, Karen and Jeffrey Paige. 1981. THE POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE RITUALS. University of California Press. Reprinted with Permission of Authors and Publishers.

Karen Paige Ericksen and Heather Horton. 1992. "Blood Feuds": Cross-Cultural Variations in Kin Group Vengeance. Cross-Cultural Research Vol. 26(1-4): 154-181. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/26/1-4/57
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  • Datafile/Source 23 THE RELATIVE STATUS OF WOMEN. Codes 576-636

Whyte, Martin K. 1978. Cross-Cultural Codes Dealing with the Relative Status of Women. ETHNOLOGY 17:211-237. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773145

  • Datafile/Source 24 KIN TERM PATTERNS. Codes 637-644.
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Murdock, George P. 1970. Kin Term Patterns and Their Distribution. ETHNOLOGY 9:165-207. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3772782

  • Datafile/Source 25 CULTURAL THEORIES OF ILLNESS. Codes 645-656

George P. Murdock, Suzanne Wilson, and Violetta Frederick. 1978. World Distribution of Theories of Illness. ETHNOLOGY 17:449-470.

  • George P. Murdock, Suzanne F. Wilson and Violetta Frederick. 1980. World Distribution of Theories of Illness. TRANSCULT PSYCHIATRY 17:37 http://tps.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/17/1-2/37.pdf
  • George P. Murdock, 1980. THEORIES OF ILLNESS: A WORLD SURVEY. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
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  • Datafile/Source 26 FEMALE POWER AND MALE DOMINANCE. Codes 657-679 (1/3rd of the SCCS with complete codes for the Americas and Pacific, i.e., nonindustrial societies)

Sanday, Peggy R. 1981. FEMALE POWER AND MALE DOMINANCE: on the origins of sexual inequality.

PR Sanday - 1998. Confronting rape and sexual assault - books.google.com
PR Sanday - 1982. The Socio-Cultural Context of Rape. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 5-27. Reprinted in New Society (British Journal) September 1982, pp. 540-542. Reprinted in The Australian, December 1982. 1998 book chapter
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  • Datafile/Source 27-28 FEMALE STATUS: INDEPENDENT VARIABLES. Codes 680-738 (random one-half of the SCCS sample)

Whyte, Martin K. 1978. THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN PREINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES. Princeton University Press. Previously Unpublished.

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  • Datafile/Source 29 HUSBAND-WIFE RELATIONSHIPS. Codes 739-755

Broude, Gwen, and Sarah J. Greene. 1983. Cross-Cultural Codes on Husband-Wife Relhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3773578ationships. ETHNOLOGY 22:263-280. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773467

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  • Datafile/Source 30 POLITICAL DECISION MAKING AND CONFLICT. Codes 756-797

Marc Ross, 1983. Political Decision Making and Conflict: Additional Cross-Cultural Codes and Scales. Ethnology 22: 169-192. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773578

Marc Ross, 1985. Internal and External Conflict and Violence. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 29, No. 4, 547-579. http://jcr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/29/4/547
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  • Datafile/Source 31 DATA QUALITY CONTROL VARIABLES FOR CHILD TRAINING. Codes 798-813

Ronald P. Rohner, D. Scott Berg, and Evelyn C. Rohner. 1982. Data Quality Control in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample: Cross-Cultural Codes. Ethnology 21: 359-372. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773766

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  • Datafile/Source 32 SEXUAL DIVISION OF LABOR REVISITED. Codes 814-826

[[Herbert Barry, III] and Alice Schlegel. 1982. Cross-Cultural Codes on Contributions by Women to Subsistence. Ethnology 21: 165-188. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773435

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  • Datafile/Source 33 ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR. Codes 827-832

Herbert Barry, III, and Alice Schlegel. 1984. Measurements of Adolescent Sexual Behavior in the Standard Sample of Societies. Ethnology 23: 315-332. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773508

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  • Datafile/Source 34 STANDARD CROSS-CULTURAL SAMPLE. Codes 833-850

George P. Murdock and Douglas R. White. 1969. Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Ethnology 8: 329-369.

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Michael L. Burton, Douglas R. White, John W. M. Whiting John Sodergren, Cecil Brown. New Codes, revised from the Ethnographic Atlas.

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  • Datafile/Source 36 CLIMATE AND SUBSISTENCE. Codes 854-859

Douglas R. White, John W. M. Whiting, and Michael L. Burton. 1986. New Codes.

  • Datafile/Source 37 POLYGYNY: FORM AND FREQUENCY. Codes 860-878

Douglas R. White. 1988. Rethinking Polygyny: Co-Wives, Codes, and Cultural Systems. CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY 29:529-559. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/203674 (project begun in collaboration with Michael L. Burton, and John W. M. Whiting).

Douglas R. White, and Michael L. Burton. 1988. Causes of Polygyny: Ecology, Economy, Kinship, and Warfare. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 90, No. 4. (Dec., 1988), pp. 871-887. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pw/AA88num4.pdf
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  • Datafile/Source 38 MAGICO-RELIGIOUS PRACTITIONERS. Codes 879-884 (random one-quarter of the SCCS sample)

Michael J. Winkelman. 1986. A Cross-Cultural Study of Magico-Religious Practitioners and Trance States: Data Base. 1986. World Cultures 2(3).

  • Michael James Winkelman. 1986. Magico-Religious Practitioner Types and Socioeconomic Conditions.

Cross-Cultural Research Vol. 20, No. 1-4: 17-46. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/20/1-4/17

  • Datafile/Source 39 FEMALE CONTRIBUTION TO SUBSISTENCE. Codes 885-890

Douglas R. White. Scales constructed from existing codes.

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  • Datafile/Source 40 THE NATURE OF WARFARE. Codes 891-916

Valerie Wheeler [Nammour], l974. Drums and Guns: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Nature of War. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Oregon.

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  • Datafile/Source 41 SLAVERY AND SOCIAL DEATH. Codes 917-920

Orlando Patterson. 1982. Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

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  • Datafile/Source 42 AGRICULTURAL POTENTIALS. Codes 921-930

Source: Frederic L. Pryor, 1986. The Adoption of Agriculture: Some Theoretical and Empirical Evidence. American Anthropologist 88:894-897. http://www.jstor.org/stable/679077

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  • Datafile/Source 43-45 VARIETIES OF SEXUAL EXPERIENCE. Codes 931-985

Suzanne G. Frayser. 1985. Varieties of Sexual Experience. HRAF Press.

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  • Datafile/Source 46 ENCULTURATIVE CONTINUITY AND IMPORTANCE OF CARETAKERS. Codes 986-1005

Ronald P. Rohner and Evelyn C. Rohner, l982. Enculturative Continuity and the Importance of Caretakers: Cross-Cultural Codes. CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH Vol. 17, No. 1-2, 91-114. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/17/1-2/91

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  • Datafile/Source 48-52 WORLD SYSTEM POSITION, COMMODITIES, TURBULENT CHANGE, FRONTIERS, CONTACTS, LAND TENURE, TAXES, AND RENTS. Codes 1006-1071

White and Burton, NSF coding project, coders Candice Bradley, Carmella C. Moore, Douglas R. White

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  • Datafile/Source 47 SUBSISTENCE CHANGE. Codes 1072-1085

Data from "A Cross-Cultural Historical Analysis of Subsistence Change" by Candice Bradley, Carmella C. Moore, Michael L. Burton, and Douglas R. White. 1990. American Anthropologist, 92:2:447-457

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  • Datafile/Source 48-52 WORLD SYSTEM TURBULENT CHANGE. - WORLD SYSTEM FRONTIER CHARACTERISTICS - WORLD SYSTEM CONTACT. Codes 1086-1115

White and Burton, NSF coding project, coders Candice Bradley, Carmella C. Moore, Douglas R. White

  • 1116-1121 no codes
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  • Datafile/Source 53 POPULATION CODES FOR THE STANDARD SAMPLE. Codes 1122

Douglas R. White.

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  • Datafile/Source 54 TYPE OF AGRICULTURE. Codes 1123 - 1131
  1. Frederic L. Pryor, 1985. The Invention of the Plow. Comparative Studies in Society and History 27: 740-744. http://www.jstor.org/stable/178600
  2. Frederic L. Pryor, 1986. The Adoption of Agriculture: Some Theoretical and Empirical Evidence. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 88, No. 4 (Dec., 1986), pp. 879-897. http://www.jstor.org/stable/679077
  3. Frederic L. Pryor, 1984. The Transition to Agriculture: Some Empirical Evidence. Ms. These data are reprinted with permission of the author and the publisher. (c) University of Cambridge Press.
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  • Datafile/Source 55 STATE ORGANIZATION. Codes 1132

George Peter Murdock, 1957. World Ethnographic Sample. American Anthropologist 59: 664-687. http://www.jstor.org/stable/666103

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  • Datafile/Source 56 DESPOTISM AND HAREM SIZE. Codes 1133 - 1135

Laura Betzig. 1986. Despotism and Differential Reproduction: A Darwinian View of History. New York: Aldine. Introductions and explanations of the variables by the author were published in World Cultures, 1988, Volume 4, Number 4. Reprinted with permission of the author and Aldine Publishing Company. (c) 1986 Aldine Publishing Company.

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  • Datafile/Source 57-58 DIVORCE. Codes 1164 - 1178

Laura Betzig. 1989. Causes of Conjugal Dissolution: A Cross-Cultural Study. Current Anthropology 30: 654-676. Reprinted with permission of the author and the Editor of Current Anthropology. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2743579

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  • Datafile/Source 59 RAPE. Codes 1179-1187 (not included in SCCS.sav)

Patricia D. Roze-Koker. 1987. Cross-Cultural Codes on Seven Types of Rape Cross-Cultural Research 21: 101-117. (Data owned/fee for use by Cross-Cultural Research)

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  • Datafile/Source 60 EVIL EYE. Codes 1188 - 1189

John M. Roberts, 1976. Belief in the Evil Eye in World Perspective. In Clarence Maloney, ed. The Evil Eye. Columbia University Press. pp. 223-278. Copyright c.(1976) Columbia University Press, New York. Used by permission.

Chick, Gary. 1988, Games in culture revisited: A replication and extension of Roberts, Arth, and Bush (1959). Cross-Cultural Research , Vol. 32, No. 2, 185-206. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/2/185
Burton B. Silver.1978. Social Structure and Games: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Structural Correlates of Game Complexity. The Pacific Sociological Review, Vol. 21, No. 1 (Jan., 1978), pp. 85-102. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1388869
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  • Datafile/Source 61 KIN AVOIDANCE. Codes 1190 - 1225

Douglas R. White. n.d. Kinship Avoidance. Codes compiled and recoded from unpublished kinship sheets by G. P. Murdock.

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  • Datafile/Source 62 KINSHIP BEHAVIORS. Codes 1126-1237

George P. Murdock. 1971. Cross-Sex Kinship Behavior. Ethnology 10:359-368. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3772922

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  • Datafile/Source 63B MARRIAGE TRANSACTIONS. Codes 1238-1240.

Alice Schlegel and Eloul ?????. 1987. A New Coding of Marriage Transactions. Cross-Cultural Research 21: 118-140. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/21/1-4/118

  • 1241-1247 no data
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  • Datafile/Source 63 FEMALE BEAUTY AND ADOLESCENT SEXUALITY. Codes 1248-1252

Judith L. Anderson, Charles B. Crawford, Joanne Nadeau, and Tracy Lindberg. 1992 Was the Duchess of Windsor Right? A Cross-Cultural Review of the Socioecology of Ideals of Female Body Shape. ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY 13:197-227.

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  • Datafile/Source 64 PATHOGEN STRESS CROSS-CULTURALLY. Codes 1253-1260

Bobbi S. Low. 1988. Pathogen Stress and Polygyny in Humans. In, HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR: A DARWINIAN PERSPECTIVE. (L. Betzig, M. Borgerhoff Mulder, and P. Turke, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 115-127.

BOBBI S. Low. 1990. Marriage Systems and Pathogen Stress in Human Societies. AMER. ZOOL., 30:325-339.
Cashdan, Elizabeth. 2001. Ethnic diversity and its environmental determinants: Effects of climate, pathogens, and habitat diversity. American Anthropologist 103:968-991.
  • Datafile/Source 65 STARVATION AND FAMINE AMONG SCCS SOCIETIES. Codes 1261-1270

Robert Dirks. 1993. Starvation and Famine: Cross-Cultural and Some Hypothesis Tests. CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH 27:28-69. Variables 1261 to 1269 were published in this article. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/27/1-2/28

  • Datafile/Source 66 HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK. Codes 1271-1347
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Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611.

  • Datafile/Source 67-78 WARFARE, AGGRESSION, AND RESOURCE PROBLEMS. Codes 1648-1691

Ember, Carol R. and Melvin Ember. 1992. Codebook for "Warfare, Aggression, and Resource Problems: Cross-Cultural Codes". Cross-Cultural Research Vol 26: 169-186. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/26/1-4/169

Chick, Gary, JW Loy, AW Miracle. 1997. Combative sport and warfare: A reappraisal of the spillover and catharsis hypotheses. Cross-Cultural Research, Vol. 31, No. 3, 249-267. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/31/3/249
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  • Datafile/Source 79 SCARIFICATION, PATHOGEN LOAD AND BIOME. Codes 1692-1709

Lisa R. Ludvico. Scarification, Pathogen Load and Biome: Cross-Cultural Codes Unpublished codes discussed in "Symbolic or Not-So-Symbolic Wounds: The Behavioral Ecology of Human Scarification." by L. R. Ludvico and J. A. Kurland 1995. Ethology and Sociobiology 16:155-172.

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  • Datafile/Source 80 SLEEPING ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS. Codes 1710-1713

William DiVale, Noelle Abrams, Jennifer Barzola, Estelle Harris, and Fred-Michael Henry. 1998. Sleeping Arrangements of Children and Adolescents: SCCS Sample Codes. World Cultures 9(2):3-12. CREATE PDF FROM WORLD CULTURES.

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  • Datafile/Source 81-82 CONAN DATA BASE. Codes 1714-1780

Lang, Hartmut. 1998. CONAN: An Electronic Code-Text Data-Base for Cross-Cultural Studies. World Cultures 9(2):13-56. http://itc.uci.edu/~drwhite/drwhite/worldcul/9-2lang.pdf

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  • Datafile/Source 82 GOSSIP. Codes 1781-1805

Divale, William and Albert Seda. 1999. Codes on Gossip for Societies in the Standard Sample. World Cultures 10(1):7-22. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/worldcul/10-1divale-seda.pdf

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  • Datafile/Source 83 MODERNIZATION. Codes 1806-1849

Divale, William and Albert Seda. 2000. Cross-Cultural Codes of Modernization. World Cultures 11(2):153-170. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/worldcul/11-2divale.pdf

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  • Datafile/Source 85 WORLD RELIGION. Codes 2001-2002

Korotayev, Andrey. 2004. World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press.

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  • Datafile/Source 00 KIN GROUP VENGEANCE

Karen Paige Ericksen and Heather Horton. 1992. "Blood Feuds": Cross-Cultural Variations in Kin Group Vengeance . Cross-Cultural Research 26(1-4): 57-85. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/26/1-4/57

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  • Datafile/Source 00 WARFARE AND ITS CORRELATES

Douglas P. Fry. 2007. Beyond War: The Human Potential for Peace. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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Issues of bias

  • J. Patrick Gray. 1996. Is the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample Biased? A Simulation Study. Cross-Cultural Research, Vol. 30, No. 4, 301-315. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/30/4/301 ANSWER: Only in terms of a bias toward well-described societies.

http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/30/4/301

See also