Structure and Dynamics eJournal contents

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  • Dwight Read has two issues for S&D forthcoming on AAA sessions from 2012 and 2011
Notification of Dwight Read "Kinship" issue 6#1 April 2013 - ASA Publishing Options


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Structure and Dynamics: Anthropological and Related Sciences (SDARS eJournal)


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Volumes and Issues

Volume 1 2005-2006

Issue 1#1 2005

  1. 1-4 Douglas R. White, Robert Manlove, B. N. Colby, Robert Garfias, Duran Bell. Introduction to Structure and Dynamics: Inaugural Issue -
  2. 5-48 Guillermo Algaze. The Sumerian Takeoff - hits 20+
  3. 49-69 Peter Turchin. Dynamical Feedbacks between Population Growth and Sociopolitical Instability in Agrarian States --- pdf
  4. 70-81 Peter Turchin. A Primer on Statistical Analysis of Dynamical Systems in Historical Social Sciences (with a Particular Emphasis on Secular Cycles) -
  5. 82-101 Charles Kadushin Networks and Small Groups -
  6. 102-116 Juergen Jost. Formal Aspects of the Emergence of Institutions -
  7. 117-121 Andrey V. Korotayev. Dynamical Feedbacks between Population Growth and Sociopolitical Instability in Agrarian States by Peter Turchin - Commentary on 1#1.3 -
  8. 122-127 Natasa L. Komarova. Oscillations in Population Sizes - From ecology to history - Commentary on 1#1.3 - ---
  9. 128-132 Robert McC Adams. Critique of Guillermo Algaze's "The Sumerian Takeoff" - Commentary on 1#1.2 -
  10. 142-145 Peter Turchin. Response to Oscillations in Population Sizes -From Ecology to History - Response to 1#1.8 -
  11. 133-141 Lothar Krempel and Michael Schnegg. About the Image: Diffusion Dynamics in an Historical Network -

Issue 1#2 2006

  1. 146-172 Sean Downey. From Simulation Model to Critique of Structuration
  2. 173-228 David Wilkinson and Sergey V. Tsirel. Analysis of Power-Structure Fluctuations in the "Longue Duree" of the South Asian World System
  3. 229-249 Andrew J. Seary, William D. Richards, Gail E. McKeown-Eyssen, and Cornelia Baines. Networks of Symptoms and Exposures
  4. 250-266 Craig T. Palmer, Lyle B. Steadman, and Kathryn Coe More Kin: An Effect of the Tradition of Marriage
  5. 267-290 Wouter de Nooy. Stories, Scripts, Roles, and Networks
  6. 291-307 Steven D. Berkowitz, Lloyd H. Woodward, and Caitlin Woodward. The use of formal methods to map, analyze and interpret hawala and terrorist-related alternative remittance systems
  7. 308-348 John H. Christiansen and Mark R. Altaweel. Understanding Ancient Societies: A New Approach Using Agent-Based Holistic Modeling
  8. 349-352 Tony J. Wilkinson. Response to Christiansen and Altaweel - Commentary on 1#2#7
  9. 353-359 James Moody. Fighting a Hydra: A Note on the Network Embeddedness of the War on Terror
  10. 360-371 Douglas R. White, Robert F. Manlove. Structure and Dynamics Vol.1 No.2: Editorial Commentary

Issue 1#3 2006

  1. 372-374 Robert F. Manlove , Robert Garfias, Benjamin N. Colby, and Duran Bell. Preface to Structure and Dynamics:1#3
  2. 375-393 Camille Roth. Co-evolution in Epistemic Networks -- Reconstructing Social Complex Systems

Issue 1#4 2006

  1. 738-756 Henry T. Wright. Atlas of Chiefdoms and Early States. Abstract: Data on six clusters of elementary hierarchical polities are coded here to measure the scale of both the political-administrative aspects and the social-economic aspects of these case studies. These six clusters - the Hawaiian archipelago (2 units), Madagascar (3 units), the interlacustrine region of East Africa (3 units), the central Cameroons (2 units), southeastern Nigeria (4 units), and southern Mesopotamia (4 units) - are documented with ethnographic, historical, and archaeological evidence, for which key references are provided. This initial step toward a compendium is intended to be cumulative. It will be revised and expanded in future installments, along with revisions of the Excel data file that is provided for download, and the editor's edition Spss file with labeled and corrected codings. These data are released into the public domain but because they are constantly up-dated please communicate with the author before using them. Updates of the data may be available from the author before a new installment appears.
  2. 757-784 Alvin W. Wolfe. Network Perspectives on Communities
  3. 785-788 Helen Mayer Harrison and Newton Harrison. Seventh Lagoon: The Ring of Water
  4. 794-797 Alvin W. Wolfe. Book review Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems
  5. 789-793 Sally Hicks. Comment on: Fighting a Hydra Commentary on 1#2#9

Volume 2 2007

Issue 2#1 2007

  1. 1-6 Paul J. Jorion. Reasons vs. Causes: Emergence as experienced by the human agent
  2. 7-27 Murray Leaf. Empirical Formalism - pdf

Issue 2#2 2007

  1. 28-78 Tom E. Julsrud Core/periphery Structures and Trust in Distributed Work Groups: A comparative case study
  2. 79-129 Arthur Griffin and Charles S. Stanish. An Agent-based Model of Prehistoric Settlement Patterns and Political Consolidation in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru and Bolivia

Issue 2#3 2007

  1. 130-154 Tsutomu Nakano and Douglas R. White. Network Structures in Industrial Pricing: The Effect of Emergent Roles in Tokyo Supplier-Chain Hierarchies ---
  2. 155-187 Duran Bell. Identity and Social Innovation
  3. 188-229 Helen Mayer Harrison and Newton Harrison. Public Culture and Sustainable Practices: Peninsula Europe from an ecodiversity perspective, posing questions to Complexity Scientists

Volume 3 2008-2009

Issue 3#1 2008

  1. 1-22 Duran Bell - Marriage Payments: A fundamental reconsideration
  2. 23-59 Giovanni Bennardo & Charles Cappell. Influence Structures in a Tongan Village: 'Every Villager is not the Same!'

Issue 3#2 2008

  1. 60-63 David B. Kronenfeld - Formalization as a Tool for Empirical Research
  2. 64-80 Giovanni Bennardo - Familiar Space in Social Memory
  3. 81-122 Murray Leaf - Indigenous Algorithms, Organizations, and Rationality
  4. 123-140 Dwight Read - Formal Models and Explanatory Arguments
  5. 141-154 F. K. L. Chit Hlaing (Kris Lehman) - Formalism and Empiricism: On the Value of Thinking Mathematically About Social Grouping and Corporateness
  6. 155-172 Michael Fischer - Cultural dynamics: formal descriptions of cultural processes
  7. 173-194 Alan G. Fix - Genetic Dendrograms and Malaysian Population History
  8. 195-207 David B. Kronenfeld - What Diagrams as a Formal Model Can and Cannot Represent; Examples from Language Family Trees
  9. 208-222 Anthon Eff - Weight Matrices for Cultural Proximity: Deriving Weights from a Language Phylogeny

Issue 3#3 2009

  1. 223-252 Anthon Eff and Malcolm M. Dow - How to Deal with Missing Data and Galton's Problem in Cross-Cultural Survey Research : A Primer for R. Structure and Dynamics: eJournal of Anthropological and Related Sciences 3#2. Supplementary: How to Copy and paste programs from the doc file. Quik pdf with title page and abstract Previous draft in pdf
  2. Will be supplemented by comments, new code, and editorial statements in later issues

Volume 4 2009-2010

Issue 4#1 2010

  1. pp 1-57 Andrey V. Korotayev, Sergey V. Tsirel - A Spectral Analysis of World GDP Dynamics: Kondratieff Waves, Kuznets Swings, Juglar and Kitchin Cycles in Global Economic Development, and the 2008–2009 Economic Crisis --- --- Comment: Paul Krugman, on Fareed Zakaria GPS 7-4-2010, stated that the great depressions were 1873 and 1929, in agreement with p. 15 and p 24 K-Wave patterns as revealed by Spectral Analysis. Doug 15:19, 5 July 2010 (PDT)
book: Andrey Korotayev book:
  1. 58-77 Mark R. Altaweel, Lilian N. Alessa, Andrew Kliskey, Chris Bone. A Framework to Structure Agent-Based Modeling Data for Social-Ecological Systems
  2. 78-121 Brown, Christian, and Anthon Eff. The State and the Supernatural: Support for Prosocial Behavior. Quik pdf

Issue 4#2 2010

  1. pp 78-107 (30pp) William F. Lawless, Stan Rifkin, Donald Sofge, Stephen H. Hobbs, F. Angjellari-Dajci, Laurent Chaudron. Conservation of Information: Reverse engineering dark social systems
  2. pp 108-125 (18pp) Mark R. Altaweel, Yanwei Wu Route Selection and Pedestrian Traffic: Applying an Integrated Modeling Approach to Understanding Movement
  3. pp 126-153 (28pp) Jae-Woo Kim. Evolution of Cultural Groups and Persistent Parochialism

Issue 4#3 2010

  1. pp 154-184 (31pp) Andrey V. Korotayev, Sergey V. Tsirel - Log-Periodic Oscillation Analysis Forecasts the Burst of the “Gold Bubble” in April – June 2011
  2. pp 185-221 (37pp) Peter Turchin. Warfare and the Evolution of Social Complexity: A Multilevel-Selection Approach
  3. pp 222-238 (17pp) Mary Kathryn Coe, Amber L. Palmer, Craig T, Palmer, Carl L. DeVito. Culture, Altruism, and Conflict Between Ancestors and Descendants

Volume 5 2011-2012

Issue 5#1 2011

  1. pp 1-31 Jesse B. Fletcher, Jacob Apkarian, Robert A. Hanneman, Hiroko Inoue, Kirk Lawrence, Christopher Chase-Dunn. Demographic Regulators in Small-Scale World-Systems. pdf
  2. pp 32-41 Askar A. Akaev, Alexey A. Fomin, Andrey Korotayev. The Second Wave of the Global Crisis? On mathematical analyses of some dynamic series
  3. pp 42-80 Armando Geller, Joseph F. Harrison, Matthew Revelle. Growing Social Structure: An Empirical Multiagent Excursion into Kinship in Rural North-West Frontier Province

Issue 5#2 2012

  1. pp 81-93 Cameron M. Smith, Julia C. Ruppell. What Anthropologists Should Know About the New Evolutionary Synthesis
  2. pp 94 E. Anthon Eff. Updated scripts for R in Eff and Dow (2009) Issue 3#1 art 1
  3. 95-128 E. Anthon Eff & Philip W. Routon. Farming and Fighting: An Empirical Analysis of the Ecological-Evolutionary Theory of the Incidence of Warfare - quik pdf with title page - Additional Material

Issue 5#3 2012

  1. 129-143/15pp Askar Akaev, Andrey V. Korotayev, Alexey Fomin. Global Inflation Dynamics: regularities & forecasts || eScholarship UC item2rg7b2pm
  2. 144-170/27pp Daniel Sebastian Wigmore-Shepherd. Ethnic identity, political identity and ethnic conflict: simulating the effect of congruence between the two identities on ethnic violence and conflict -- pdf

Volume 6 2013

Issue 6#1 2013

  1. Read, Dwight W.; El Guindi, Fadwa. Back to Kinship: A General Introduction || eScholarship UC item 5b6330sf.pdf
  2. Feinberg, Richard. We, the Taumako: Kinship Among Polynesians in the Santa Cruz Islands
  3. El Guindi, Fadwa; al-Othman, Wesam. Transformationality and Dynamicality of Kinship Structure
  4. Milicic, Bojka. Talk Is Not Cheap: Kinship Terminologies and the Origins of Language
  5. Dousset, Laurent. From Consanguinity to Consubstantiality: Julian Pitt-Rivers’ ‘The Kith and the Kin’
  6. F. K. Lehman (F. K. L. Chit Hlaing). The Place of Kinship in the Social System: A Formal-and-Functional Consideration With an Appendix on Descent and Alliance
  7. Heady, Patrick. Implicit Formality: Keesing’s Challenge and Its Significance for European Kinship
  8. Trautmann, Thomas. The House That Morgan Built
  9. McConvell, Patrick; Gardner, Helen. The Descent of Morgan in Australia: Kinship Representation from the Australian Colonies
  10. Keen, Ian. The Legacy of Radcliffe-Brown's Typology of Australian Aboriginal Kinship Systems
  11. Leaf, Murray. The Recognition of Kinship Terminologies As Formal Systems
  12. Read, Dwight W. A New Approach to Forming a Typology of Kinship Terminology Systems: From Morgan and Murdock to the Present

Issue 6#2 2013

  1. 1-13. Wigmore-Shepherd, Daniel Sebastian. The validity of partition as a solution to ethnic conflict. ABSTRACT: This paper examines the effectiveness of partition in ceasing violence during ethnic conflict. Wigmore-Shepherd’s 2012 study argued that ethnic conflict is often due to the congruence between ethnic and political identity, allowing political conflicts to become ‘ethnicised’ and ethnic conflict to eclipse the original political dispute. Therefore this paper hypothesises that ethnic homogenisation via partition can allow the original political conflict to re-emerge in a potentially violent manner. The hypothesis is tested by an agent based model adapted from the model used in the 2012 study. The model finds that in the instances where there is not a perfect congruence between ethnic and political identity, politically motivated violence does persist in the ethnic enclaves. It was found that a lower level of congruence would result in a higher level of post-partition violence. Furthermore the act of migration itself can encourage spikes of ethnically motivated violence and agents of different ethnicity cross paths to reach their enclave.
  2. 14-48. Lawless, William F. (Paine College), James Llinas, Ranjeev Mittu, Don Sofge, Ciara Sibley, Joseph Coyne. Robust Intelligence (RI) under uncertainty: Mathematical foundations of autonomous hybrid (human-machine-robot) teams, organizations and systems. ABSTRACT. To develop a theory of Robust Intelligence (RI), we continue to advance our theory of interdependence on the efficient and effective control of systems of autonomous hybrid teams composed of robots, machines and humans working interchangeably. As is the case with humans, we believe that RI is less likely to be achieved by individual computational agents; instead, we propose that a better path to RI is with interdependent agents. However, unlike conventional computational models where agents act independently of neighbors, where, for example, a predator mathematically consumes its prey or not as a function of a random interaction process, dynamic interdependence means that agents dynamically respond to the bi-directional signals of actual or potential presence of other agents (e.g., in states poised to fight or flight), a significant increase over conventional modeling complexity. That this problem is unsolved, mathematically and conceptually, precludes hybrid teams from processing information like human teams operating under challenges and perceived threats. To simplify this problem, we use bistable models for interdependence with a focus on teams and firms as we increase complexity to the level of systems. As part of the problem, in this paper, and countering simplification, sentient multi-agent systems require an aggregation process like data fusion. But the conventional use of fusion for the control of mobile systems hinges on mathematical convergence into patterns, increasing uncertainty whenever divergent information has the potential to process information into knowledge. The goals of our research are: First, to analyze why valid models of interdependence are difficult to build. Second, to reduce uncertainty in decision-making by moderating convergence processes in data aggregation (e.g., fusion) with differential clustering between alternative (orthogonal) views that check convergence processes and promote information processing (e.g., second opinions from independent physicians; prosecutor-defense attorneys; Republicans-Democrats in Congress; opposed scientists, like Bohr-Einstein). Third, in line with our theoretical expectations, we plan to lay the groundwork for agent-based systems to model the stability from the cooperative contexts associated with teams, and the instability from the competitive contexts associated with multiple teams or firms that constitute systems. Our result will be a new theory of interdependence; a new model of data aggregation; and new agent-based models of interdependence.
  3. 49-68 Rogers, J. Daniel. Pastoralist Mobility and Social Controls In Inner Asia: Experiments Using Agent-Based Modeling. ABSTRACT: Archaeological, historical, and ethnographic sources on the pastoralism of Inner Asia provide evidence for a resilient, but highly volatile steppe adaptation that developed several thousand years ago. This study explores some fundamental aspects of pastoralist settlement and social systems as they developed following the Bronze Age. The analysis uses the agent-based computational model, HouseholdsWorld, to simulate aspects of mobility, population density, kinship structures, and herd dynamics relating to emerging social territories and the implications for sustainable landscape use. Comparisons with archaeological data show the potential impacts of social controls on habitation distributions and mobility. When overarching social controls were in place distinctive territorial differences emerged. When social controls were less centralized individual households became wealthier. In regions with dense populations, expanding the scope of landscape knowledge allowed micro-mobility to effectively mitigate social restrictions. As a result population expanded, but became poorer. In less densely inhabited regions greater knowledge of the landscape expanded the mid-range of wealth distribution without expanding the number of poor.

Issue 6#3 2013

  1. 1-21. Seth Abrutyn (University of Memphis). Reconceptualizing The Dynamics of Religion As A Macro-Institutional Domain. ABSTRACT: Macro-institutional analysis was once central to sociological inquiry, such that Durkheim saw it as synonymous with sociology. With the failure of Parsonsian grand macro theory, sociology shifted its lens to the organization, or meso-level of analysis. While producing key insights into the dynamics of corporate units, the macro-environment has become ambiguously theorized. In the paper below, the emergent properties and dynamics of the religious institution—an important sphere of human action central to classical sociology and currently a vibrant subfield —are elucidated. It is argued an analysis at the macro-institution can produce a more robust understanding of social organization and action, which supplements the important meso-level models by more precisely defining and delineating the contours of the macro-level. The paper below achieves this goal by (a) explicating the generic qualities of all religious institutions and (b) positing the key intra- and inter-institutional dynamics affecting various levels of society.
  2. 22-40 Stacey L. Rucas (Cal Poly), Alissa A. Miller. Sleep and Risk-Taking Propensity in Life History and Evolution. ABSTRACT. Tradeoffs between time allocated to sleeping versus waking result from variations in local ecologies and should correlate to alterations in behavioral life history strategies. It was predicted that firefighters who sleep less, with lower overall sleep quality, would exhibit greater motivation for risk-taking, an important component of fast life histories. Firefighters completed evolutionarily relevant questionnaires on five domains of risk-taking propensity that were correlated to sleep quantity and quality variables. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that self-reported measures of sleep quantity, sleep latency, and psychological and physical sleep quality were occasionally and variably related to within-group competition, between-group competition, reproduction, environmental challenge, and mating and resource allocation for mate attraction risk domains in predicted directions.

Volume 7-8 2014-2015 - Switching to Open Journal Systems (OJS) as the eScholarship software

Issue 7#1 2014

  1. 1-32. Gotts, Nicholas Mark; Gary Polhill (James Hutton Institute), Tony Craig; Carlos Galan-Diaz. Combining Diverse Data Sources for CEDSS, An Agent-Based Model of Domestic Energy Demand. ABSTRACT. CEDSS (Community Energy Demand Social Simulator) is an empirical agent-based model designed and built as part of a multi-method social science project investigating the determinants of domestic energy demand. Ideally, empirical modellers, within and beyond social simulation, would prefer to work from an integrated dataset, gathered for the purposes of developing the model. In practice, many have to work with less than ideal data, often including processed data from multiple sources external to the project. Moreover, what data will be required may not be clear at the start of the project. This paper describes the approach to dealing with these factors taken in developing CEDSS, and presents the completed model together with an outline of the calibration and validation procedure used. The discussion section draws together the most distinctive features of empirical data collection, processing and use for and in CEDSS, and argues that the approach taken is sufficiently robust to underpin the model’s purpose – to generate scenarios of domestic energy demand to 2049.
  2. 33-50. Grueter, Cyril C. (University of Western Australia); Douglas R. White. On the emergence of large-scale human social integration and its antecedents in primates. ABSTRACT. One of the universal features of human sociality is the fact that our social networks are highly integrated – human societies exhibit several nested social layers including families, bands and communities. Several factors have been identified as creating disincentives for hostile intergroup relations, including economic interdependence (trade), intermarriage (exogamy), cooperative defence against external adversaries (warfare), and lack of patrilocal residential groups (absence of patrilocality with external war). We provide a preliminary test of hypotheses relating to the correlates of amicable relations between communities (i.e. absence of internal war) using the standard cross-cultural sample (SCCS) database. Intermarriage did not have any explanatory power, there is a nearly significant effect of trade on the establishment of intergroup tolerance, and the evidential basis for cooperative defence and patrilocal residence are strong when combed into a multiplicative effect. This analysis is complemented with an exploration of the evolutionary factors underlying elementary forms of meta-group organization in non-human primates.

Issue 8#1 2015

  1. 1-16 Stephen M. Lyon; Mark A. Jamieson, Michael D. Fischer. Persistent Cultures: Miskitu Kinship Terminological Fluidity. ABSTRACT. Kinship is understood dynamically and processually but kinship terminologies are remarkably stable idea systems. They provide cultural continuity over time and are more resistant to modification than many types of cultural instantiations. Miskitu speakers in Nicaragua, however, have adopted new kin terms that appear to have fundamentally changed the idea system used to generate their kin terms historically. The shape of the changes that have occurred in Miskitu kin terminologies over time are the result of powerful economic, political and social forces introduced, in part, as a consequence of the geography of Mosquito Coast economies, migrations and political processes. We argue that the current use of kin terms is atypically hybrid and is not the result of a single, algebraically derivable idea system. Rather than negating the validity of mathematical approaches to kinship terminologies, the case of Miskitu kinship terminology suggests that core idea systems, although subject to change over time, move between informationally economical forms adapted to socioeconomic changes.
  2. 17-47 Mark Altaweel; Alessio Palmisano; Carrie Hritz. Evaluating Settlement Structures in the Ancient Near East using Spatial Interaction Entropy Maximization. ABSTRACT. We explore settlement structures and hierarchy found in different archaeological periods in northern, specifically the Khabur Triangle (KT), and southern Mesopotamia (SM) using a spatial interaction entropy maximization (SIEM) modeling and simulation method. Regional settlement patterns are investigated in order to understand what feedback levels for settlement benefits, or incentives, and abilities to move or disperse between sites in a landscape and period could have enabled observed settlement structures to emerge or be maintained. Archaeological and historical data are then used to interpret the best results. We suggest that in the Late Chalcolithic (LC) and first half of the Early Bronze Age (EBA), the KT and SM appear to have comparable urban patterns and development, where settlement advantage feedbacks and movement are similarly shaping the two regions for those periods. Within period variations, such as restrictions to population diffusion or movement in the EBA, are possible. In the KT during the Middle Bronze Age (MBA), multiple centers begin to emerge, suggesting a lack of social cohesion and/or political fragmentation. This is similar to SM in the MBA, but we also see the emergence of a single, dominant site. In the Iron Age (IA), movement in the KT likely becomes the least constrained in all assessed periods, as socio-political cohesion facilitates this process, with small sites now the norm and dominance by one state over the region is evident. For the same period in SM, a single site (Babylon) obtains significant settlement advantages relative to its neighbors and easy movement enables it to become far larger in size and likely socially, economically, and politically dominant. Overall, the results demonstrate that the method is useful for archaeologists and social theorists in allowing them to compare different archaeological survey results, with varied spatial dimensions and diachronically, while providing a level of explanation that addresses empirical settlement patterns observed.

Issue 8#2 2015

  1. 1-9 Jianxi Luo, Daniel E. Whitney. Asymmetry in In-Degree and Out-Degree Distributions of Large-Scale Industrial Networks. ABSTRACT. Many natural, physical and social networks commonly exhibit power-law degree distributions. In this paper, we discover previously unreported asymmetrical patterns in the degree distributions of incoming and outgoing links in the investigation of large-scale industrial networks, and provide interpretations. In industrial networks, nodes are firms and links are directed supplier-customer relationships. While both in- and out-degree distributions have “power law” regimes, out-degree distribution decays faster than in-degree distribution and crosses it at a consistent nodal degree. It implies that, as link degree increases, the constraints to the capacity for designing, producing and transmitting artifacts out to others grow faster than and surpasses those for acquiring, absorbing and synthesizing artifacts provided from others. We further discover that this asymmetry in decaying rates of in-degree and out-degree distributions is smaller in networks that process and transmit more decomposable artifacts, e.g. informational artifacts in contrast with physical artifacts. This asymmetry in in-degree and out-degree distributions is likely to hold for other directed networks, but to different degrees, depending on the decomposability of the processed and transmitted artifacts.

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