TIPP Kinship and computing

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How to download, install, and run

Download Puck.jar


Search for Puck.jar where saved

Copy to your directory, e.g., C:\Puck

Right click Puck.jar

open with Java
Menu will open
Double right click the upper window to import *.txt *.ged *.tip *.net or *.paj files.
Whatever the current directory, Double right click for further choices
Click on a filename, IMPORT
Use << < > >> to navigate thru individual entries
Click SWITCH to go back to the Main Menu
Click SHOW menu for visualization <-- this doesnt work for Puck v.0.9
32 elements of Puck

c:\Puck2010\0KinSources - my data storage, also MyDocuments\pub\0KinSources


Author(s) of this wiki page Doug White, Michael Houseman

see also: http://www.kintip.net/content/view/74/#Tip_format The paj files currently on Kinsources are in the all-arcs (5 relation numbers) format. But this is just a coincidence. The Tip4Pajek macros allow transforming them into Ore-graph format, and Puck can transform them into P-graph format.

Quik Instructions from GED to TIP graph via Pajek

The P-graph/Pajek marriage census

Kinship macros in Pajek

Kintip Website - Traitement informatique de la parenté, Kinship and Computing - DRW proposes KinTip or Tipp as the name for the format as well, as contrasted with p-graph format.

home page Klaus Hamberger

Puck: Programme for the Use and Computation of Kinship data


KinTip: Kinship and computing in anthropology and history: an integrated approach (Traitement informatique des phénomènes de parenté en anthropologie et en histoire : une approche intégrée)

  • TIPP Project NT05-4_43502 of the French Agence National de la recherche (ANR), Michael Houseman and Cyril Grange


original tools site

Kinship vector format


This project brings together anthropologists and historians of the family similarly concerned with the systematic analysis of consanguineous and affinal relationships. By pooling the materials and competences from these two disciplines, this research team aims to develop new conceptual and technical tools for computer-processing kinship and marriage data.

This project follows in the footsteps of recent anthropological and historical research whose use of computer software for the analysis of genealogical material, opened new directions for the empirical study of kinship and marriage practices. It will thus make use of a large number and variety of genealogical data-bases concerning both Western societies at different periods of their history and peoples in other regions of the world.

These data-bases will be approached so as to make them directly comparable, by concentrating on the networks that result from the interconnections between the multiple descent and marriage ties in them them. Analysis will centre upon “relinking” phenomena. Indeed, even among those populations that authorize or prescribe unions between close kin, only a minority of the circuits that make up the marriage network are blood marriages. By far, most of these circuits involve one or more intermediate marriages and, as such, are affinal relinkings. Two things make it difficult to model relinking phenomena : (1) even a relatively small marriage network contains a very large number of relinkings of a very many types, and (2) these relinkings are themselves interlinked with each other (and with blood marriages whenever these occur) so as to form complex patterns whose conceptualisation remains to be done.

This project aims to provide a better grasp of the principles governing the coordinate aggregation of matrimonial practices, and to overcome the difficulties posed by the systematic analysis of affinal relinkings. Specifically, its objective, at once theoretical and technical, is to develop tools for the computerized processing of genealogical data that meet up to two complementary expectations:

(a) the typically anthropological concern to bring to light recurrent, cross-cultural organizational forms; from this point of view, kinship networks and sub-networks are seen as systems, i.e. as structured totalities governed by internal dynamics that are to be specified.
(b) the historical and ethnographic concern to identify the particular actors and their social attributes within these kinship and marriage networks. From this viewpoint, these networks provide a privileged field for the study of social organisation and its evolution over time, as deriving, in part, from factors external to the kinship and marriage system itself (semi-professional itineraries, residential choices, religion affiliation and so forth).

TIPP Kit 2007: Macro-instructions for PAJEK

Macro-instructions written by Klaus Hamberger

Lists of Tipp Macros in Pajek

 1 Transformation Macros
 2 Analysis Macros

The new macros package replaces http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/download/MarriageNetTools.htm from 2004 (articles listed below)

Downloads of the macros in zip files:

  1. TIPPkit2007_1_Transformation_Macros.zip
  2. TIPPkit2007_2_Analysis_Macros.zip

Kinship simulation

Software: Kinship simulation


These commands work for Pajek 1.21 but if not try http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/tipp/pajek 1.16c.exe

To fix the representation, in Pajek main menu, click Options/ and then check (click) the first three boxes.

Load the sample TIPP file from the Transformation zip file is a test dataset, Turks.net (White and Johansen 2004 Turkish nomad genealogies). It is in a TIPP-graph format: one edge for marriage, and 4 parent-child arcs as follows

  1. W-H Wi-Hu
  2. M-D Mo-Da
  3. M-S Mo-So
  4. F-D Fa-Da
  5. F-S Fa-So
  • other symbols B Br Z Sister

To compute generations, transform marriage arcs into edges, apply the pajek generational depth function, and re-transform edges into arcs. Tipp-and Ore-Representations of the Network should thus be identical.

Transformation macros

These change the network into forms suitable for analysis and graphic display and produce new networks, partitions and vectors in Pajek.

Read into pajek. For a test click Macros and run the Transformation macro "Make Standard Partitions T4.1"

T 4.1	Make Standard Partitions
Function	Creates Gender, Generation and Lineage partitions and counts their sizes (total and differentiated for men and women)
Counts the number and size of weak components and bicomponents, and the number of cognatic components
Input	TIPP Network
Output (17)	Gender Partition
Generations Partition
Patrilineages Partition
Matrilineages Partition
Number of Men and Women Vector
Size of Generations Vector
Size of Patrilineages Vector
Size of Matrilineages Vector
Size of Weak Components Vector
Size of Generations (Men) Vector
Size of Patrilineages (Men) Vector
Size of Matrilineages (Men) Vector
Size of Generations (Women) Vector
Size of Patrilineages (Women) Vector
Size of Matrilineages (Women) Vector
Size of Bicomponents Vector
Number of Cognatic Components Vector

The easy way to browse all the functions in TIPP_Kit_2007.doc is to find/search for "function". The maximal bicomponent (MB) of a TIPP graph in the T4.1 macro above includes the nuclear family links.

  • Macro T3.5 Reduce the Maximal Matrimonial Bicomponent (MMB) finds the largest structurally endogamous groups (the giant MMB without the small MBs.
you might have to do this twice until the number of nodes does not change
  • You can save the MMB.net file and use it is the next step or use the original file (turks.net)

Analysis macros

The main functions here are counting the marriages of certain types in a network, e.g., MBD, FZD etc

Read into pajek. For a test click Macros and run the Analysis macro A 0.4b - Count, Code and Draw Ring Marriages 82 to get the freqauency count of the 82 types of marriages in Hamberger et al 2004. (These are all consaguineal cousin marriages taking into account half-siblingship.

  • It will ask to open ae *.paj file created in the Analysis subdirectory - for example the one that says 82
  • Consult TIPP_Kit_2007.doc, which shows that the following output is created in the Pajek windows
have network
series of partitions - 
 Apical sex (Fa or Mo in common) - Blue for male Yellow for female apical ancestor
 Roman degree (1=parent 2=sister etc) http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/tipp/RomanDegree.htm has this output as an svg export
 Sex switches - ignoring ego and alter, reducing siblingship to Ch/PaCh how many sex switches
 Dravidian crossness - same, even/odd female links
Vectors - the size of the points e.g.  Marriage frequencies vector

Menu Draw/Partition/Vector. What you see is a circular drawing, Laurent Barry notation H=homme F=femme, common father view

in middle is sister
then neices/aunts
then cousins
then cousin/cousin's child
then second cousin

If you press x you rotate to see from a common mother's point of view

  • If set graph menu /Options/Previous-next/Partitions then with next/previous you see the four partitions

For Pajek version 1.21

  • Run A 0.1c – Count and Link Ring Marriages 384+.mcr" directly
  • Also A 0.1e – Count and Link Ring Marriages 384+.mcr" choose 384.paj, get no drawing. Go to Info/Network/Multiple Relations Will give listg of the frequencies of the marriage types. Get vectors with size of generations/patrilineages/weak components/cognatic components/marriage freq all rings, relevent rings etc etc. Save the vector file as a text file and transfer into excel do histograms, compare frequencies etc.
  • For Pajek version 1.16 or 1.17
  • T 4.1 Make Standard Partitions do first then

"A 0.1c – Count and Link Ring Marriages 384+.mcr" (a,b dont work) to get the freqauency count of the 384 types of marriages in Hamberger et al 2004. Run the transformation T4.1 first (cleans up the partitions etc) will work but it is the same as the A 0.4b image but in spring embedding

There are some *.clu files in the Analysis zip file that partition nodes, e.g., into 1 two-sidedness 2 Dravidian 3 marriages: consanguineal polygamous doubles(same sex relinking) and relinking(separate sex) 4 consanguineal

  1. Sidedness 3 (C+R Ensemble).clu
  2. OK-PB Drav 3 (C+R Ensemble).clu
  3. Cons-Pol-Dbl-Ech.clu
  4. Cons-Rench.clu

what you have to do somehow is to match the 384 marriage types to these partitions, calculate degree between types, extract partitions 1- forward, and overlay the fact that the empirical network has this finite number of marriage types ... instructions remain to be done.

  • A 0.5 – Count and Code Ring Marriages 344.mcr

Publications and Bibliography

2004 Matrimonial Ring Structures. Klaus Hamberger, Michael Houseman, Isabelle Daillant, Douglas R. White and Laurent Barry. Mathématiques et sciences humaines 43(168):83-121. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/download/MarriageNetTools.htm

2004 Ring Cohesion Theory in Marriage and Social Networks. Douglas R. White. Mathématiques et sciences humaines 43(168):5-28 http://www.ehess.fr/revue-msh/recherche.php?numero=168 http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/download/MarriageNetTools.htm

2005 Multiple Measures of Alyawarra Kinship. Woodrow W. Denham and Douglas R. White. Field Methods 17: 70-101. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pw/MultiMeas03a.pdf http://fmx.sagepub.com/content/vol17/issue1/

2005 Chapter 1 Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems: Process Models of a Turkish Nomad Clan. Douglas R. White & Ulla Johansen. Boston: Lexington Press. 2006 Paper http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pub/PMContFwd01.pdf

2002 Navigability of Strong Ties: Small Worlds, Tie Strength and Network Topology. Douglas R. White & Michael Houseman. Complexity 8(1):72-81 http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/Complexity/SpecialIssue.htm

1999 Controlled Simulation of Marriage Systems. Douglas R. White. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 2(3). http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/2/3/5.html

1998 Network Mediation of Exchange Structures: Ambilateral Sidedness and Property Flows in Pul Eliya. Michael Houseman & Douglas R. White. pp. 59-89 in Kinship, Networks and Exchange, eds. T. Schweizer and drw. Cambridge University Press. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pub/PUL-CAMB1a.pdf http://tinyurl.com/2lb2gu http://www.ivry.cnrs.fr/spafrican/chercheurs/articles/Network%20Mediation.pdf

1998 Kinship, Property Transmission, and Stratification in Javanese Villages. Douglas R. White & Thomas Schweizer. pp. 59-89 in Kinship, Networks and Exchange, eds. T. Schweizer and drw. Cambridge University Press. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pub/JAV1.pdf

1997 Structural Endogamy and the Graphe de Parenté. Douglas R. White. Mathématiques, Informatique, et Sciences Humaines 137:107-125. http:/eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pw/str-endo.pdf

1997 Class, Property and Structural Endogamy: Visualizing Networked Histories. Lilyan A. Brudner & Douglas R. White. Theory and Society 25(2):161-208. http://repositories.cdlib.org/postprints/3/

1996 Les structures réticulaires de la pratique matrimoniale. Michael Houseman & Douglas R. White. L'Homme 139: 59-85. http://tinyurl.com/2k5czp http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pub/StructureReticulaire.pdf