Testosterone

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June 2017

ORDER #2255199 

Dear Doug White,

We are pleased to inform you that one or more of your items has shipped. Please see the details of the shipment below. ORDER #2255199

Order placed on 05/29/2017 01:46am Shipping Info Doug White 8633 C Via Mallorca La Jolla, CA 92037

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Order placed on 05/29/2017 01:46am Shipping Info Doug White 8633 C Via Mallorca La Jolla, CA 92037

Shipping Method Carrier Name: First Class Mail Tracking Number: 9400111699000407322170 Item Alpha Prime Elite Testosterone Monthly Autoship NEED ASSISTANCE? GET IN TOUCH! Alpha Prime Elite nitric@alphaprimeelite.com Customer Care Department (24/7) 855 724-3761

Testosterone

Lee T. Gettlera,b,1,2, Thomas W. McDadea,b, Alan B. Feranilc, and Christopher W. Kuzawaa,b,1,2. 2011. + Author Affiliations Longitudinal evidence that fatherhood decreases testosterone in human males. PNAS September 27, 2011 vol. 108 no. 39 16194-16199

Department of Anthropology, and Cells to Society, Center on Social Disparities and Health, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208; and Office of Population Studies Foundation, University of San Carlos, Cebu City 6000, Philippines Edited by A. E. Storey, Department of Psychology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF, Canada, and accepted by the Editorial Board July 28, 2011 (received for review May 10, 2011)

Abstract

In species in which males care for young, testosterone (T) is often high during mating periods but then declines to allow for caregiving of resulting offspring. This model may apply to human males, but past human studies of T and fatherhood have been cross-sectional, making it unclear whether fatherhood suppresses T or if men with lower T are more likely to become fathers. Here, we use a large representative study in the Philippines (n = 624) to show that among single nonfathers at baseline (2005) (21.5 ± 0.3 y), men with high waking T were more likely to become partnered fathers by the time of follow-up 4.5 y later (P < 0.05). Men who became partnered fathers then experienced large declines in waking (median: −26%) and evening (median: −34%) T, which were significantly greater than declines in single nonfathers (P < 0.001). Consistent with the hypothesis that child interaction suppresses T, fathers reporting 3 h or more of daily childcare had lower T at follow-up compared with fathers not involved in care (P < 0.05). Using longitudinal data, these findings show that T and reproductive strategy have bidirectional relationships in human males, with high T predicting subsequent mating success but then declining rapidly after men become fathers. Our findings suggest that T mediates tradeoffs between mating and parenting in humans, as seen in other species in which fathers care for young. They also highlight one likely explanation for previously observed health disparities between partnered fathers and single men.