William Divale

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June 17 2017


  • Hi Doug

I retired last Sept and am glad. Still doing research with Vadim Moldovan in Moldova and eastern europe.bill William Divale Emeritus Professor of Anthropology York College and CUNY Online Baccalaureate C: 845-661-8274 H: 845-284-2374 wdivale@york.cuny.edu

Co-Publisher, with Douglas White, World Cultures electronic journal. York College, CUNY, New York. CUNY School of Professional Studies.

William Divale, York College, CUNY 718-262-2982 / 845-284-2374 · http://commons.gc.cuny.edu/members/divalebill/ Academic Pubs


Divale, William, Noelle Abrams, Jennifer Barzola, Estelle Harris, and Fred-Michael Henry. 1998. Sleeping Arrangements of Children and Adolescents: SCCS Sample Codes. World Cultures 9(2):3-12.

STDS80.DAT Vars. 1710-1713 Sleeping Arrangements of Children

Divale, William. 1976. Female Status and Cultural Evolution: A Study in Cultural Evolution. Cross-Cultural Research 11:169-212. See: .Dv676.5 affect on Predictors of v621 Equality of Husband and Wife (No Hu. Dominance) WileyCh5

Abstract: The theory that female status will increase with societal complexity is tested. Two independent measures of female status are compared with a measure of societal complexity. Both tests produce significant results, but in a direction opposite that of the hypothesis. With increases in societal complexity, there is a decrease in female status. Four data quality control factors were routinely applied to test for the presence of systematic ethnographer bias. The DQC tests suggest that the negative relationship between female status and complexity is a spurious one, which can be plausibly explained by the ethnographer's sex, length of field stay, and ability to speak the native language, as well as the century in which the fieldwork was done. Further analysis suggests that unbiased reporting of female status is possible by female ethnographers and by male ethnographers who have worked under optimal field conditions (field stays of over one year, plus native language familiarity). Among this group of observers, the original hypothesis receives support: high female status is found at all levels of complexity, while low female status is found primarily among less complex societies.
  • 1,2 male ethnographers v720 v805 who have worked x Year in the field v725
  • 3 plus Spoke language frequently v724 v812
  • 4 Ethnographer's sex= Female. v720 v805

Divale, William. 1999. Climatic Instability, Food Storage, and the Development of Numerical Counting: A Cross-Cultural Study. CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH 33:341-368.

Abstract (No Codes): A model is proposed that explains the variability in counting systems found in traditional societies. Societies that live in areas of climatic instability, in terms of temperature and precipitation extremes, tend to have periodic starvation and famine, which in turn stimulates societies to store and preserve food. The need to store and preserve food during one season for use in another stimulates societies to develop abilities to count to higher numbers in order to accurately estimate food storage requirements. This model is successfully tested cross-culturally on two separate worldwide samples (N= 69 andN = 136 respectively).
Murdock and White (1969) have argued that in cross-cultural hypothesis tests where the variables measured are not focused (pinpointed in space and time to a single local community), we cannot assume functional relation ships between those variables. Since most of the published cross-cultural studies do not report focusing, Murdock and White cast doubt on the findings of a few hundred studies. I argue that focusing should be used to increase data quality, but that a lack of focus only increases the amount of random measurement error, which tends to lower correlations. Therefore, if focusing is not applied and a significant correlation is found, it means that the actual association is probably even higher than the one found. This was tested by coding two variables, once with and once without a temporal focus. Both correlations were statistically significant, but the time- focused correlation was 23 percent higher. The test was then repeated on a second sample, drawn from a different universe, and similar results were found. In this instance, the time-focused correlation was 13 percent higher.

Divale, William. 2001. Codes on the Highest Number Counted for the Standard Sample. World Cultures 12(1):99-104.

STDS87.DAT Vars. 1862-1863 Highest Number Counted Codes

Divale, William and Albert Seda. 1999. Codes on Gossip for Societies in the Standard Sample. World Cultures 10(1):7-22.

STDS83.DAT Vars. 1781-1805 Codes on Gossip

Divale, William and Albert Seda. 2000. [http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/pdf/0WCpdfs/11-2divale.pdf Cross-Cultural Codes of Modernization[. World Cultures 11(2):153-170.

STDS84.DAT Vars. 1806-1849 Codes on Modernization