User talk:Abiha Bilgrami

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Introduction

My name is Abiha Bilgrami. I am a fourth year student. My major is International Studies with a minor in Anthropology. This all is very new to me. Hopefully I get the hang of it soon! I look forward to seeing you all in class on Tuesday!


Day 2: 29th September

Trying to have a conversation on my talk page..with myself :)

To sign name do the ~ sign 4 times... Abiha Bilgrami 12:54, 29 September 2009 (PDT)

This is new to me too and I'm not sure if i fully understand how to use this. User:Patrick Kim

Notes

http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/Human_Social_Complexity_and_World_Cultures_2009

  • (*Comments by Doug*)
  • Market is intrinsically not biased? (*That is a Big Lie.*)
  • People follow trends.
  • Looking at societies. )(*same: Societies follow other societies*)
  • Tyler was an anthropologist and he had no idea how to model societies. *Statistician* Galton said he was wrong *to regard societies as independent*.
  • What problem arises from taking random samples. That *this solves Galton's problem* is a Big Lie. There is always two ways (even more) to look at things.
  • something that has been newly solved in the past 20 years. (*Galton's problem)*
  • Galton's Problem has been solved!
  • How do you properly estimate what affects what in a world where all the effects are not normal.
  • This software is public domain that can be used worldwide. Use this to teach. Education is a privilege. Need to look at how cultures cluster and differ.
  • Time variables.
  • GIS

Geographic Info Systems

  • also GIS="Geo Info Science"
  • GIS used also by* Municipalities and local governments that provide services and are accountable. Making jobs more effective using Social Science Technology.

ESRI *(GIS company) - Their GIS used by* new systems of government all over the world.

http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/pdf/Tutorial-RegressionAnalysis.pdf TUTORIAL!

Day 4

October 5th

Research paper/findings is combinations of statistics and literature research.

  • What causes polygyny?
  • What is value of a child in society? This is the dependent variable in the example *(Eff and Dow paper to read)*.
  • Have to come up with factors/independent variables that affect it.

http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/index.php/EduMod-26:_%28your_dep_var_here%29_Imputation_and_Regression


  • pick topic.
  • what factors would affect this. factors that have relation to variable we are looking at. inevitably there will be missing data. *program 1 fills in that missing data by making estimates.
  • program 2 will take that information, the independent and the dependent and will tell you what relationship they have.
  • r program does the statistical analysis.
  • to *also take into account the* interdependence of societies

Good notes! Doug 06:02, 7 October 2009 (PDT)

Day 5

October 8th polygyny variables

  • form of polygyny in which you marry 2 sisters. In American plains *(Indians)* it was practiced. Can take a sister but not a third wife. Hard to financially support.

In Africa *(common that)* each wife has her own house within compound. semi autonomous. have their own fields. number of women can share one husband. produce their own goods. have their own business. The more wives you have the more likely you are not to have another wife.

self augmenting variable.

  • percentage of polygyny. Go through codebook. start of as same set of variables and change their dependent variables.


REREAD EFF AND DOW!

Restricted model: *(which variables)* have a significant effect? the probability that is is random.. p< 0.05 (pvalue)

if probability is greater than .05 then the data *are* random

Aloofness and intimacy of husbands and wives: A cross-cultural study --> in africa. relationships in which husbands are aloof. and intimacy between husband and wife.

PAPER: take any topic in codebook. sexual permissiveness vs restricitveness. go through and find the independent variable which might just be the cause of it.

# is when a comment needs to be made. Prof White puts 3 # to show he has made change

restricted variable is same as all possible things. lm= linear model MyDocs/MI/____.zip click the .zip file and then click the first file. press shift and scan over all the other files.

hit Cntrl A

Free program at home.install text pad. when it is installed u get an empty screen. put a space and copy to the right of the space. all the text will line up!

Topic idea

282.  NORMS OF PREMARITAL SEX BEHAVIOR OF GIRLS
    40    . = Missing data
    13    1 = Early marriage of females (at or before puberty)
    38    2 = Insistence on virginity
    37    3 = Prohibited but weakly censured and not infrequent
    16    4 = Allowed, censured only if pregnancy results
     5    5 = Trial marriage, promiscuous relations prohibited
    37    6 = Freely permitted, even if pregnancy results

Day 6

Codebook variables

  • 954. Social approval for Abortion: approval of and rationale for action taken
      to prevent the birth of a child by expelling the fetus before it is
      viable. Ranked according to the amount of social disapproval towards
      abortion
   139    . = Missing Data
    17    1 = Abortions occur, but there is no information on frequency
    12    2 = Abortions are permitted and occur frequently
          3 = Abortions are permitted and occur infrequently
     9    4 = Abortions are disapproved of but do occur. If they are
              infrequent and there is no information on approval, code in
              this category
     9    5 = Abortions are strongly disapproved of and occur rarely or never
  • 955. Rationale for abortions: If there is more than one reason, indicate the
      most frequent reason first on the code sheet, second, etc. up to four
      important reasons. Ranked according to the degree to which social rather
      than personal considerations lead to the abortion
   152    . = Missing Data
     7    1 = No abortions
     6    2 = Concern for the psychological or pgysical state of the
              mother, e.g., she does not want more children, she is
              concerned about her beauty, or she does not want to lose
              her husband
     3    3 = Revenge, e.g., the woman is angry with her husband
     3    4 = Concern for the child's welfare, e.g., the mother is nursing
              another which would leave no milk for another, or the couple
              cannot afford more children
     9    5 = The child was conceived out of wedlock
     4    6 = The child was conceived in an illicit sexual relationship,
              e.g., adulterous, incestuous, or with a man of the wrong
              social class or ethnic group
     1    7 = Other

Google Scholar Research

  • SEXUAL NATURE, SEXUAL CULTURE -Book by Abramson and Pinkerton

http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=abAhouZID8cC&oi=fnd&pg=PA177&dq=%22Standard+Cross-Cultural+Sample%22%2Babortion&ots=3LckqgEul1&sig=6kS91kPtnEIWHUI7_M8XmUpT9Kg#v=onepage&q=%22Standard%20Cross-Cultural%20Sample%22%2Babortion&f=false

  • Stability and Change in relationships -- Book in Langson Library HM1106 .S75 2002
Article Type: Research paper. Keyword(s): Marriage; Sex; Control; Human rights.
Abstract. What is marriage? Existing treatments identify the gains to marriage but say little regarding the foundations of the institution itself. This paper proposes that marriage is designed to facilitate sexual co-operation in a world without reliable contraception and paternity verifiability. By allocating control rights, it functions to mitigate the hazards of sexual opportunism. Recently, however, the technology shocks of the pill, legal abortion and paternity testing have weakened the links between marriage and both sex and reproduction. This has undermined the traditional justification for marriage. What remains is a bundle of legal and economic benefits that are gradually losing significance as the focus of family law shifts from marriage to parenthood as its fundamental organising principle. Doug 09:05, 15 October 2009 (PDT) easy formatting from url
  • School-Age Pregnancy & Parenthood: Biosocial Dimensions (book) Chapter 16.
  • Politics of Reproduction --Karen Paige

Paper Proposal

After careful review of the different cultural practices in the Standard Cross Cultural Sample, I have decided to explore the different factors that affect Abortions within societies.

Hypothesis: The Rationale behind Abortion ranges from social views towards it as well as economic reasons.

Doug 09:27, 15 October 2009 says: I SEE TWO PROBLEMS:

  1. THERE ARE TOO MANY MISSING DATA (remaining n=34) BUT STILL YOU COULD TRY. NO MATTER NOW GOOD YOUR HYPOTHESIS THIS MEANS YOURS INDVARS WILL PROBABLY ALL BE NONSIGNIFICANT
  2. YOUR HYPOTHESIS IS ALREADY EVIDENT (TRUE) JUST FROM THE DEFINITION OF THE VARIABLE. IN YOUR PAPER PROPOSAL TURNED IN YOU STATED: The Rational behind Abortion ranges from social views towards it as well as economic reasons. YOU WOULD NEED TO GO FURTHER AND SPECIFY (1) WHICH SPECIFIC INDEPENDENT VARIABLES FOR ECONOMIC FACTORS MIGHT AFFECT ABORTION (2) WHICH SPECIFIC INDEPENDENT VARIABLES FOR SOCIAL ATTITUDES FACTORS MIGHT AFFECT ABORTION. The independent variables have to be logically independent of the dependent variable definition itself. You can revise and resubmit. This is a writing class, and in part, the logic of arguments. So you can always revise and revise again.

Independent Variable: Abortion

SCCS index of variables:
955.  Rationale for abortions: If there is more than one reason, indicate the most frequent reason first on the code sheet, second, etc. up to four important reasons. Ranked according to the degree to which social rather than personal considerations lead to the abortion
   152    . = Missing Data
     7    1 = No abortions
     6    2 = Concern for the psychological or pgysical state of the
              mother, e.g., she does not want more children, she is
              concerned about her beauty, or she does not want to lose
              her husband
     3    3 = Revenge, e.g., the woman is angry with her husband
     3    4 = Concern for the child's welfare, e.g., the mother is nursing
              another which would leave no milk for another, or the couple
              cannot afford more children
     9    5 = The child was conceived out of wedlock
     4    6 = The child was conceived in an illicit sexual relationship,
              e.g., adulterous, incestuous, or with a man of the wrong
              social class or ethnic group
     1    7 = Other

Dependent Variables:

  • Access to Birth Control
  • Views towards pre marital sex in society
  • Child value
  • Population. Is the region over populated.
  • Average age of marriage
  • Social attitude toward conception outside of wedlock.
  • Healthcare
  • Is Abortion legal in that society?
  • Religious or moral attitudes in that society

Day 7: Oct 15th

  • Have to make up a quiz for another class. Will be 15-20 minutes late to this class. Sorry!

powerpoint is 10-12 slides. figure out way to summarize findings. restricted model in eff and dow.

Day 8: Oct 20th

What do you need for the proposal? • Edu-mod page • Dependent variable • Independent variable • Have the actual variables described as described in codebook • Need hypotheses • Have references to support the hypotheses Lots of Questions: more like back to basics I am thinking of changing my topic. Abortion is a cross cultural practice however there is a lot of missing data. And the literature research is also relatively sparse. Suppose I decide to focus on Marriage Arrangements

740.  Marriage Arrangements (Female)
    35    . = Missing data
    12    1 = Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously:
              approval by parents or others unnecessary
    40    2 = Individual selects and/or courts partner authonomously:
              parental, kin, and/or community approval necessary
              or highly desireable
     4    3 = Individual suggests partner to parents or others;
              arrangements for courtship or marriage then proceed
              if choice is approved
            OR parents ask approval of individuals to initiate
              a match
            OR individual is approached by parent or others on
              behalf of suitor and can accept or reject the match
    27    4 = Individual choice and arranged marriages are
              alternatives
    35    5 = Parents choose partner: individual can object
    33    6 = Parents choose partner: individual cannot easily
              object or rarely objects in fact

Now how do I interpret this information? Out of the 186 societies in the SCCS there is missing data in 35. Yes: thats much better. 12 societeis allow the individual to autonomously select their partner so on and so forth. Am I correct? Yes! Bumped your grade up

Broude and Green did a study in 1983 which explores Sexual Selection under parental choice in Agropastoral societies. I am sure I should be able to find several articles on Marriage Agreements in the SCCS. Using these articles as references I plan on structuring an argument to prove my hypotheses.

The question is..what do I do? What would my independent variable be that I plug into my EduMod? You can use several, 4-5 indepvars. Does the age of the female count as an Independent Variable? Yes it could. Ok, so assuming that the age of the girl is manipulated. The younger the girl, the more likely that the parents choose partner and the individual cannot easily object. Am I on the right track here? Yes, good thinking.

So now I use my EduMod and put in different variables right? And then copy that into my R program. Use those results to paste into my EduMod. Basically the purpose being to see how significant the dependant variables are. Exactly! Your grade is now way up, and you're on track


Day 10: Oct 27th

Variables:

  • Descent/Groups 70,71,221,226,247,696,836,1753,-1755
  • Dispersed vs. Segmentary 71,1649
  • Fraternal Interest 568,-571 SINGLE FACTOR:562,(-)564,568,570-573 SINGLE FACTOR:561,(-)563,564,(-)571
  • Family, Household, Residence 67,-69,80,210,-218,572,609,697,698,749
  • Kin Terminology and Behavior 231,637,-644,1190,-1237
  • Modernization 1822,-1826
  • Residence 69,213,-218,572,609,697,749
  • Cousins, Endogamy 72,219,220,227,-230
  • Divorce and Remarriage 610, 657, 611, 741,-746, 977,-985
  • Divorce: Causes of 1136,-1178
  • Husband-Wife 603,604,612, 615, 620,621, 739,740, 747,748,750,-755, 967,-976
  • Marriage Transactions 208, 209, 605, 1271,-1273,1752

(not available: 1238,-1240 exclusive (c) by HRAF)

  • Polygamy and Concubinage 79, 210,-214, 606,-608, 860,-878, 1133
  • Sleeping Arrangements 1710-3
  • Control over Sexuality 634
  • Formal education 1738

Variable in SPSS Files

  • 7 sexual practices and attitudes 159,-178 Broude and Greene 1976


  • 29 husband,-wife relationship 739,-755 Broude and Greene 1983


  • 45 sexual relations: social context 961,-985 Frayser 1985
  • 62 kinship behaviors 1226,-1237 Murdock 1971
  • 62? marriage transactions 1238,-1240 (Unavailable (c) by HRAF) Schlegel and Eloul 1987


DAY 10 NOTES

 Notes from Oct 27th Day 10:

Start with unrestricted models. This program regarded as German lines. Complex program that illuminates the complexity of Human Cultural systems  1. Professor has made a line up of all EduMods 2. Powerpoint lineup Amanda has debug the program. Do one step at a time, put depvar in first and run program. Can see whether a mistake was made just by seeing the first error. Put depvar into unrestricted model. Amanda used Eff and Dow program as is, added depvar and added three things. Causality doesn’t lurk around every corner. Final model of predicting rape variable. Two of them knocked out the first. Once program running with depvar then add that variable to the list called indepvar. Once second change in indepvar done, then put in single line of new codes (at any time don’t put in more than a single line of new codes) Put your variables in unrestricted then restricted. Pretty Simple. If its hard to find indepvars, go to literature and search for someone who has already used that variable. Google Scholar: SCCS + _____ This program is much more stringent than most because it controls for Galton’s Problem which is interdependency. Galton’s problems is to make literature significant when it really is not. Bunches of societies that behave similarly, and thus made significant. This field is huge, covers all poli sci, sociological studies, International Relations etc. The way people use databases is suspect. Get huge R square. GO TO LITERATURE, SEE WHAT PEOPLE HAVE FOUND AND REPLICATE THEIR HYPOTHESIS. If you get predictors out of them, have an even better case. Not what you find, but what you show in your argument. Can get negative and positive results. Can also think up new variable on your own. Money is in the Science. 1. Negative 2. Positive 3. Originality- thought of something no one else has Start with xUR DAY 9 is FULL OF ADVICE  By the end of today will have notes on how to get to stage of getting to results. Start with Day 6.


use search in wikipages