For online statistics, see also SISA - Simple Interactive Statistical Analysis: SISA allows you to do statistical analysis directly on the Internet. Click on one of the procedure names below, fill in the form, click the button, and the analysis will take place on the spot. Study the user friendly guides to statistical procedures to see what procedure is appropriate for your problem.

Statistical Entailment Analysis download page


download sea.exe (c) 1990 Douglas R. White as Shareware
Entailment Manual
Test Data

Instructions for display of results using Pajek
Example of entailment diagram for binary features of Medieval cities

Publications below by Douglas R. White, esp. 1988 and 2000, explain the method. Analyses of up to 50 binary variables result in an implicational structure or diagram of:

  • Which variables entail others (asymmetrically) at various levels of exceptions
  • Which variables are statistically equivalent at various levels of exceptions
  • Which variables are mutually exclusive with others at various levels of exceptions
  • Overall "entailment structure digraphs" are nested for each level of analysis


    White, D. R. 2000. Manual For Statistical Entailment Analysis 2.0: Sea.Exe World Cultures, 11(1): 77-90. (pdf format)

    White, D. R., and H.G.McCann. 1988 Cites and Fights: Material Entailment Analysis of the Eighteenth-century Chemical Revolution pp 380-400 in S. Berkowitz, B.Wellman, eds. Social Structures: A Network Approach, Cambridge: University Press.

    White, D. R., M.Burton, and L.Brudner. 1977 Entailment Theory and Method: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Sexual Division of Labor, Behavior Science Research 12:1-24

    White, D. R. 1996 Statistical Entailments and the Galois lattice. Social Networks 18:201-15.

    Burton, M., D. R. White, L.A. Brudner. 1977 A Model of the Division of Labor by Sex. American Ethnologist 4:227-251.

    2007,Acton, Ryan M. (August 2007). "Using Entailment Analysis to Explore Material Culture in the American Home, 1972-2003." 102nd American Sociological Association annual meeting, New York City.

    2007, Jasny Lorien (UC Irvine, Sociology, 4101 Palo Verde Rd, Irvine, California 92617, USA). Networks of Belief Structures: An Entailment Analysis of the ISSP 2003 National Identity Survey. See 27th annual INSNA Conference, Abstracts p 156. This paper presents an examination of the ISSP 2003 National Identity Survey using the network entailment analysis. The questions in the survey are similar to those in many other multinational surveys. Examples include questions about the individual's pride in different aspects of the country, attachment to institutions, and international relations. The entailment process uses thresholds of logical implication to extract cognitive structures in the relationships between the questions asked. For example, when a majority of respondents who answer positively to question A also answer positively to question B, such an entailment relationship is observed. The pooled results, of 48 different questions, form signed networks of dyadic relations between the 48 nodes indicating patterns of positive and negative responses. These cognitive network graphs are compared over each of the 33 countries included in the ISSP study, and the countries are clustered by similarities in the entailment networks extracted. Finally, the entailment structure permits an examination of the common relationships among responses within the clusters through extracting the central graphs. This process compares not only the dominant response patterns within countries, but between countries as well. Thus, this method produces a new way of looking at multinational survey data that incorporates micro level differences in cognitive structure into a macro level comparison. Butts, Carter.

    2-Way and 3-Way Fisher Exact Test download

    Publications below by Douglas R. White, esp. 1983, explain the method. Exact significance tests are computed for 2 by 2 contingency tables and for 3-way or 2 by 2 by 2 tables (significance test of 3-way interaction):

    1994 Fisher-B: A Program for an Exact Significance Test for Three-Way Interaction Effects World Cultures 8(2): 40-43.

    1983 An Exact Significance Test for Three-Way Interaction (drw, R.Pesner, K.Reitz) Behavior Science Research 18:103-122.

    1983 Internal Replication and the Systems Concept in Non-Experimental Research (drw, R.Pesner) Behavior Science Research 18:26-44.

    download fisher-b.exe (c) Douglas R. White as Shareware
    Fisher-b Manual

    Cruder Fisher Exact and Bartletts test, up to 999 cases

    Fortran source code (c) Douglas R. White 1994